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First Aid for Dental Emergencies

If an avulsed permanent tooth is reimplanted within 30 minutes of the injury, the tooth will survive over 90 percent of the time. (Primary or baby teeth cannot be successfully reimplanted.) If the delay exceeds two hours, the chances of success are less than 5 percent. Therefore, the tooth must be replaced in its socket almost immediately.

If your child has lost a tooth, do the following:

  • Find the tooth.
  • Rinse the tooth under tap water; do not touch the dental roots.
  • Gently reinsert the tooth, making sure it is facing the right direction.
  • Go directly to the dentist while gently holding the tooth in place.
  • Note: If the parent or child is unable (or afraid) to replace the tooth, place it in cow’s milk while seeking emergency dental care.

Displaced Tooth

A placed tooth has not been completely knocked out of the mouth but has been seriously lodged – usually inward toward the tongue, as when the child has fallen on his face or hit in the mouth.

Control bleeding with direct pressure and ice as long as this does not increase pain.

Reposition the tooth, if possible, and gently hold it in place.

Seek dental care immediately. Delaying treatment decreases the likelihood that the tooth will survive.

Loose Tooth

In this case, the tooth is loose but not displaced from its socket. The tooth can be moved towards and forwards (or sometimes up and down).

Loose Tooth Treatment

If your child’s tooth becomes loose:

  • Control bleeding if present.
  • Try to avoid repeated movement of the tooth. Remind your child not to wiggle the loose tooth or chew food until you have spoken with the dentist.
  • Contact a dentist as soon as possible for further advice.

Sensitive or Chipped Tooth

Minor injuries to the mouth or teeth often result in a chipped tooth or increased sensitivity to gentle tapping on the tooth – but the position of the tooth has not changed. In this situation, consult your dentist as soon as possible for further advice.

Beware of Other Injuries

Children with dental trauma often have other head and facial injuries. Appropriate medical treatment should be given in addition to any emergency dental care. A tetanus booster may be considered if one has not been given within the last five years. Do not use aspirin to control pain because it may prolong bleeding.

Causes of Vertigo

Vertigo, which means dizziness usually accompanied with nausea, is a multifactor symptom that can occur with various ear disorders.

Normal equilibrium depends on the interrelationship of sensations coming from many different organs: from the eyes, muscles, tendons, skin receptors and also from the balance mechanism of the labyrinths of the ear. If these signals are at variance with one another (as interpreted by the higher centres of the brain), and there is a consequent interference with coordination, then vertigo may result.

There are many causes, and there are several conditions in which this symptom is prominent.

Meniere’s Disease

This has already been considered, and is probably the most dramatic disorder involving balance problems.

Benign Postural Vertigo

This can take place when the head is in a particular position. There is usually no obvious cause, or conversely it may follow on from some form of head injury. Symptoms often abate with or without treatment within three to six months.

Toxicity

Some medicinal preparations arc well-known for their ability to destroy or interfere with vestibular function. Streptomycin, medications used for epilepsy, mental depression and hypertension, come into this category. The symptoms may not be clear-cut. If possible, altering medication may bring relief.

Epidemic Vertigo

This strange disorder may occur in young people who have had a simple viral infection. Often many persons with a similar infection about the same time will report sensations of vertigo and vomiting. The cause is unknown but it is probably a toxic effect from the invading germ on the vestibular mechanism. Prochlorperazine may assist, although the condition is probably self-limiting.

Psychogenic Vertigo

Some neurotic patients will describe their vertigo symptoms in striking terms. The level of authenticity is hard to determine, as it is more likely to be one symptom in a maze.

Ischaemia Vertigo

Some patients suffer from vertigo as part of a definite pathological vascular deficiency of the blood supply to the brain. It is referred to as vertebrobasilar ischemia and is really one symptom in a series of others. It is more probable in the person, and treatment is usually satisfactory.

Thyroiditis

The thyroid is an important endocrine gland located in the neck. Two lobes on either side are connected across the midline by a narrow segment of tissue called the isthmus. The function of the thyroid is to manufacture, store and secrete two thyroid hormones, named thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine.

Iodine is an essential ingredient for this production, and without it, problems rapidly occur and increase. Each day the body needs between 100 and 200 mcg of iodine. This usually comes from marine fish, and from vegetables grown in soil containing iodine. When this is digested, it is trapped by the thyroid gland, under stimulation from the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of the pituitary gland.

Two important medicaments called thiouracil and carbimazole have the opposite effect, preventing it from being trapped and utilised by the thyroid gland. This is important, for they are often used in treating overactive thyroid glands. Under the influence of TSH, the two thyroid hormones, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine, are released into the bloodstream.

Production of these hormones is largely influenced by a naturally occurring “feedback” system. The higher the level of the hormones in the blood, the less TSH is produced, and vice versa. In this way, relatively stable levels are maintained. It is a very ingenious and workable system.

The functions of the thyroid hormones in the body are very widespread. They affect the rate at which all body cells work. All normal development is dependent on them. Muscle growth, sexual development, the rate at which calories are burnt up, the rate and output of the heart are all related. The breakdown and utilisation of protein is greatly influenced by it. This is clearly shown by the weakness that develops in a patient with an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) and the symptoms that occur.

Many tests have been devised to measure the activity and presence of the thyroid hormones. These tests are aimed at helping to diagnose accurately the various disorders that can occur with this gland. Anyone who has been investigated for thyroid problems will be well acquainted with names such as BMR (basal metabolic rate), once popular but now rarely, if ever used, protein-bound iodine test, tri-iodothyronine (T3) resin uptake test, serum total thyroxine and thyroxine (T4) resin uptake test, free thyroxine index, radioactive iodine uptake, TSH stimulation test, tri-iodothyronine suppression test and thyroid scan.

In recent years it has been found that thyroid antibodies occur, and a search may be made for these. These are the so called thyroidal antibodies. More recently an antibody referred to as LATS (short for long-acting thyroid stimulator) has been found in some patients with Graves’ disease.

The general principles of thyroid disorders will be discussed. First there is the simple nontoxic goitre (enlargement of the thyroid) occurring just because the diet is deficient in iodine. It represents the body’s efforts to make amends for this.

The gland may be overactive or underactive. Overactivity gives rise to the condition known as hyperthyroidism, commonly called Graves’ disease. A similar condition tending to occur in older persons is called nodular toxic goitre. If the thyroid gland is underactive, the resultant condition is referred to as hypothyroidism. In infants this is called cretinism, and in older patients it is called tnyxoedema.

