Author Archives: Ramon.KGS

Spider Bite

In the continental United States and Canada only the bites of brown recluse and black widow spiders inject venom that can cause serious problems. However, any spider bite can cause significant swelling.

Brown Recluse


Often the brown recluse bite is at first painless or causes only a brief  stinging. Several hours later pain begins around the site and can become severe. The involved area often has a “red, white, and blue”  appearance: a wide area of reddened skin, within which is a smaller patch of white-appearing skin, and finally a central bluish discoloration around the fang marks. The central (blue) area usually forms an ulcer that may take weeks or months to heal and occasionally requires skin grafting. This procedure is generally done about two months after the bite because the graft may slough off if applied to the poisoned area too early. Other possible symptoms of brown recluse bites include fever, skin rash, nausea or vomiting, joint pain, and bloody urine.


There is no specific treatment or antidote for brown recluse bites. Many treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. Cleanse and elevate the wound. Antibiotics are occasionally prescribed, and a tetanus booster is given if needed. In general the best approach is a combination of effective pain relief and keeping the bite site clean and dry to prevent secondary infection.


Brown recluse spiders prefer warm, dry, and abandoned locations – for example, vacant buildings, woodpiles or sheds, or seldom-used closets. The spider is brown with a violin-shaped marking on its back. Active primarily at night, they usually bite when trapped in clothing or shoes. Be careful when delving into closets and other spaces that have been undisturbed, and shakeout clothes and shoes that have been stored awhile or that are kept in areas where brown recluse spiders have been seen.

Black Widow

A black widow bite is generally unnoticed at first but then becomes painful – often severely so – within 15 minutes to 4 hours. Pain will usually reach a peak in 2 or 3hours, but it can last up to 48 hours. Associated muscle spasm, which may be very severe, contributes to the pain. Usually only two tiny red spots are visible at the bite site, or no local reaction may be seen at all.


The primary goal of treatment for a black widow bite is to relieve pain and muscle spasm. An antivenin is available, but it is generally reserved for severe cases, which are more commonly seen in young children.


The black widow is a shy, coal black spider with a red or yellow hourglass marking on the underside of the abdomen. Only the female spider bites. She builds a chaotic, irregular-shaped web that is easy to recognize when compared to the highly symmetrical webs of other spiders. The black widow is found throughout the United States, preferring warm, dry environments, both indoors and out.


These spiders attack only when handled roughly. Their bite can be painless or can cause a deep, throbbing discomfort that generally stops after about an hour. The only treatment needed is elevation and possibly a pain reliever, although most of the discomfort usually subsides before the medication takes effect.

Stamp Making

Use high-density sponge for sharply defined and detailed designs. Trace your chosen motif on to the sponge using a soft pencil for dark, clear lines.

Cut along the outline using a sharp blade, then, pinching the background sections, cut them away holding the blade away from your fingers.

Roughly cut around the design, then spray the tracing paper with adhesive to hold it in place on the sponge while you are cutting it out.

When using a stamp mounted on a block, draw a straight line on the back to help with positioning. Align the block with the pencil guideline on the wall. A piece of cardboard held between the previous print and the stamp will ensure consistent spacing between motifs.

Sharp scissors, rather than a blade, can be used with medium-to-low density sponge and are especially useful for cutting out the basic shapes.


With the aid of a spirit level (carpenter’s level), draw a faint pencil line to use as a guide when stamping. Once the stamping is finished and the paint is dry, this guideline can be removed using a cloth wrung out in soapy water and rubbed along the line.


Although stamping is sometimes thought of as another form of stencilling it is essentially a form of printing. You can achieve many way it is applied.

Half-shade: Roll the first, paler colour over the stamp, then roll a second, darker shade over one half only, to create a three-dimensional shadowed effect.

Sponge print: Applying the paint with a sponge gives variable, individual prints.

Two-tone: Using a dry roller, load the stamp with the first colour, then apply the second to the top and bottom edges only.

Stippled: This stippled effect gives the print lots of surface interest: apply the paint with a stiff brush and a dabbing, stippling motion.

Light shadow: The paint has been applied with a roller, covering each element of the motif more heavily on one side to create a delicate shadow effect.

