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Overweight to Obesity

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Obesity is one of the most common self-inflicted diseases of the modern world. People figuratively dig their graves with their teeth. “The longer your belt line, the shorter your life line.” This saying has been around for a long time, and it is true.
The relationship between obesity and disease is well established. The weight increase usually comes in the form of excess carbohydrates and fats. Coronary heart disease is far more common in the overweight. Their blood pressure is usually much higher, and they arc more likely to become diabetic. In short, the overweight are more likely to develop the risk factors that will predispose to premature heart disease and a heart attack. The overweight usually have a marked increase of the blood-fat levels, both of cholesterol and triglycerides, when compared to normal. A reduction in weight invariably reduces the blood pressure, and the lipid levels generally fall significantly.
Many sophisticated nations have a high consumption of beer per capita. In Australia this is about 103 litres per person per year. This significantly raises the obesity level. for beer is high in kilojoules.
Doctors and scientific laboratories around the world now universally use Systente International (SI) when recording scientific figures. This replaces the older system, and will be the one used throughout these volumes.
Instead of mg (milligram), the term millimolle (mmol) will be used. Most figures are quoted as so many mmol in every 100 millilitres (ml) of fluid (eg blood). The currently used term is decilitre (dL), which is the same quantity as 100 ml. For example, for cholesterol, the level may have read 200 mg/ 1.00 ml, which in the new terminology would read 5.2 mmol/L. Similarly, with the energy unit, the caloric, this has been altered. and now the kilojoule (kJ) is used. 1 calorie equals 4.2 kJ. Therefore. a 3000-calorie per day diet would now read 12,600 kJ. It is simply a matter of getting used to the new terms and the new sets of figures.


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What is Autism?

Autism is a strange problem of early childhood in which the child fails to develop normal relationships with the parent. The youngster is unresponsive and there is often a delay in language development. It comes from a Greek word autos, meaning self.

In 1943 Dr L. Kanner first talked about it. Since then it has become a well established condition. Fortunately it is quite rare, occurring in about five cases for every 10,000 under the age of five years. In the past few years a great deal of public interest has focused upon the problem.

It’s believed that about half of autistic children have brain damage, and it appears that more than half are severely mentally retarded. They have difficulty in relating to others. Often an autistic baby will not cuddle or “mould” into its mother’s body when being cuddled. It will tend to feel awkward and clumsy, and bend outwards rather than inwards in the customary comfortable manner of normal infants.

As they grow, their imaginative capacity is reduced. Therefore, they tend to repeat the same phrases over and over, using the same few words constantly.

Dr Kanner originally claimed that many of these children were of superior intelligence. Although quite a few appear to come from successful professional parents, his ideas have not been substantiated.

Autism is an uncommon condition, but more attention is being paid to autism as the community becomes increasingly aware of its existence.

It is a mental disorder rather than a physical one, and the cause is at present unknown. It is more likely there are several causes, each interacting.

Autistic children live in a world of their own. They are seemingly unresponsive to outside interests, and appear to reject the company and companionship of others, even those close to them, such as mothers.

They are aloof and indifferent, and treat others as remote objects. They even treat parts of their own bodies in a similar fashion. They are different from the average baby who adores company, and reacts in a happy, delighted manner.

They often learn basic skills, but seldom use these to communicate with others. For example, even after walking, they make little effort to approach their parents or to associate closely with anybody. They seldom bother to communicate with other children and indeed exercise no sense of interest in them. Being unable to communicate normally, speech is usually affected. Indeed, they may not learn to speak, or may invent their own strange jargon.

Many autistics are quite intelligent in their own strange way. But the odd behavior makes it difficult for them to use whatever talents they have. Others are mentally handicapped.

Autism Treatment

There is no remedial medical treatment for autism, but suitable management and education can help a great deal and bring to the surface whatever latent capacity is present in the child’s make-up. Of course the child’s entire future is inextricably linked with the ability to communicate with others, to talk, develop social awareness and acquire and develop technical skills.

In most cases, few autistic children become reasonable adults; many become eccentric. Some become outstanding musicians or develop other talents, but this is not usual. In most cities and countries around the world recognize the problem and many self-help and advisory centers have been created to help.

Long-term education by trained teachers who are prepared to spend an enormous amount of time and effort offers the only hope.