Cancer of the thyroid is relatively rare, but is important, and it will be discussed briefly. Also, mention will be made of another condition called thyroiditis.

Jealousy

This may be a problem, especially when number one in the family circle is suddenly confronted with a rival in the form of number two, who may usurp his or her position.

Jealousy is a major obstacle, and can lead to a great amount of jealousy within the mind of the displaced person. Jealousy, of course, implies a sense of insecurity combined with a desire to monopolize. In any given family circle there are many situations leading to unhappiness. If parents make a major display when a second baby arrives home, this can rapidly set the jealousy problem into motion. It is aggravated if there are fights between parents and a sense of emotional stress and tension is present. This does nothing to soothe jangled nerves or settle a mind that is already anguished and resentful.

Jealousy can lead to actual violence on the part of the child. A child may cause physical harm to the newcomer, or may go out of the way to plan accidents or situations that may harm the new brother or sister. But often such children will assume more overt ways of expressing discontent. They may revert to bedwetting, thumb-sucking, or any of the attention-getting devices already named. There may be a sleeping problem, or they may withdraw from the social circle of the family and develop an aggressive attitude or become outright antisocial.

Jealousy Treatment

It’s essential for such children to be taken into confidence as soon as the parents know a second (or third or fourth) child is on the way. By preplanning, many of the problems will be averted before they happen. Involving them in the whole venture is the ideal. Make them feel they are part of the whole project, that the new baby is theirs, and part of their fortunate role in life is to care for baby and keep him or her safe. Don’t overdo it, or they may suspect something sinister. But if they are included in the picture at all times, the chances of a jealousy problem arising will be greatly reduced. It’s worth taking the time – the results will inevitably be more satisfactory if you do.

Peptic Ulcer

What is Peptic Ulcer?

A Peptic Ulcer means that there is an invasion of the lining of the stomach or duodenum by the powerful hydrochloric acid and pepsin produced by the glands of the stomach wall. It is ironical that the organ producing these juices should in turn be subject to destruction by the product it manufactures.

It is estimated that ten per cent of people have a peptic ulcer during their lifetime. It is most common among young and middle-aged adults, and men are affected four times as often as women. Diagnoses based on endoscopic and X-ray examination indicate that there is a 9:1 preponderance of duodenal over gastric ulcers although other reports claim that at autopsy there is an equal incidence. The exact cause is not known. Why some succumb to the action of the gastric juices while others do not is remarkable. About 15 per cent of patients with gastric ulcers either have, or did have, a duodenal ulcer as well, indicating that there must be some common etiology.

There is increasing evidence of an inherited factor as gastric ulcers occur three times more commonly in relatives of patients who also have a gastric ulcer. Recently it has been shown that a large proportion of ulcer patients belong to blood group 0. The role of stress is still equivocal. A peptic ulcer is anecdotally considered to be the hallmark of success in the striving businessman. However, in many surveys, the results of this are still left in question. Social status has often been claimed to play a part, and certainly in the overall picture, gastric ulcers tend to occur more often in those of poorer social and economic status.

Ulcers appear to be more common in patients who are on certain forms of medication. Patients on regular and high intakes of Salicylates (simple aspirin and compounds) are more likely to develop them. Indeed, this is a common cause of gastric hemorrhaging, and is not without its dangers in children, to whom aspirin compounds should not be given (there are other less dangerous analgesics on the market). The anti-arthritis drugs, called the Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAI Ds for short) which are widely used by arthritics, are well-known possible causes. Patients taking Corticosteroids are also at high risk. Although the overuse of alcohol, tobacco and condiments has often been cited as a possible cause, this has not been proved to the satisfaction of all researchers.

The sensible approach for the person with an ulcer is attacking all possible causes and rectifying as many as possible, whether they be substantiated or not. While every suggested cause will certainly not apply to everyone, there may be applications in individual cases well worth taking note of and following.

Diagnosis of peptic ulcer is usually made after examination, suggested by the history. Sometimes the first sign of an ulcer is a massive hemorrhage, with blood suddenly pouring from the mouth as well as abdominal discomfort and general weakness and shock. Investigation for an ulcer is primarily dependent on X-ray and endoscopic examination. The barium-meal radiograph will pick up a large number, but a negative result does not mean that an ulcer is not present.

The development and use of the pliable fiber-optic endoscope has revolutionized diagnosis of all conditions of the stomach, duodenum, lower esophagus, and in fact nearly all of the intestinal system. This soft, narrow, extremely maneuverable device can give the operator a direct view into all parts of the stomach and duodenum. No area is invisible, for the leading head can be turned and twisted so as to enable a view of every part.

This makes diagnosis very accurate. It may also rapidly pick up bleeding points, and it can assess progress of treatment when a series of examinations is carried out at later dates. Today, a combination of X-ray and endoscopy form the two chief methods of accurate diagnosis.

Peptic Ulcer Symptoms

Peptic ulcers, whether gastric or duodenal, produce similar symptoms, pain is the chief one. Typically it comes on during the morning and becomes worse toward evening. It is usually localized in the epigastrium, the area just below the far end of the breastbone. The pain may awaken the patient around 2 am and may be eased, or aggravated by food. Alkaline preparations usually bring quick relief in ten to fifteen minutes. Symptoms may disappear only to recur later on, but remissions have been known to last for days, weeks, months and even years. The symptoms run a very fickle course and may occasionally include vomiting. This may be highly acid in nature, and may bring considerable relief. Sometimes water brash occurs; this is an accumulation of saliva at the lower end of the esophagus, which may be regurgitated into the mouth.

The chief complications that may follow on from an ulcer are perforation of the wall of the stomach or duodenum, erosion of a major blood vessel, giving rise to sudden and profuse hemorrhage or, later, scarring near the pylorus (the far end of the stomach), so narrowing the stomach outlet into the duodenum. In some cases, cancer may develop in a chronic gastric ulcer.

Peptic Ulcer produces another type of surgical emergency. This however is more common with duodenal ulcers. A blood vessel in the wall becomes eroded and may bleed violently, producing massive blood loss. This may be vomited up (haematemesis), or passed through the bowel (melaena). When vomited, it may come as bright red blood, or if it has been in the stomach for a period of time, may have the appearance of coffee grounds.