Contrasting detail: Pick out details of the design in a contrasting colour: apply the first colour with a roller, and then use a brush to apply the second colour in the areas you want.

Uterine Cancer Symptoms and Treatment

If cancer of the cervix is diagnosed, treatment in specialised centres is essential. Here full facilities are available and expert professional attention is possible. Very early cases are treated by hysterectomy. All other stages are now treated by the use of radiotherapy in most centres, although surgery in combination is also used. Radium, cobalt 60 and megavoltage X-ray therapy are the chief methods in use. This has a strikingly beneficial effect in destroying the rapidly multiplying cancer cells.

Although cervical cancer is the most common type seen, the disease can also occur in other parts of the uterus. Malignant changes can occur in the endometrium (the cells lining the womb).

The great majority of these occur in iv-omen who have passed the menopause, and the age range of from 55 to 65 years is the most prevalent.

A “typical” woman has been described who is more likely to develop this type of cancer. She is postmenopausal. During life her periods were most likely very heavy; the change of life was probably late probably extending beyond the age of 50. She may be unmarried, or if’ married. sterile. She is most likely overweight, may have elevated blood pressure, and may be a diabetic. Often, fibroids (noncancerous growths) are present in the uterus as well.

Uterine Cancer Symptoms

Symptoms are usually minimal. In early cases, the only one is a blood-stained discharge. It may be thin and watery, irregular but recurrent. It may be foul-smelling. This is nearly always in a woman during her menopausal years or afterwards.

It is axiomatic among doctors that any bleeding or blood-stained discharge appearing in a woman following the menopause must be considered due to cancer until proved otherwise.

Immediate investigation is usually ordered. This consists of a dilatation and curettage of the uterus, and the scrapings from this are examined by the pathology experts for cancer cells.

Uterine Cancer Treatment

If cancer is detected, treatment is carried out promptly. This is usually a surgical operation, although radiation is also used. Hormones have also been found to have a beneficial effect in reducing the cancer, and under certain circumstances, this is used in addition.

The earlier treatment is carried out, the better is the outcome. Therefore, every woman must be alert to the telltale symptoms.

Never neglect seemingly innocuous bleeding, and the older you are, the more important this becomes.

No apology is made for the recurring nature of these recommendations throughout this section. You will read it again and again. So please take special note. And act very promptly if this symptom comes your way.

When a smear test is taken, a glass slide containing cervical cells is sent to a pathology laboratory, stained, and then studied under the microscope by trained technicians who seek abnormal cells. Despite all care, about 10 per cent of positive cases arc missed, as there is a human factor.

Larger pathology laboratories have now installed computer-assisted technology to reduce incorrect reports. It is called Papnet, and is claimed to reduce wrong results to 1 per cent or less.

If there is any query, another smear will be taken and rechecked. It is claimed regular use of smear tests has reduced the rate of cervical cancer to 50 per cent, and new technology should improve this still further. Talk to your doctor.

How to Fit a Curtain Pole

There are many different methods of hanging curtains and drapes, ranging from simple rings on a wooden pole to complex tracks that are often cord operated and may even be motor driven. Poles can be wooden or metal, while tracks are either metal or plastic. The choice depends on the style of decor, and also to some extent on the curtains themselves, as some heading styles work better with one type than another. Check with the supplier to see which track style will work best.

Fixing curtain tracks can be tricky on a masonry wall. The top of the window opening may be bridged by a reinforced concrete or galvanized-steel beams, concealed behind the plaster. The problem lies in making firm fixings into this beam, as drilling concrete at a precise spot to make ita wall plug and screw can be difficult,you will need a cavity fixing such as a spring toggle for a steel beam. It is often easier either to fit the track the beam, or to put up a wooden support strip first and then attach the track to that. If the worst comes to the worst, you could use a ceiling mounted track. Fixing tracks to wood framed walls, by contrast, could not be easier. You can fix the brackets anywhere on the wooden beans over the window opening.


1. Draw a pencil guideline on the wall, and mark the bracket position, along it. Attach the bracket bases after drilling and/or  plugging the holes

2 Slot in the bucket extensions and tighten the locking screws. Slide in the pole, in the rings and finial, and screw through the brackets into the pole.


