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First Aid in Drowning

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Treatment prolonged lack of oxygen from being submerged under water leads to cardiac arrest, so it is important that rescue breathing or CPR (either mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose ventilation) be started immediately – even in the water if necessary.

  • Call 911 for medical assistance and a quick transfer to the nearest emergency center.
  • If you know what happened prior to the accident, tell the rescue workers, particularly if head and neck injuries are likely (as would be the case if the child was diving when the accident occurred). Keep the child warm, especially if he was in cold water. Wrap him in towels or a blanket until medical personnel arrive.

Drowning Prevention

Studies show that 70 percent of drowning accidents could be avoided if self-closing, self-latching doors were installed in homes and on gates in the fences around pools. Sturdy, childproof pool covers and alarms on doors leading to the pool area – or even an alarm that sounds when someone enters the water – are also appropriate safety measures. Parents need to teach their children the importance of swimming only when supervised and the necessity of life jackets when boating. Older children and adolescents should be warned explicitly of the risks of alcohol and/or drug consumption while swimming.

When young children are around water, they must always be supervised by an adult. Parents and teens should strongly consider becoming certified in CPR. Poolside telephones are helpful because they allow adults to answer the phone while continuing supervision. They also can speed the process of calling for help if an accident occurs.

Chances of Surviving Drowning

The chances of surviving submersion are not significantly affected by the type of water (salt, fresh, or pool water with chemicals). How long a child can survive without oxygen depends on many other factors, including age, previous health, the water temperature, and the speed and effectiveness of the rescue effort. Children under age five have an advantage because of a nerve reflex that causes the heart to slow down and blood to be directed to the brain and heart. Younger children usually survive if submersion lasts less than 3 minutes and may survive a submersion lasting up to 10 minutes if the water temperature is 50° to 60°F (10° to 15°C). In general, cold water temperatures improve survival chances.

Pyloric Stenosis

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What is Pyloric Stenosis?

When this condition occurs in adults, it is nearly always due to a peptic ulcer that is usually in the duodenum close to the pyloric valve separating it from the stomach. However, if dyspeptic symptoms have been present for less than a year, a cancer must be suspected.

This condition is now seen much less frequently, for most patients seek treatment at an earlier stage of their abdominal disabilities than in former years. If an ulcer is present, narrowing of the canal (so producing an obstruction to the normal flow of material through it) takes place. Swelling of tissues, together with scarring from attempts at natural healing, collectively produce the symptoms.

Pyloric Stenosis Symptoms

The cardinal symptom is vomiting large amounts of fluid, which is always free from the greenish bile colouration (as compared to vomiting from areas below the pyloric valve in which bile is always present). Often there is fetid, gaseous material contained in the vomit. It may be offensive, due to the partial bacterial contamination during its stay in the stomach. Typically, the vomiting occurs toward the end of the day, and it may contain residue of food eaten the previous day.

Pain may be present, which is usually cased after vomiting. Similarly the sensation of dyspepsia, fullness and distension will disappear. With the reduced nutritional intake, weight loss is inevitable. Lack of appetite is common. About 2 to 5 per cent of patients suffer from diarrhoea; some have constipation. There is often weakness and lethargy due to dehydration. The history, endoscopic and X-ray examinations usually clinch the diagnosis.

Pyloric Stenosis Treatment

This of course must he under adequate medical supervision. Any symptom of this nature essentially requires expert supervision, not only to form the correct diagnosis, but to manage subsequent treatment. Apart from the immediate measures of rectifying fluid and chemical imbalances, the treatment is usually a surgical cure of the narrowed canal.


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Hermaphroditism is a very rare condition in which the person has both ovarian and testicular tissue occurring together. The appearance of the external genitals varies greatly, and the persons have a problem for life. With more recent methods of studying chromosomal anomalies today, many have been found to have aberrations. In some it seems there has been a double fertilization of the ovum by two sperms, one giving female attributes and the other male ones, so producing a final ambiguous picture.

Hermaphroditism Treatment

This depends on how the child was originally brought up, and there is considerable feeling that whatever this has been should be continued. In recent years this has been an emotive topic.