By the time the blood has passed through the bowel it is often altered and may appear black, and be tarry in consistency. Often the blood loss produces severe shock and, especially if this occurs a second time in older patients, it may be fatal.

Peptic Ulcer Treatment

Immediate admission to hospital as a surgical emergency is essential. Here, immediate assessment of the patient and blood transfusion are the most likely factors that will preserve life. After this, an assessment as to the needs for surgical intervention should be made and appropriate action taken.

In recent years there have been many changes in treating peptic ulcers as new information is discovered, new medication developed, and an entirely new system worked out. Long-term “cure” is now believed possible. The present suggested routine, now advised by most doctors, will probably change again as results of current treatment regimens are assessed over the next several years.

Kill the Germ. By serendipity, a Perth doctor discovered an organism in the stomach of patients suffering from peptic ulcers. It was the sheer chance observation of a stomach “culture” having been left in the incubator for longer than usual due to a holiday weekend. By taking a potent brew of the “germ” the doctor developed a severe ulcer himself, which led him to believe it had caused the ulcer, and not necessarily excess acid, which had been the belief until this time.

Although scoffed at by colleagues at the time, he worked on his theory and found a combination of chemicals (including antibiotics) that quickly and permanently destroyed the germ. These are an antibiotic (a synthetic penicillin, often amoxicillin or tetracycline), metronidazole (Flagyl), and a bismuth product called De-Nol. Taken for several days or weeks, the germ was permanently killed.

Today, in many centers (and certainly in America), this is now considered the standard form of treating peptic ulcers. The germ, it seems, in the presence of acid, produces another chemical with the capacity to destroy the cells of the stomach or duodenal wall. It is commonly referred to as “triple therapy,” and may be given in conjunction with the acid-suppressant medication.

Doctors had believed excess acid was the chief cause of ulcers. A large range of powerful acid-suppressant forms of medication have been produced and more are continually being developed, while others are in the developmental pipeline. The two main groups are the “Histamine H2-Receptor Antagonists” and, more recently, the so called Proton-Pump Inhibitors. The first group includes Cimetidine (Tagamet), the first to be developed, Ranitidine (Zantac) and Famotidine (Pepcidine). These medications prevent acid glands in the stomach wall from producing acid. The second group includes Omeprazole (Losec), the first in its class, and Lansoprazole (Zoton).

These are believed to stop acid from being pumped from the glands into the stomach. Undoubtedly, other related medications will appear in time, which may or may not be superior. These medications quickly suppress acid in the stomach. In the past, ulcers tended to heal rapidly. However, it was soon found that although pain relief often occurred within 12 hours or more from commencement of treatment, when stopped, symptoms invariably returned. This simply meant the condition had been relieved, but not cured.

So the method of choice currently seems to be to prescribe the acid-checking medication, as well as to administer triple therapy. Pain vanishes very quickly, especially with the pump inhibitors, often within hours. Acid is kept at a low level, while the triple therapy kills the germ. After a few weeks, all medication can be stopped and, according to latest evidence, with the germ killed, symptoms do not recur, and this may be a lifetime result. Re-infections of course are probable, for the germ is widely dispersed in nature.

With this totally new concept of treatment there is now little need for other forms of medication. Some may find use of the old-time antacids helpful as a temporary measure if there is any residual discomfort. Most of the other medications which claimed to help ulcers heal are now not required. There are no dietetic limitations, except smoking is not recommended, and commonsense should prevail regarding alcoholic intake. Otherwise, the patient may eat whatever foods are desired.

However, although most cases will be cured, some recalcitrant ones may persist. These may be suspect cancers, so other measures may be required. If an ulcer has not healed with intensive medical therapy within four weeks, then surgery may be indicated. This is probably even more important in gastric ulcers, for it is claimed that about ten percent of these prove to be cancerous. Also, there is little hope of a cure if a long-standing peptic ulcer has been present in the duodenum for five years.

Surgical operations that produce satisfactory results are now available. The nature of these has been an unending argument for some years, as each new variation claims to have some value over its predecessor. Surgery is not without its own set of complications in certain patients.

Many patients find the task of ceasing smoking a major one. Efficient methods are now readily available in all capital cities. With development of the stick-on nicotine impregnated skin patch, many patients are able to quickly give up smoking. A commitment is necessary, for success is more likely in highly motivated patients with the desire to “quit.” Medical supervision and support help, and attending an understanding doctor willing to spend time to offer psychological counseling and support is recommended. Most courses last ten to fourteen weeks. Other community and hospital-based services are also available involving other methods.

Lion Facts

  • Lions (along with tigers) are the biggest members of the cat family, weighing up to 230 kg. Male lions may be 3 m long.
  • Lions used to live through much of Europe and Asia. Now they are restricted to East and Southern Africa. Around 200 lions also live in the Gir forest in India.
  • Lions usually live in grassland or scrubland, in families known as prides.
  • Lions are hunters and they prey on antelopes, zebras and even young giraffes. The lionesses (females) do most of the hunting.
  • Male lions are easily recognizable because of their huge manes. There is usually more than one adult male in each pride and they usually eat before the lionesses and cubs. Lions usually catch something to eat every four days or so. They can eat up to 40 kg in a single meal. Afterwards they rest for 24 hours.
  • The lions in a pride usually spend about 20 hours a day sleeping and resting, and they walk no farther than 10 km or so a day.
  • Lionesses catch their prey not by speed, but by stealth and strength. They stalk their prey quietly, creeping close to the ground. Then, when it is about 15 m away, the lionesses make a sudden dash and pull the victim down with their strong forepaws.
  • Lionesses usually hunt at dusk or dawn, but they have very good night vision, and so will often hunt in the dark.
  • Male lion cubs are driven out of the pride when they are two years old. When a young male is fully grown, he has to fight an older male to join another pride.
  • Female lions, or lionesses, are slightly smaller than males but usually does most of the hunting, often in pairs. There are five to ten lionesses in each pride, and each one mates with the male when she is about three year.