A roller blind, as its Marne implies, consists of a length of material — usually fabric – wound on to a roller that is mounted in brackets close to the window. It can be used instead of curtains and drapes for a simple, uncluttered effect, or in conjunction with them, if for example, extra shade is required in a sunny window.

1. Screw the roller brackets to the frame close to the top corners, with the fixing flanges facing inwards so that you have to use a screwdriver.

2 Cut the roller and fabric to the required width, and insert the pin caps at each end to match the brackets—one is round.

3 Hang the roller on its brackets, then pull down to cheek the tension. If it will not enact, lift off the ratchet end, roll up and replace it.


1. Decide at what level to fit the track, and use a pencil and spirit level to draw a guideline on the wall surface. Extend the line at the sides.

2. Drill holes for wall plugs in a masonry wall, or make pilot holes in a wood-frame done, at the spacings recommended in the instructions. Fit the brackets.

3. If you need to use a ceiling-mounted track, locate the joist or joists and screw a support strip into place. Attach the track brackets to the support strip.

4. If you have to fit lengths of track together to cope with wide windows, you must use special
connectors that do not interfere with the runners.

5. Mount the track on the brackets. Here, this is done by totalling a locking earn via a small lever on other types there is locking screw.

6. Fit the curtain hooks to the heading tape, then clip the hooks to the track. Some types have hooks on the track already, in which case you can simply hook on the curtains.


Before you buy your curtain (drapery) pole or track, measure the width of the window carefully, and add extra width at the sides. The amount you add will depend on the bulk of the curtains, and flow much space they will take up when they are open. With a narrow window, it is important to allow enough width for the pole or track so that the curtains do not obscure the window at all.

Screw the roller brackets to the frame lose to the top corners, with the fixing flanges facing inwards so that you have to use a screwdriver.


If you require a curtain overlap, form an S-bend on a length of track so that it overlaps the track behind. Clip the extension bracket to the tracks and screw the bracket to the wall.

What Is Asthma?

Asthma is a disorder of the airways of the lungs producing problems in normal may be administered—cromoglycate, or the bronchodilators, or theophyllin. The doctor will work out the best routine for your child. Today, there are various bronchodilators, and they are all good. Aerosol sprays can now rapidly cut short an attack. Salbutamol (“Ventolin”), currently one of the most popular, when inhaled into the airways will hasten relief. Other products are also used.

Asthma Symptoms

1. There will be loud, laboured, wheezy breathing.

2. The sufferer has difficulty in speaking and moving.

3. The sufferer is distressed and anxious.

4. Pallor and sweating are marked features.

5. Sometimes, in a severe attack, lack of oxygen leads to mental confusion.

What to Do in the Case of Asthma Attack

1. Sit the patient upright, with arms resting on a pillow, table or chair for support. Open windows, being careful that the patient is not subjected to draughts or chills.

2. In a severe attack seek medical help promptly, as the patient may have to be given oxygen.

3. If the patient has medication specifically prescribed for asthma, it should be given immediately.

4. Speak confidently and reassuringly to the patient, advising that help is on the way. Perhaps a warm drink may help to relieve the tension and fears.

Asthma Treatment

To help the patient easily obtain the full dose of medication, a device called a “spacer” may first receive the dose, which is then inhaled more slowly. These are very effective.

The drugs must not be used haphazardly or too frequently. Despite the fine film of mist the can imparts when the button is pressed, they are very potent drugs. Parental supervision is essential. The doctor’s instructions must be followed implicitly. If relief is not gained within a few minutes, this does not mean fresh sprays are required. Minimum time periods between successive doses are important to avoid overdosing. However, today, the tendency is for patients to under treat rather than over treat asthma.

Cortisone provided a major step forward in the treatment of asthma. With current methods it is being used much less, both in its original form, and its other derivatives, prednisone. prednisolone and beta-methasone. Many adverse side effects occurred with longterm use. But it played its part, and in certain instances is still used. Causing fluid retention, children often develop an odd-shaped appearance called “moon face.” Also, it caused the bones to stop growing, prematurely stunting growth. Many children on long-term steroids have switched to newer methods of therapy.