First Aid Bleeding

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Bleeding can arise from two sources:

  • veins, which carry a slow and steady supply of blood back to the heart, or
  • arteries, which carry blood under higher pressure from the heart to the rest of the body

An arterial injury is potentially more serious because blood escaping under pressure may be lost in large amounts in relatively little time. The amount of blood directly visible is not necessarily a reliable sign of the severity of an injury and may not reflect how much blood a person has lost. For example, some serious injuries do not bleed heavily or may bleed internally. Some minor wounds, such as scalp lacerations, may appear to bleed profusely but in fact the amount of blood lost is relatively insignificant.

Bleeding Treatment

  • If possible, wear latex gloves or keep several layers of cloth or bandage, between you and the blood. This is a good idea because the bleeding person may have an infectious disease that could be transmitted through blood.
  • If time permits, wash your hands before tending a wound. This will help prevent infecting the wound with any bacteria on your hands.
  • If there is severe external bleeding or evidence of major trauma, call 911.
  • Try to keep the child (and yourself) calm.
  • Remove any loose debris from the wound.
  • Apply direct pressure to the wound using a sterile dressing or a cloth unless there is an eye injury, skull fracture, or an embedded object. In these cases do not apply direct pressure.
  • If an arm or a leg is bleeding, elevate it, unless movement causes increased pain or you suspect the arm or leg is fractured.
  • If direct pressure has stopped the bleeding but it starts again, reapply pressure.
  • If you must free your hands, apply a pressure bandage. If the wound is large enough to make direct pressure ineffective or if direct pressure has not stopped the bleeding after 15 minutes, pressure-point bleeding control may be necessary.
  • If there is no indication of neck, head, or back injury and the bleeding is severe, take steps to prevent shock (a severe drop in blood pressure). Signs of shock include bluish color of the fingernails or lips, clammy skin, pale skin color, weakness, confusion, and decreasing alertness. If one or more of these occur, be sure that someone has called 911. Lay the person flat, and if possible elevate the feet about12 inches. Cover the victim with a blanket or coat.
  • DO NOT move a child who may have an injury to the head, neck, or back.
  • DO NOT attempt to clean a large wound because this could aggravate bleeding that would otherwise slow down.
  • DO NOT probe, explore, or pull any embedded object out of a wound. This also may increase bleeding.
  • DO NOT apply ice directly to a wound.
  • DO NOT use a tourniquet.
  • DO NOT remove a dressing that becomes soaked with blood or attempt to peek at the wound to see if bleeding has stopped. These actions can disturb the wound surface and may actually increase bleeding. If necessary, add more dressings.

Even when bleeding is controlled, many wounds require medical attention, including:

  • gaping wounds
  • animal or human bites
  • wounds located directly over joints
  • wounds associated with a broken bone, loss of muscular function, or loss of sensation applying a pressure bandage

If you need to free your hands to move the child or attend to other injuries, whether or not the bleeding has stopped, a pressure bandage can be applied. This holds the dressings in place while maintaining direct pressure on the wound.

  1. Apply a dressing of sterile gauze to the wound or clean cloth if gauze is not available. Wrap long strips of cloth or a long bandage around the area where the wound is located to hold the dressing in place.
  2. Cut or split the end of the bandage or cloth into 2 strips and tie these together to secure the bandage in place. The knot should be tied directly over the wound.
  3. Make sure the pressure dressing is not too tight! It should be tight enough to maintain pressure on the wound, but not so tight that it prevents the tissue beyond the wound (that is, more distant from the heart) from receiving the blood it needs. If the area beyond the dressing is throbbing with pain and/or becoming blue and cold, the bandage should be loosened.

Treatment for Pressure-Point Bleeding Control

Important: If you need to use this technique, be sure that someone has called 911 and medical help is on the way.

This technique is used to control bleeding from an extremity only when other methods have not worked. First try using direct pressure combined with elevation of the extremity. Pressure-point bleeding control is a last resort because areas of the body that are not bleeding will also have their blood flow reduced.

Each arm or leg has a major artery supplying it. When bleeding cannot be controlled by other means, pressure on that specific artery can reduce blood flow. When this approach is accompanied by direct pressure to the wound and (if possible) elevation of the injured area, bleeding can usually be controlled. When the bleeding is coming from the leg, the pressure point is over the femoral artery. If there are no suspected injuries to the head, neck, or spine and the child can be moved, place her on her back. Locate the femoral artery at the point where the leg and the groin meet, a little toward the groin side. Use four fingers to feel for a pulse. Once the pulse has been located, apply firm pressure with the heel of the hand to compress the artery against the underlying bone.