Coast Facts

  • Coastlines are changing all the time as new waves roll in and out and tides rise and fall every six hours or so. Over longer periods coastlines are reshaped by the action of waves and the corrosion of salty water.
  • On exposed coasts where waves strike the high rocks, they undercut the slope to create steep cliffs and headlands. Often waves can penetrate into the cliff to open up sea caves or blast through arches. When a sea arch collapses, it leaves behind tall pillars called stacks which may be worn away to stumps.
  • Waves work on rocks in two ways. First, the rocks are pounded with a huge weight of water filled with stones. Second, the waves force air into cracks in the rocks with such force that the rocks split apart.
  • The erosive power of waves is focused in a narrow band at wave height. So as waves wear away sea cliffs, they leave the rock below wave height untouched. As cliffs retreat, the waves slice away a broad shelf of rock called a wave-cut platform. Water left behind in dips when the tide falls forms rockpools.
  • On more sheltered coasts, the sea may pile up sand into beaches. The sand has been washed down by rivers or worn away from cliffs.
  • When waves hit a beach at an angle, they fall straight back down the beach at a right angle. Any sand and shingle that the waves carry fall back slightly farther along the beach. In this way sand and shingle are moved along the beach in a zig-zag fashion. This is called longshore drift.
  • On beaches prone to longshore drift, low fences called groynes are often built to stop the sand being washed away along the beach.
  • Longshore drift can wash sand out across bays and estuaries to create sand bars called spits.
  • Bays are broad indents in the coast with a headland on each side. Waves reach the headlands first, focusing their energy here. Material is worn away from the headlands and washed into the bay, forming a bay-head beach.
  • A cove is a small bay. A bight is a.huge bay, such as the Great Australian Bight. A gulf is a long narrow bight. The world’s biggest bay is Hudson Bay, Canada, which has a shoreline 12,268 km long. The Bay of Bengal in India is larger in area.

Lymphadeopathy

The lymph glands of the body represent an important site for the production of protective cells aimed at overcoming systemic infections. However, during infections it is common for a few or many lymph glands to become involved, swollen and tender. This is due to their overproducing their normal products, or else to being involved in the general infective process.

Often an infection in the mouth (ulcer of the tongue or inside of the cheek) will produce a very tender swelling under the jaw. Simple herpes infections around the mouth will produce similar lymph-gland swelling. Many glands throughout the body may swell as viruses spread throughout the system, such as in glandular fever.

However, the lymph-gland system may also become caught up with malignant changes, for the lymphatic drainage system of the body is a widespread, interconnecting network. Often lymph glands may become involved, even though they may be quite a distance from the original cancer site. When disease of the lymph glands is present, the doctors will usually make a vigorous search for the primary site of the disease.

Iceberg Facts

  • Icebergs are big lumps of floating ice that calve, or break off, from the end of glaciers or polar ice caps. This often occurs when tides and waves move the ice up and down.
  • Calving of icebergs occurs mostly during the summer when the warm conditions partially melt the ice.
  • Around 15,000 icebergs a year calve in the Arctic.
  • Arctic icebergs vary from car-sized ones called growlers to mansion-sized blocks. The biggest iceberg, 11 km long, was spotted off Baffin Island in 1882.
  • On April 14 1912 the Titanic, the largest passenger ship of the time, struck an iceberg and sank.
  • The Petterman and Jungersen glaciers in northern Greenland form big tableshaped icebergs called ice islands. They are like the icebergs found in Antarctica.
  • Antarctic icebergs are much, much bigger than Arctic ones. The biggest iceberg, which was 300 km long, was spotted in 1956 by the icebreaker USS Glacier.
  • Antarctic icebergs last for ten years on average; Arctic icebergs last for about two years.
  • The ice that makes Arctic icebergs is 3000 – 6000 years old.
  • Each year 375 or so icebergs drift from Greenland into the shipping lanes off Newfoundland. They are a major hazard to shipping in that area.
  • The International Ice Patrol was set up in 1914 to monitor icebergs after the great liner Titanic sank. The liner hit an iceberg off Newfoundland in 1912.

Planting Olives

The feathery gray-green foliage and the gnarled and furrowed trunks of the Olive (Olea europa) make them a valued ornamental. The Olive is one of the hardiest of evergreen fruit trees, being able to withstand 12-15° F. with little or no damage. The tree grows vigorously in a wide range of climates, but is best adapted to the hot, dry areas of the Southwest. Some winter chilling is needed to induce flower formation; the 2 coldest winter months should have average temperatures 50° F. or below. At higher temperatures the trees grow well but fail to flower and fruit. The Olive blooms very late, so that it normally escapes all frost danger to the bloom and young fruit. Olives grow well in the Southeast, but have not borne well there; the fruit ripens too late, being subject to fall and winter frosts; fruit is injured below 28° F.

Olives are normally propagated from cuttings, and show a remarkable ability to root from cuttings of any size but tip cuttings. Sub-terminal cuttings, 4-5 in. long, are generally used; remove all but the 2 terminal leaves. Hard-to-root varieties are treated with 4000 ppm (0.4%) indolebutyric acid (IBA) in 50% alcohol for 30 seconds; and planted in sharp sand with bottom heat. Older wood will root even more readily if the bottom is soaked in a 13 ppm IBA solution for 24 hours, then buried in moist sawdust until callused before planting in the cutting bed. Older and larger branches may be planted directly in place and will usually root. Slabs of the trunk placed a few inches below the soil, with the bark side up, will usually send up shoots and root. Suckers are often found at the base of trees; these may be removed and planted.

Trees are sometimes produced by grafting; seeds are planted, usually after clipping the end off; they germinate slowly. They may not be ready to graft for a year. Grafting is by whip-graft or side graft. Trees are top worked by bark-grafting, usually in the spring. Trees of the varieties mentioned here are dwarfed somewhat by grafting to certain clones.

Trees dug from the nursery row are usually bare rooted, in which case all branches are removed, and only a few leaves along a single stem are left; they are whitewashed after planting. Trees in cans need only to have low water-sprout shoots removed.

Except in extremely sandy or shallow soils the planting hole need be only large enough to take the roots. Most varieties attain large size under good conditions, and need a spacing of about 35 ft. for full development; shorter distances may be used if the trees are kept smaller by consistent pruning.

During the first 2 years in the ground, olives are trained to 3-5 scaffold branches, well spaced. Thereafter, pruning is normally limited to removing unwanted growth, as it reduces yield. If the tree becomes too tall, it may be topped severely.

The Olive will grow on a wide variety of soils, including many that appear too poor for other tree species; water-logged soils should be avoided.