Other aerosol forms of cortisone-type treatment are now available and they are highly successful in preventing attacks before they occur. Chief of these are beclamethasone (“Becotide” and “Aldecin”). Used regularly, they are highly effective in stopping attacks from occurring. It takes a few weeks for them to become effective. Many children now use this regularly, eliminating the need for oral steroid drugs (the cortisone derivatives).

Other medication that is inhaled is called sodium cromoglycate. It has been around for many years and is also effective in aborting attacks in many instances before they occur. Likewise this must be used regularly. It does not succeed in all cases, but  a certain number find it provides good relief.

What about all the other pills and mixtures that choked the medicine cabinet of many asthmatics?

These are now not nearly so necessary. Tininophylline, adrenaline, theophylline and ephedrine are the basis of many. These are still sometimes used, especially for milder asthmatics.

Sometimes skin tests are carried out by allergy specialist to try to discover the most probable cause of the attacks. When it is found, an extract may be prepared that is injected into the patient in increasing doses over a period of 12-18 months. This is aimed at increasing resistance to product. Also, it is hoped to desensitize the patient, as the doctors say. It is still used, but is not popular. Other methods seem easier and more effective.

Keeping house dust to a minimum is advisable. In fact a special kit to help with is now available and is a worthwhile exercise.

Every effort should be made by the parents to eliminate allergy factors to which the child may be sensitive. Hairy, furred pets may precipitate symptoms. Microscopic house dust mites, present in house dust, and often very prolific in bedding, is notorious for causing attacks. Dry-cleaning bedroom curtains, washing bed clothing, vacuuming the bedroom weekly, probably washing the Nankets monthly, using a damp cloth to wipe away settled dust (rather than a dry duster that simply allows dust to re-enter the bedroom air) often help.

Every asthmatic must have a “crisis plan” worked out in conjunction with the doctor well in advance in the event of a sudden asthmatic emergency occurring.

This is of vital importance. How important is the child’s general health?

Ideally, the fitter the child the better. Keeping free from respiratory infections, and indeed infections of any nature, is worth striving for. Eating sensible, regular meals, getting exercise within the child’s capacity, avoiding cigarette smoke (and educating children on the dangers of smoking before they decide to start).

Many children gradually grow out of their asthma, and develop into strong, fit and healthy adults. The attacks become less frequent, and often finally vanish.

A happy, tension-free home environment can only help. Sensible parents will strive to achieve this. In fact it helps all round—parents included!

Today, asthmatic attacks occur with far less frequency and severity than formerly, because new medications are available that stop the attacks from taking over. (See Section 2: Chapter 5.) In the majority of cases a person who develops a sudden attack of asthma will do best with inhalation of one of the “instant action” aerosol preparations especially designed to cut short such an attack.

Occasionally, however, distressingly severe asthma attacks may prove to be life-endangering, so treat promptly.

How to Recycle

We all know of the need to reduce the level of environmental pollution. No matter how insignificant a small action may seem, such as placing a jar in are cycling bin, switching off a light when it is not needed or mending a dripping tap (faucet), if everyone made an effort, the waste of vital resources could be drastically reduced.

Everyday recycling

Buy re-fill containers to fill up bottles and minimize the number of unwanted plastic containers ending up on landfill sites. Separate your household waste into groups: vegetable waste which can be composted in the garden; items that you can take to is local recycling centers such as paper, card (cardboard) and newspaper, metal drinks and food cans and tin foil, glass jars and bottles; and finally any waste which cannot be recycled and needs to go in the dustbin (trash can).

Re-use old envelopes and cut up old letters and scrap paper for writing lists and messages. Keep old margarine tubs to store nails, screws and small fittings, and use jars or bottles to keep scraps of ribbon, string and elastic together the latter containers are especially convenient as they enable you to see at a glance the contents inside. Keep a large bag in which to place recyclable waste such as cans, jars and bottles until you can take them to the recycling centre.