Many teenage girls may fail to menstruate, or normal periods may suddenly cease. This may be due to excessive hormonal production preventing normal monthly ovulation, as well as obsessively over exercising. It may affect one in 20 among young ballet dancers and athletes.

Fortunately, when the vigorous sports are reduced, in most cases ovulation (and normal menstrual periods and the chances of pregnancy) returns to normal levels. This may be a worrying time for many young people. If continuing indefinitely (as with estrogen lack in the blood), calcium may be drawn from the bones, causing osteoporosis, with the high risk of fractures common in older postmenopausal women. It needs careful evaluation.

Two related conditions called female and male pseudohermaphroditism show that genetically a person with a female type chromosomal structure has varying degrees of masculinisation, and vice versa. In women, corticosteroids are used. In males, as there is a high risk of cancer developing in the testes, they may be removed, and plastic surgery carried out (with appropriate prosthetics). Testosterone is given to increase maleness.

Chronic Leukemia

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What is Chronic Leukemia?

This is also known as chronic granulocytic anaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia or chronic myelocytic leukemia. These names are mentioned, for a patient with the disorder may have heard of these various terms.

It means that there is a malignant change in the bone marrow involving the granulocyte type of white blood cells.

The disease is rare in children and the very old. Most cases occur in those in the 30-60-years age group, and the sexes are affected equally. There are certain known causes. As with acute leukaemia, these include exposure to nuclear explosions, and in patients receiving radiotherapy for other disorders (most commonly for ankylosing spondylitis, a chronic painful and crippling back disorder). It is also seen in patients who were X-rayed repeatedly as a check for artificial pneumothorax, which was widely used for treatment of certain chest diseases in the past.

Chronic Leukemia Symptoms

The most common symptoms include fatigue and lassitude, feeling listless and weak, “off-color,” and abdominal swelling or frank pain due to enlargement of the spleen. There may be loss of weight, the symptoms of anaemia (see anaemia) or purpura (bruising).

Sometimes the disease is found by chance when a blood test is being carried out for some other purpose. Almost always there is enlargement of the spleen and this may be massive. Sometimes the lymph glands may be involved; this is not a good sign. Sometimes the skin and bones may be involved as well. The blood picture usually confirms the diagnosis and white-cell counts of 100 or more are common. (The normal figure is between 4.0 and 11.0 x 10 9/L.) All forms of developing white cells are seen, from the very immature to the well-developed. Often the platelet count is also raised.

Chronic Leukemia Treatment

At present the medication of choice is one called busulphan, given orally. Gradually the white-cell count drops. When this reaches the relatively normal figure of 10.0, maintenance doses are given.

Gradually this may be replaced with other forms of drug therapy, similar to those used for acute leukaemia. Busulphan has virtually replaced other forms of treatment that were popular in the past, including radiotherapy and other forms of chemotherapy.

A wide range of drugs has been used with varying degrees of success in leukaemia. Long-term, most fail, for the disease is often a fatal one. Many drugs, which appear to be promising at first, later prove to be less effective. Marrow transplants have been tried, and these also have proved successful in some patients, but often relapses have taken place as time advances. Patients with this disease will be under the care of experts in the field, and ideally attached to major public hospitals where the full range of facilities, at that time, will be made available. In short, despite our advances with modern drugs, technology, transplants and success in the field of acute cases, the outlook for older persons with leukaemia is still not good. Other aspects of the disease must be treated as supportive measures.

Antibiotics will be given to check any infection. Anaemia will be treated, and may require repeated blood transfusions. Platelets may be needed for the clotting abnormalities. With the early stages of treatment there is often a rise in the level of uric acid in the blood, and the drug al-allopurinol is often ordered. Otherwise, bouts of acute gout may complicate the picture as well as making life one of abject misery for the unfortunate patient.

Therapy has vastly improved the quality of life for these patients, but, sad to relate, it has not materially augmented the total life span. The disease is inevitably fatal. However, it is now possible for many to live relatively symptom-free lives for the two to three years that usually occur from the time of diagnosis to the time of death.

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