Olives grow and produce the best when supplied with about as much water as other evergreen trees. Nevertheless, they are among the most drought-resistant of all trees, but growth and fruiting will be greatly reduced with restricted watering.

Olives are light users of nitrogen, and respond to it only on relatively infertile soils. Even then, a pound of nitrogen per mature tree should be adequate. Potassium and boron deficiencies occasionally are seen. In the arid West an application of 25 lbs. of potassium sulfate should be applied. In the Southeast, complete fertilizer applications will provide the needed potassium; the boron applications will need to be slightly greater, and may need to be repeated every year or two. For both deficiencies, yellowing of the leaves occurs. Potassium deficiency leads to leaf-tip burn; boron deficiency to death of shoot tips, and to death of the blossoms end of the fruit, a condition called Monkey-face.

The Olive flowers very profusely, the bloom developing as several flowered inflorescences in the axils of the alternate leaves. Enough may develop that the Olive bears more flowers than almost any other fruiting tree, but a high percentage of these are normally female sterile. In any case, less than 1% set will result in a heavy crop. Cross-pollination is not usually needed, but may increase set in cold springs.

Excess set results in small fruit, and increases to alternate bearing. Spraying 20 to 28 days after full bloom with naphthalene acetic acid, 125ppm in water containing 11% light summer oil, will thin the fruit adequately in most years, although there is some danger of over-thinning, and occasionally the spray is not effective. Reducing the crop load to 3 or 4 fruits per foot of shoot by hand is also effective, but very tedious.

For home use, olives will be harvested for pickling only. For this purpose, they are picked as they turn from green to straw or pink color. A simple and effective home pickling recipe is: Soak the fruit overnight in water; replace the water with a 2% concentrated lye solution per gal. of water, leaving it until the flesh color change shows that the lye has penetrated to or nearly to the pit. Replace the lye with water, leaving for 3 or 4 days, with daily or more frequent water changes until the lye is all removed. Replace the last wash solution with a solution of 3 oz. of salt per gal. For storage of more than a few days, gradually increase the strength of the salt solution in increments of 3oz. per gal. every other day until a final solution of 12 oz. per gal. of water is used. Change this solution about every 3 weeks until the olives are used. From this strong solution, remove olives as needed and soak in fresh water for a few hours before use.

The varieties of Olive differ primarily in size and oil content. Small varieties are ‘Mission’ and ‘Manzanillo’; large varieties are ‘Ascolano’ and ‘Sevillano’.

Scales of several kinds attack Olives; 1-2% summer oil sprays are recommended for control in general in the summer. Peacock spot, a fungus disease, is controlled with Bordeaux spray. Shoots affected with Olive knot, a bacterial disease, should be cut out, using care not to spread the organism with the pruning implements. Verticillium will attacks olives; do not plant where susceptible annual crops have been growing, as tomatoes, potatoes, cotton and melons. Nematodes are known to attack olive roots.

First Aid When Something is Alive in Your Ear

A blow to the side of the head that results in significant swelling or bleeding from the outer ear, bleeding from the ear canal, or loss of hearing should he evaluated by a physician as soon as possible. Ear pain that is not associated with trauma usually arises from infection of the ear canal or middle ear and will also need medical assessment.

Removing Objects from the Ear

Occasionally a child will insert a small object (such as a bead or a small bean) into an ear and cannot remove it. Less commonly, a small insect may crawl into a child’s ear canal. While the sensations experienced by the child can be annoying, neither of these situations poses a threat to hearing, and both parent and child should try to remain calm.

  • It may be possible to remove the object/insect at home by following these steps:
  • If an insect has entered the ear canal, put a few drops of oil (mineral, baby, or vegetable) or peroxide in the ear canal.
  • If you can see the object or insect in the ear, carefully remove it with tweezers – but only if it is clearly visible at the opening of the ear canal.
  • If you cannot see the object clearly or if it is deeper within the ear canal, tilt your child’s head to the side of the injured ear.
  • If this doesn’t work, leave the child alone. Attempting to remove the object may damage the ear. Seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Facts About Antibodies

  • Antibodies are tiny proteins that make germs vulnerable to attack by white blood cells called phagocytes.
  • Antibodies are produced by white blood cells derived from B lymphocyctes (see lymphocytes).
  • There are thousands of different kinds of B-cell in the blood, each of which produces antibodies against a particular germ.
  • Normally, only a few B-cells carry a particular antibody. But when invading germ is detected, the correct B-cell multiplies rapidly to cause the release of antibodies.
  • Invaders are identified when your body’s immune system recognizes proteins on their surface as foreign. Any foreign protein is called an antigen.
  • Pollen from plants can often cause allergies such as hayfever. Your body’s immune system mistakenly produces antibodies to fight the harmless pollen grains, which causes an allergic reaction.
  • Bacteria, viruses and many other microorganisms have antigens which spur B-cells into action to produce antibodies, as this artist’s impression shows.
  • Your body was armed from birth with antibodies for germs it had never met. This is called innate immunity.
  • If your body comes across a germ it has no antibodies for, it quickly makes some. It then leaves memory cells ready to be activated if the germ invades again. This is called acquired immunity.
  • Acquired immunity means you only suffer once from chickenpox. This is also how vaccination works.
  • Allergies are sensitive reactions that happen in your body when too many antibodies are produced, or when they are produced to attack harmless antigens.
  • Autoimmune diseases are ones in which the body forms antibodies against its own tissue cells.