Home ideas

It takes the energy of 1 gallon/4.5 liters of petrol (gasoline) to make just thirty house bricks. Use reclaimed bricks when building to help save the earth’s resources and to give a traditional weathered look to houses, gardens and patios at the same time. The use of reclaimed architectural materials such as floorboards, baths and windows looks good and rarely costs more than the modern equivalent.

Using architectural salvage not only recycles unwanted items, but also adds character to a home. When buying woods, choose only those that you are satisfied come from sustainable sources. Avoid hard woods cut from tropical rainforests, including teak and mahogany, the do-forestation caused by the removal of such woods results in rare species being forced into extinction, and massive forest fires which contribute to global warming. There are plenty of sustainable alternatives, with pine, beech and rubber wood being among the best. These woods can be stained, waxed or varnished to darken them or even painted to achieve a range of attractive effects. To save on new paper, buy toilet paper and kitchen paper (paper towels) that contains a high percentage of recycled material, and look for ‘non-chlorine-bleach’ labels as the use of bleach increases pollution.

Avoid buying aerosols that contain CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons). These destroy the ozone layer, resulting in dangerous ultra-violet radiation from the sun penetrating to the earth. Foam blown plastics (used for food cartons), air conditioners and some refrigerators also release CFCs into the atmosphere, so bear this in mind when buying. There are so many excellent alternatives to all these products that there is no excuse for buying them.
You can also greatly reduce your consumption of fuel by insulating your home properly. Good insulation saves money on heating bills as well as reducing the amount of pollution, so it is a good idea for both reasons. The burning of fossil fuels also creates ‘acid rain’ which kills forests and eats away at buildings that form our architectural heritage, and should be reduced as much as possible.

Electrical appliances

When replacing an appliance such as a refrigerator, freezer, cooker or washing machine, look for the models that are energy efficient and have ‘economy’ programs. Take your old fridge or freezer for recycling, and to a place where harmful CFCs can he recycled or disposed of safely. For economic running, place the refrigerator and freezer on an outside wall and well away front the cooker or a hot dishwasher. Defrosting the freezer regularly will prevent thick layers of ice from building up, which in turn prevent the freezer from functioning correctly and cause it to use more electricity to maintain a low temperature.

Try to cook in batches when using the oven, by making several dishes at a time and using all the oven space. A microwave oven cooks quickly, and consumes far less energy than a conventional oven. It is ideal for reheating foods which tend to dry up under a grill or in an oven.

If you plan to install a gas central heating system, choose one of the latest energy efficient condensing boilers, as it will save both on fuel bills and on unwanted carbon-dioxide emissions. Also, only operate at dishwasher when you have a full load, and use the ‘economy’ setting for normal soiling.

Heat and light

Avoid wasting heat by fitting thermostatic radiator valves to each radiator, so that you can control the temperature of each mess to suit your needs. Shelves above radiators help to deflect heat back into the room, as well as creating valuable storage space.
Fit thermostatic radiator valves to each radiator to avoid wasting heat. They mean that you can control the temperature of each room separately. Try to use curtains or drapes with special insulating fabric to help keep the heat in a room. Blinds (shades) also act as simple heat barriers, so close them at night for additional insulation. Block gaps under doors and prevent draughts by using ‘sausage’ draught excluders.

To save on the cost of lighting, switch to low energy light bulbs. Although these are more expensive than ordinary bulbs, they last up to six times longer and use approximately75 per cent less energy. Try also to get into the habit of switching off lights as you leave a room. Fitting two way switches in the hallway and on the landing will ensure that you have good lighting while going up and down stairs, but can also switch off the lights when they arc not required.