When the bleeding is coming from the arm, the pressure point is over the brachial artery. This can be found at the middle of the inner aspect of the arm, just underneath the biceps muscle on the top of the arm. After you have found the pulse, use four fingers along the path of the artery to apply pressure and compress the artery against the underlying bone. Remember: Elevation of the limb and direct pressure on the wound should be continued along with pressure-point bleeding control. When performed correctly, this technique will stop or significantly reduce major bleeding.

Bleeding without a Wound

Bleeding can occur without visible wounds. Bleeding can be significant in these situations:

  • Blood in the stool. This can be bright red, which indicates bleeding from a source at or near the anal opening, or a deep purplish black, which usually is more characteristic of blood lost from the upper intestinal tract.
  • An abnormal amount or duration of menstrual bleeding. Note: Any vaginal bleeding in a child who has no other signs of puberty (such as breast development) is abnormal and should be evaluated. Blood in the urine. This may be bright red, which usually occurs with bleeding from the bladder or urethra (the tube through which urine exits the body) or a darker (tea) color, which suggests an origin within the kidney. Blood in the urine should be fully investigated by your child’s doctor.
  • Vomited blood. This may arise from bleeding within the stomach or esophagus (the passage between the throat and stomach), but more commonly in children and adolescents vomited blood arises from a nosebleed that drained down the throat rather than out the nose. An acute illness such as gastroenteritis (stomach flu) may produce blood-tinged vomited material but not blood itself. In general, any vomiting of bright red material should prompt an immediate call to your child’s physician.

In any of the above situations, call for medical evaluation or consultation.


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The eyes are the windows of the body, and they are important sense organs in constant use in – everyday living. Normal vision is essential to safety, as well as comfortable living, and every precaution must be taken throughout life to guarantee that the eyes will give maximum service for as long as possible. With care and commonsense, they will serve their owner well.

However, if injury or disease occurs, prompt medical attention is essential. Some conditions may arise that could impair the vision, and the earlier these are attended to by the doctor, or an eye specialist, the better.

It is far better to see the doctor too often than run the risk of failing to have an examination carried out when it may be necessary. Injuries to the eye should be carefully watched, and such injuries as blows from tennis balls and similar missiles (occurring with greater frequency in recent times) must be checked out promptly, even if symptoms are not immediately apparent. Often without the person being aware of it, deeper injuries such as retinal detachment may be sustained, and left untreated this could severely affect vision later on. Any eye injury must be adequately attended to, whether it be a simple foreign body, or a deeper one, superficial eye injuries from chemicals, or obvious disorders of any part of the eye and surrounding parts.

The eyes are located in the bony orbits in such a way as to give them maximum protection from external sources of trauma. These act as good defense against larger missiles, for the protruding parts of the orbit are staunch guardians. However, they do not protect against smaller objects, such as flying bits of glass, stone and squash and golf balls. For protection against these hazards, the eye relies chiefly on the rapid reflex movements of the eyelids. These can react with incredible speed, and often protect the eye from outside injury.

Even so, every effort must be made to keep the eyes free from potential sources of injury. If there is any risk, either at work or play, then suitable protection is advised.

The eye is usually likened to a superbly designed camera, when people want to explain how we can see. However, to understand fully how the outside world can be viewed inside the tiny chamber of the eye, one has to go back to basics. The best way to think of light is as a transmitting medium. From whatever source, it bounces off objects in all directions, carrying with it the possibility of the objects being seen. The other important thing to understand about light is that although it usually travels in straight lines, it can be bent if it passes through certain substances, such as the specially shaped glass of a camera lens, or the lens made of tissue in a human eye. Moreover, the degree of bending can be precisely controlled by, the shape in which a lens is made. Light can, in fact, he bent inwards, or concentrated, to tiny, but perfect images of much larger objects.

Third Dimension Another important reason is that when both arc used together, the sense of depth (the so-called third dimension) is possible. Normally one eye will see objects in two dimensions, namely, length and breadth. But when the second eye comes into action, the same view is gained from a slightly different angle. This means that two pictures are received by the two eyes. However, when these are conveyed to the brain, they are automatically merged into one, and the added dimension, depth, is given.

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