Facts About Stars

  • Stars are balls of mainly hydrogen and helium gas.
  • Nuclear reactions in the heart of stars generate heat and light.
  • The heart of a star reaches 16 million°C. A grain of sand this hot would kill someone 150 km away.
  • The gas in stars is in a special hot state called plasma, which is made of atoms stripped of electrons.
  • In the core of a star, hydrogen nuclei fuse (join together) to form helium. This nuclear reaction is called a proton-proton chain.
  • Stars twinkle because we see them through the wafting of the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • Astronomers work out how big a star is from its brightness and its temperature.
  • The size and brightness of a star depends on its mass – that is, how much gas it is made of. Our Sun is a medium-sized star, and no star has more than 100 times the Sun’s mass or less than 6-7 percent of its mass.
  • The coolest stars, such as Arcturus and Antares, glow reddest. Hotter stars are yellow and white. The hottest are blue-white.
  • The blue supergiant Zeta Puppis has a surface temperature of 40,000°C, while Rigel’s is 10,000°C.
  • Stars are being born and dying all over the Universe, and by looking at stars in different stages of their life, astronomers have worked out their life stories.
  • Medium-sized stars last for about ten billion years. Small stars may last for 200 billion years.
  • Big stars have short, fierce lives of ten million years.
  • Stars start life in clouds of gas and dust called nebulae.
  • Inside nebulae, gravity creates dark clumps called dark nebulae, each clump containing the seeds of a family of stars.
  • As gravity squeezes the clumps in dark nebulae, they become hot.
  • Smaller clumps never get very hot and eventually fizzle out. Even if they start burning, they lose surface gas and shrink to wizened, old white dwarf stars.
  • If a larger clump reaches 10 million °C, hydrogen atoms in its core begin to join together in nuclear reactions, and the baby star starts to glow.
  • In a medium-sized star like our Sun, the heat of burning hydrogen pushes gas out as fiercely as gravity pulls inwards, and the star becomes stable (steady).
  • Medium-sized stars burn steadily until all of their hydrogen fuel is used up.
  • Plotting the positions of the stars in the sky is a complex business because there are a vast number of them, all at hugely different distances.
  • The first modern star charts were the German Bonner Durchmusterung charts of 1859, which show positions of 324,189 stars.
  • The AGK1 chart of the German Astronomical was completed in 1912 and showed 454,000 stars.
  • The AGK charts are now on version AGK3 and remain the standard star chart. They are compiled from photographs.
  • The measurements of accurate places for huge numbers of stars depends on the careful determination of 1535 stars in the Fundamental Catalog (FK3).
  • Photometric catalogues map the stars by magnitude and colour, and position.
  • Photographic atlases do not plot positions of stars on paper, but include photos of them in place.
  • Three main atlases are popular with astronomers – Norton’s Star Atlas, which plots all stars visible to the naked eye; the Tirion Sky Atlas; and the photographic Photographischer Stern-Atlas. FASCINATING FACT . . Astronomers still divide the sky into 88 constellations – many of the names are the mythical ones given to them by the astronomers of ancient Greece.
  • The map of the sky shows the 88 constellations that are visible during the year from each hemisphere (half) of the world. This picture shows the northern constellations visible in December.
  • Celestial coordinates are the figures that plot a star’s position on a ball-shaped graph. The altazimuth system of coordinates gives a star’s position by its altitude (its angle in degrees from the horizon) and its azimuth (its angle in degrees clockwise around the horizon, starting from north). The ecliptic system does the same, using the ecliptic as a starting point. The equatorial system depends on the celestial equator, and gives figures called right ascensions and declination, just like latitude and longitude on Earth.
  • Star brightness is worked out on a scale of magnitude (amount) that was first devised in 150Bc by the Ancient Greek astronomer Hipparchus.
  • The brightest star Hipparchus could see was Antares, and he described it as magnitude 1. He described the faintest star he could see as magnitude 6.
  • Using telescopes and binoculars, astronomers can now see much fainter stars than Hipparchus could.
  • Good binoculars show magnitude 9 stars, while a home telescope will show magnitude 10 stars.
  • Brighter stars than Antares have been identified with magnitudes of less than 1, and even minus numbers. Betelgeuse is 0.8, Vega is 0.0, and the Sun is -26.7.
  • The brightest-looking star from Earth is Sirius, the Dog Star, with a magnitude of -1.4.
  • The magnitude scale only describes how bright a star looks from Earth compared to other stars. This is its relative magnitude. 80 Stars
  • The further away a star is, the dimmer it looks and the smaller its relative magnitude is, regardless of how bright it really is.
  • A star’s absolute magnitude describes how bright a star really is.
  • The star Deneb is 60,000 times brighter than the Sun. But because it is 1800 light-years away, it looks dimmer than Sirius.
  • Giant stars are 10 to 100 times as big as the Sun, and 10 to 1000 times as bright.
  • Red giants are stars that have swollen 10 to 100 times their size, as they reach the last stages of their life and their outer gas layers cool and expand.
  • Giant stars have burned all their hydrogen, and so burn helium, fusing (joining) helium atoms to make carbon.
  • The biggest stars go on swelling after they become red giants, and grow into supergiants.
  • Supergiant stars are up to 500 times as big as the Sun, with absolute magnitudes of -5 to -10 (see star brightness).
  • Pressure in the heart of a supergiant is enough to fuse carbon atoms together to make iron.
  • All the iron in the Universe was made in the heart of supergiant stars.
  • There is a limit to the brightness of supergiants, so they can be used as distance markers by comparing how bright they look to how bright they are (see distances).
  • Our Sun is alone in space, but most stars have one, two or more starry companions.
  • Binaries are double stars, and there are various kinds.
  • True binary stars are two stars held together by one another’s gravity, which spend their lives whirling around together like a pair of dancers.
  • Optical binaries are not really binaries at all. They are simply two stars that look as if they are together because they Binary system with similar sized are in roughly the stars. The stars may be close together same line of sight or millions of kilometers apart. from the Earth.
  • Eclipsing binaries are true binary stars that spin round in exactly the same line of sight from Earth. This means they keep blocking each another’s light.
  • Spectroscopic binaries are true binaries that spin so closely together that the only way we can tell there are two stars is by changes in colour. Stars in The star Epsilon in the constellation of Lyra is called the Double Double, because it is a pair of binaries.
  • Mizar, in the Great Bear, was the first binary star to be discovered.
  • Mizar’s companion Alcor is an optical binary star.
  • Albireo in Cygnus is an optical binary visible to the naked eye — one star looks gold, the other, blue.

Leptospirosis

What is Leptospirosis?

Spirochaetes is a member of the Leptospira and is responsible for a zoonotic bacterial disease called Leptospirosis. The term ‘zoonosis’ refers to any infectious disease that can be transmitted from both wild and domestic animals to humans; it is sometimes transferred via a vector or small organism. When humans pass on bacterial diseases to animals the process is referred to as reverse zoonosis. Besides humans, Leptospirosis affects other mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians.

The disease was described for the first time in 1886 by Adolf Weil; the disease is characterized by an enlarged spleen, nephritis and jaundice. In 1916 its presence in rats was discovered the prevalence of rats transmitting the disease has earned it the name “Rat Catcher’s Yellow”. Other aliases include Weil’s syndrome, canefield fever, 7-day fever, nanukayami fever, canicola fever, Pretibial fever, Weil’s disease and Fort Bragg fever.

