Featured Articles

Hermaphroditism

Read full story

Hermaphroditism is a very rare condition in which the person has both ovarian and testicular tissue occurring together. The appearance of the external genitals varies greatly, and the persons have a problem for life. With more recent methods of studying chromosomal anomalies today, many have been found to have aberrations. In some it seems there has been a double fertilization of the ovum by two sperms, one giving female attributes and the other male ones, so producing a final ambiguous picture.

Hermaphroditism Treatment

This depends on how the child was originally brought up, and there is considerable feeling that whatever this has been should be continued. In recent years this has been an emotive topic.

Many teenage girls may fail to menstruate, or normal periods may suddenly cease. This may be due to excessive hormonal production preventing normal monthly ovulation, as well as obsessively over exercising. It may affect one in 20 among young ballet dancers and athletes.

Fortunately, when the vigorous sports are reduced, in most cases ovulation (and normal menstrual periods and the chances of pregnancy) returns to normal levels. This may be a worrying time for many young people. If continuing indefinitely (as with estrogen lack in the blood), calcium may be drawn from the bones, causing osteoporosis, with the high risk of fractures common in older postmenopausal women. It needs careful evaluation.

Two related conditions called female and male pseudohermaphroditism show that genetically a person with a female type chromosomal structure has varying degrees of masculinisation, and vice versa. In women, corticosteroids are used. In males, as there is a high risk of cancer developing in the testes, they may be removed, and plastic surgery carried out (with appropriate prosthetics). Testosterone is given to increase maleness.

Poisoning

Read full story

A child who has ingested a toxic substance or an excessive amount of a therapeutic medication may or may not be able to tell you what has happened; this will depend on the child’s age, her condition after the episode (that is, alert, drowsy, or unconscious), and her emotional state.

Poisoning Symptoms

Indications that your child has swallowed a toxic substance (or an overdose of medication) could include the following:

  • Sudden illness for no apparent reason
  • Being in close proximity to a potentially toxic substance such as a household cleaning product or a medication, especially if the container is open and pills or liquid are spilled
  • The presence of unusual liquids, stains, or powder on the skin, clothing, or around the mouth
  • Dizziness, weakness, stupor, confusion, or coma
  • Blurry vision, double vision, or a change in the normal size of the pupils
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Fever, headache, irritability
  • Rash or changes in skin color (blue, flushed, or pale)
  • Depression or unusual shifts in mood
  • Ringing in the ears
  • Coughing, chest pain, or difficulty breathing, with or without increased noise during breathing
  • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or cramping, or diarrhea, twitching muscles or unexplained muscle pain or cramping excessive saliva
  • Inability to control urination or bowel movements
  • Loss of appetite
  • Abnormal breath odor

Poisoning Treatment

Check the ABCs, airway, breathing, and circulation and begin rescue

Try breathing or CPR if necessary. If CPR has been initiated, have someone call 911. (If you are alone, call 911 after you have carried out CPR for approximately one minute.)

  • If CPR is not needed, call your child’s physician, the nearest emergency room, or a local poison control center. If you can’t find a number for a poison control center, call 1-212-POISONS.If the child is having seizures, protect him from injury.
  • If the child vomits, try to protect the airway. Position him so that whatever is vomited will exit away from the mouth and not accidentally be inhaled into the airway. If necessary, gently remove any remaining material from his mouth.
  • If the exposure was a skin contamination, remove all contaminated clothing and wash skin, hair, and nails.
  • If he has been exposed to fumes, remove him from the area in which the fumes are present.
  • If the material went into the eye, irrigate it thoroughly with tap water.
  • Take the substance and its container with you to the doctor’s office or emergency room and be prepared to answer some questions: Where was the child found? What and how much was ingested? When did symptoms (if any) begin? Did symptoms begin gradually or abruptly? What treatment was done at home and when?
  • DO NOT wait for dramatic signs of illness before seeking medical assistance.
  • DO NOT give anything as an antidote or attempt to neutralize a poison unless you have been told to do so by a physician or poison control center.
  • DO NOT attempt to give the child anything by mouth if he is unconscious.
  • DO NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by a physician or a poison control center.
  • DO NOT rely on the label of a medication or other substance to tell you whether or not it is potentially hazardous.