Transmission of Leptospirosis

It is a rare bacterial infection in humans although this type of zoonoses is deemed as one of the world’s most common. The infection is commonly transmitted to humans through water contaminated by animal urine that comes in contact with food, broken skin, mucous membranes or eyes. It can also be transmitted via the semen of infected animals. In both cases, transmission is possible as long as the fluid remains moist. A condition that can affect persons all year round in the tropical regions, Leptospirosis occurs in seasons in other regions. There are two such seasons: February to March and August to September.

Symptoms of Leptospirosis

Not all infected persons will exhibit symptoms. For those who do, symptoms of the condition in its first stage include muscle pains, chills, intense headaches, high fever and other flu-like symptoms. These may persist or stop causing a period in which the disease is asymptomatic (giving no indications) after which the second stage is triggered.

In stage two, the symptoms are jaundice caused by liver damage, renal failure and meningitis. Since stage one may go unnoticed and stage two is characterized by other major conditions, Leptospirosis may be misdiagnosed or go undocumented resulting in less cases being registered than actually exists.

Red eyes, rash, diarrhea and abdominal pain are also symptoms of the infection. The normal incubation period of the disease is 4 to 14 days. Within the first 7 to 10 days a blood test can be done to diagnose the condition since the bacteria stays in the blood during this time. Since it moves to the kidneys after, diagnosis is done using fresh urine sample post day 10. A fresh kidney biopsy can be used to detect the bacteria as well.

Treatment for Leptospirosis

To avoid Leptospirosis around the house avoid rat infestations, do not eat food that comes in contact with rats or any animal since domestic animals can lick contaminated items and spread the infection. This is especially so in the case of children who tend to share food with their pets.
There are no vaccines however, it can be treated. Treatment includes but is not limited to heavy dosages of antibiotics. Untreated Leptospirosis is often fatal regardless of the victim’s age.

Pneumonia

What is Pneumonia?

Pneumonia means an acute infection takes place in the substance of the lung. Yes, severe symptoms can occur. Even though antibiotics have revolutionized the outlook in most cases, it is still a disease that needs prompt and efficient treatment.

Pneumonia symptoms

These include a fairly sudden rising fever and possibly chills and shivering. Breathing becomes rapid, the heart races, and there may be a cough and sometimes vomiting and diarrhea. There may be neck stiffness, and sometimes convulsions occur. There may be chest pains with breathing, indicating that the pleura, the lining of the lungs are also involved. Sometimes there are abdominal pains as well. As the illness advances, the child is pale and may be bluish, prostrate and restless. A wheezy noise may be present with breathing, and the patient is obviously very ill. Breathing may be difficult, and on breathing out there may be a grunting sound, with cheeks flushed, nostrils dilated in the battle to get enough air. The infection is often caused by a virus, but there are usually many other bacteria that climb aboard and manage to play a part also.

Pneumonia Treatment

Medical treatment as a matter of urgency is the obvious answer. Most mothers can obviously see if their child is ill and becoming worse. The sooner the child with serious symptoms is admitted to hospital, the better. Any form of breathing difficulty needs expert attention and nursing. X-rays will show the extent of the infection, and other tests will indicate the most appropriate form of therapy.

In today’s world, it is highly likely that antibiotics will be given very early on and the full course of the disease aborted before it is fully established. Times and treatments change. This is right. Unless treatment is given, disaster is still a likely outcome. The young children are especially at risk, as they are with nearly any infection. There is still a significant mortality rate, especially with babies in the six to eight week age group.

The advent of the antibiotics saw a major change in treatment and, fortunately, a major improvement in the once depressingly high mortality figures. Nevertheless, one should never overlook the risk factors with any disorder involving the breathing system.

Pneumothorax

What is Pneumothorax?

This means that air has managed to seep into the pleural space, and as a result the lung is not expanding normally with breathing. It is not common with children, although it sometimes occurs with newborn babies. In this case it is a surgical emergency usually dealt with on the spot by doctors as breathing difficulty and blueness can be present.

Sometimes it occurs in older children from a variety of causes, maybe as a complication of some other lung disease, or even a foreign object in the lung that works its way to the lung surface, allowing air to escape. Most cases are mild as the air is reabsorbed and the child recovers, but, as we have said before, in any situation where there is any breathing difficulty, prompt medical care is essential.

Fire Safety

  • Never eat, drink, or carry anything hot near or while holding a baby or a small child.
  • Don’t cook when your child is at your feet. Use a playpen, high chair, or crib as a safety area for small children while you are preparing food.
  • Use the rear burners on your stove, and keep the pan handles out of reach.
  • Check formula, food, and drink temperatures carefully.
  • Keep hot appliances and cords out of the reach of children.
  • Do not allow your child to use the stove, microwave, hot curlers, curling iron, or steam iron until he or she is old enough to learn how to do so safely.
  • Install and maintain smoke detectors in accordance with fire regulations in your area. If they are not wired directly into your home’s electrical system, check smoke detector monthly and replace batteries annually.
  • Provide nonflammable barriers around heating surfaces and fireplaces.
  • Teach your child to drop and roll on the ground if his clothing catches fire.
  • Have your heating system checked annually.
  • If there are one or more tobacco smokers in the family, they should not be allowed to smoke inside the home.
  • Keep matches and lighters out of the reach of children.
  • Have a working fire extinguisher near the kitchen, but instruct your child not to play with it. However, older children and adolescents should be taught how to use it in an emergency.
  • Do not permit your child to possess or play with fireworks.

Smoke Detectors

Residential fires kill about 5,000 people every year in the United States, and the majority of these fatalities result not from burn injuries but from inhalation of smoke and toxic gases. Death usually occurs at night, when the victim is sleeping. Properly installed and maintained smoke detectors could prevent many of these deaths. Smoke detectors are considered the best and least expensive warning systems because they can alert people in a home before the fire ignites, before the concentration of smoke reaches a dangerous level, or before a fire becomes extremely intense. The risk of dying from a fire-related incident is twice as high in home without functioning smoke detectors as in a home with them.

Smoke detectors can be wire directly into a home’s electrical system, or they may be battery powered, in which case fresh batteries should be installed at least once a year. Each smoke detector should be tested regularly in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations to ensure it is operating properly.