USING IPECAC

Ipecac is a medicine used to induce vomiting, thereby reducing the amount of toxic material available to be absorbed into the bloodstream. Some substances should not be vomited because they will cause even more damage to body tissues on their way up. Do not use Ipecac unless you know what has been swallowed and you have been instructed by a doctor or poison control center to use it.

The best results are obtained if Ipecac is given within thirty minutes of the ingestion. If a number of hours have passed since the material was swallowed, in most cases it is not likely that any of it will still be present in the stomach.

DO NOT use Ipecac when the child has swallowed the following:

  • Alkaline materials: detergents, drain cleaners, oven cleaners, bleach, and flat circular batteries. Chemical names to look for include lye, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonia, calcium oxide, trisodium phosphate, and wood ash.
  • Acids: automobile battery fluid, toilet-bowl cleaners, soldering fluxes, antirust compounds, and slate cleaners. Chemical names include sulfuric, hydrochloric, phosphoric, hydrofluoric, and oxalic acids.
  • Petroleum products: cleaning fluid, gasoline, kerosene, coal oil, fuel oil, or paint thinner.
  • Sharp or solid objects: glass, nails, razors, a thermometer.
  • DO NOT use Ipecac when a toxic substance is swallowed by
  • A child less than 6 months of age
  • A child who has a hereditary tendency to bleed (i.e., hemophilia)
  • A child who has had significant vomiting already
  • A child who is in a stupor, unconscious, or having a seizure

Directions for giving Ipecac

  • For a child between 6 and 12 months of age, give one to two teaspoons (5 to 10 m1).
  • For a child 1 to 12 years of age, give one tablespoon (15 ml).
  • For a teenager, give one to two tablespoons (15 to 30 ml).
  • Give the dose with one or more glasses of water or juice (no milk products).
  • If vomiting does not occur in 20 to 30 minutes, repeat the dose.
  • If vomiting does not occur after a second dose, contact your doctor or emergency facility for further advice.

Red Splotches

Read full story

Red Splotches seems to happen in adults as well as with children. This is called a sub-conjunctival haemorrhage. It means that a microscopic blood vessel in the white of the eye has ruptured, and blood oozes out in the space immediately below the surface. It may be quite extensive and can look alarming, especially if large.

In most cases this condition will clear itself up with no therapy. After a few days it will tend to darken into a brown colour. This will fade into a yellow and finally disappear as nature resolves it entirely.

Any recurrence should receive medical attention. In some instances, albeit rarely, important underlying conditions may be the cause. This is usually unlikely – but I don’t believe in taking undue risks, and like to double-check most things, as you know.

Gastritis

Read full story

Gastritis commonly occurs as an acute condition, and frequently follows dietetic indiscretions. This may include the overuse of highly seasoned foods and condiments, such as pepper and sauces. Also, excessive alcohol intake is perhaps one of the most common causes in today’s society. Cigarette smoking will also cause or aggravate it.

Gastritis Symptoms

The stomach lining becomes inflamed and sensitive, due to the irritation. Therefore, general abdominal discomfort, probably with loss of appetite, general dyspepsia, a feeling of fullness, heartburn and perhaps vomiting will take place. Frequently this will give symptomatic relief. If germs gain entry and are not killed by the powerful gastric acids, a low-grade infection may occur, and in due course may give rise to loose bowel actions.

Gastritis Treatment

Being sensible in the foods that are eaten and the beverages ingested will often prevent this uncomfortable condition in the first place. In any case, a 24- 48 hour fast is frequently curative. Vomiting will often bring considerable relief. Thereafter, exhibiting commonsense in regard to alcoholic drinks and smoking will do much to prevent recurrences. Antacids may give some benefit and alginic acid compound may also prove helpful. Foods high in fat may aggravate for awhile rather than assist.

Chronic gastritis is a different situation, and is often due to a reduction in the lining of the stomach. As this progresses, an atrophic gastritis may occur, in which the stomach secretions are markedly reduced, and digestion may be impaired. The latter condition is also associated with pernicious anemia.


Recently Added

Buying a Horse

by on Friday, January 30, 2015 6:50 under Pet Care.

Read full story

Indian Ocean Facts

by on Thursday, January 29, 2015 18:42 under Interesting Facts.

Read full story

Household Appliance Repair

by on Wednesday, January 28, 2015 18:28 under Do it Yourself.

Read full story


View older entries

Visit Us On FacebookVisit Us On Twitter