At least one detector should be installed on each floor of a multistory home, preferably each bedroom so that sleeping residents will be given early warning in the event of a fire. Local fire regulations and/or building codes may specify that more smoke detectors must be installed for a particular home’s floor plan.

Fire and Disaster Preparation

Hopefully you will never have to deal with a major fire in your home, but some basic preparation can prevent confusion and panic should one occur. Cover the following details with your children:

  • Using 911. (Call only after you’ve left the burning building.)
  • Water and tub safety.
  • Staying low to the ground when smoke is present.
  • Avoiding opening any doors that are hot to the touch.
  • Escaping through a window (including the use of a chain ladder in a multistory home).
  • Discussing what firefighters may look like in their full gear. (Unless prepared ahead of time, children might be frightened by the bulky shapes with face masks and axes or other tools; hiding from the firefighters could be disastrous.)

Fire Escape Route

  • Getting help from neighbors.
  • Agreeing on a meeting place if family members have different escape routes.
  • Practicing family fire drills.

Make sure that your home address is clearly visible from the street. If possible, have the numbers neatly painted on the curb-side as well.

While you are talking about your family’s response to a fire, you should also go over contingency plans for any possible natural disaster (earthquake, flood, tornado, and hurricane) that might occur where you live. Include instructions as to whom you or your children might contact in case communications are disrupted. (It may be easier to get in touch with a relative across the country, who could serve as a communication center for the family.)

Motion Facts

  • Every movement in the Universe is governed by physical laws devised by people such as Newton and Einstein.
  • Newton’s first law of motion says an object accelerates, slows down or changes direction only when a force is applied.
  • Newton’s second law of motion says that the acceleration depends on how heavy the object is, and on how hard it is being pushed or pulled.
  • The greater the force acting on an object, the more it will accelerate.
  • The heavier an object is — the greater its mass — the less it will be accelerated by a particular force.
  • Newton’s third law of motion says that when a force pushes or acts one way, an equal force pushes in the opposite direction.
  • Newton’s third law of motion is summarized as follows: ‘to every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton’s third law applies everywhere, but you can see it in effect in a rocket in space. In space there is nothing for the rocket to push on. The rocket is propelled by the action and reaction between the hot gases pushed out by its engine and the rocket itself.
  • You cannot always see the reaction. When you bounce a ball on the ground, it looks as if only the ball bounces, but the Earth recoils too. The Earth’s mass is so great compared to the ball’s that the recoil is tiny.
  • Einstein’s theory of relativity modifies Newton’s second law of motion under certain circumstances.

Cigarette Smoking

Over the past several decades there has been a mounting mass of evidence indicting cigarette smoking as one of the major causes of premature cardiovascular disease. It is now well linked, and anyone who chooses to believe the contrary, and says, “It’s still unproved,” is really kidding themselves. Doctors have no doubt about it, and every medical journal that comes off the press usually has fresh evidence backing up this belief.

In the past decade the proof has become even more startling. Now, in most Western countries, the reduction in smoking by doctors has been marked. Today very few doctors smoke – a major change from past trends. The figure will reduce, as many younger doctors never start the habit, purely fir medical reasons.

Reports from all parts of the world are in agreement, linking mortality from heart disease to smoking. There are numerous sets of figures quoted. One simple statement will suffice: “Studies have shown that men aged 40 – 50 years who smoke 20 – 40 cigarettes a day have a three-to-five times higher risk of dying from heart disease than nonsmokers.” Anyone desiring more complete documentation on this important subject should consult the books written in Britain by the Royal College of Physicians, or the American books published by the Surgeon-General. Each contains convincing evidence, and each is a document that has received worldwide acceptance.

It is believed that the key role of cigarette smoking on the heart is the increased level of the drug nicotine. This can produce heart irregularities, and can also release potent chemicals called catecholamines into the system

The key point here is: If you want to stay alive and healthy, don’t smoke. Reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked each day can help, but total abstinence long-term is easier and safer.

Secondary Amenorrhoea

This means that menstruation stops after having occurred normally for a given length of time.

There are many causes, and the most common and obvious are due to pregnancy and the menopause.

Many psychogenic factors can have this effect, and apparently simple occurrences such as tensions, stresses. altering one’s place of employment or hours of work, or bereavement, are all well known. Many women who were taken prisoners during wartime experienced this symptom. Being overanxious to become pregnant is another well-documented cause. There are also endocrine reasons, such as Cushing’s syndrome and excess secretion of the thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism) or excesses due to tumours of the pituitary gland.

The contraceptive pill is well-known for its ability to induce secondary amenorrhoea, even when taken for relatively short periods of time, as short as three to six months. It also occurs in women who have taken it for many years without a break, and comes as a rude shock when they hope to plan their family and become pregnant as soon as the pill is discontinued.

Symptoms

The condition may come on suddenly (as when the pill is stopped), or it may be preceded by reduced menstrual flow for some time.

Hot flushes and other symptoms typical of the menopause indicate reduced ovarian function. In those with pituitary disorders, there may be an indication of other hormonal deficiencies as well. If there is excessive androgen secretion (male hormone), evidence of virilisation (facial hair, muscular development) may be obvious.

Secondary Amenorrhoea Treatment

This will depend on the primary cause, if one can be found. Sometimes hormonal medication may be used in the hope of re-establishing normal cycles. However, this is frequently impractical, particularly in women who have already been on this sort of medication in taking the pill. Clomiphene has been shown to be of value in re-establishing the cycle, particularly if due to psychogenic causes or to a gonadotrophin secretory failure.

More recently spectacular results have been gained from the use of bromocriptine. It has been found that many women with amenorrhoea have abnormally high prolactin levels. This hormone is produced by the pituitary, and in above normal levels inhibits ovulation.

Bromocriptine reduces levels to normal, allows ovulation and hence a return to normal menstrual patterns. Pregnancy is possible almost at once, and the drug seems safe and virtually devoid of adverse side effects. It has introduced a totally new element of hope for these women. The techniques of radioimmunoassay have enabled accurate plasma levels of prolactin to be measured, previously an impossibility, and this has helped in perfecting its use. It certainly will not cure all cases, but represents a major step forward.

In particular, women who once believed they were permanently infertile arc finding that pregnancy can be achieved with treatment that may only require a few months. Already many women have been delivered of normal, healthy infants following bromocriptine treatment.