What is Pancreatitis?
This disease, which affects women more commonly, is due to unknown causes. It appears to be associated frequently (in about 30 per cent of cases) with gallstones and liver disease. Some claim that excess bile production tracks back along the tube that conveys pancreatic juices to the bowel (the pancreatic duct) and causes local interference with normal functioning in the pancreas. It occurs in acute alcoholism and after abdominal surgery.
Pancreatitis Symptoms
There is severe abdominal pain, particularly in the epigastric area (just below the breastbone). This may radiate to the back, and may be associated with signs of peripheral circulatory collapse. Paleness, coldness, low blood pressure and a fast-beating heart are the symptoms when this occurs. The abdominal wall becomes rigidly hard and the patient may turn blue (cyanosis). Diagnosis is often difficult, for the condition may mimic other serious abdominal emergencies. However, a blood test that gives a rise in serum amylase is often diagnostic. More recently needle biopsy is being used in the United Kingdom.
Pancreatitis Treatment
This is unsatisfactory, and due to the acute nature will usually be carried out in hospital under specialist guidance. In recent years certain drugs appear to be of value, but none is established as being useful in all cases.
Rest, intravenous fluids and pain-relieving medication are given. There is an appreciable mortality rate (about 10 per cent or more) and recurrences are likely.

Wall Painting Ideas

Paint is a popular decorative finish for walls and ceilings because it is quick and easy to apply, offers a huge range of colours and is relatively inexpensive compared with rival products such as wall coverings. It can be used over plain plaster, or can he applied over embossed relief wall coverings and textured finishes.

Before starring to paint, clear the room and prepare the surfaces. Start by taking down curtains and blinds (drapes and shades). Remove furniture to another room if possible, or else group it in the middle of the room and cover it with clear plastic sheeting. Take down lampshades and pendant light fittings (after turning off the power supply). Unscrew wall-mounted fittings and remove the hardware from doors and windows if they are being repainted at the same time.

Access equipment

Normally most of the surfaces to be painted can be reached front a standing or a kneeling position, but some access equipment is needed for ceilings, the tops of room walls and the upper reaches of stairwells. A simple stepladder, ideally with a top platform big enough to support a paint kettle or roller tray, will be adequate for painting walls and ceilings.

Coverage will be less than is achieved with subsequent coats. Similarly, textured surface will hold more paint, again reducing the paint coverage.

For stairwells, use steps or ladder sections plus secured scaffold boards or the components of a slot-together access tower to set tap a work platform that allows you to get to all the surfaces without over-reaching.


Paint wall and ceilings in a series of overlapping hands. Start painting the ceiling next to the window wall so that deflected light on the wet paint shows if coverage is even. On walls, right-handed people should work front right to left, and vice-versa.

Texture paints

Texture paints are water-based (latex) paints thickened with added filler. Once the paint has been applied to the decorating surface, a range of three-dimensional effects can be created by using various patterning or texturing techniques. These paints arc ideal for covering up surfaces in poor condition. Most are white, but they can be over painted with ordinary wall-based paint for a coloured effect, if desired. Avoid using them in kitchens — the textured surface will trap dirt and grease making it difficult to clean.

Using Texture Paint

1. Start by gradually applying the paint to the wall or ceiling in a series of overlapping random strokes, recharging the roller or brush at intervals.

2. When an area of about l sq in. is covered, go over the whole area with a series of parallel strokes for an even surface texture.

3. Give the textured finish the look of tree bark by drawing a flat-bladed scraper over the surface to flatten off high spots.

4. Use it texturing comb to create overlapping swirls, working across the area. Practise on cardholder first.

5. Twist a sponge before pulling it away front lie wall surface to create small, over-lapping swirls. Rinse the sponge regularly.

6. You can buy patterning roller sleeves in it range of different designs for use with texture paints. This one creates a regular diamond pattern.

7. This patterning sleeve gives a random streaked effect when rolled down the wall. Apply the texture paint to the roller with a brush for fusing a patterning sleeve.


Vitamins are chemicals that are important in maintaining good health therefore, deficiencies can lead to serious diseases or illnesses. Despite an increase in “megavitamin therapy” or “orthomolecular medicine” (practice of using large amounts of vitamins and mineral including supplements and IVs to treat varying conditions), many of the vitamins we need are found in nature with fruits and vegetables being the main source. For this reason, having a diet that is well-balanced guarantees an adequate daily intake of the chemicals needed because; as essential as they are, they are needed in minute doses. In fact, the measuring units used are micrograms and milligrams.

Referred to as “organic catalysts”; vitamins help to initiate numerous chemical reactions in the body and are unique in that they remain in the body even after being used. They also help with the body’s development with each having its own (sometimes multiple) function(s) and established daily allowances. The absence of even those needed in trace amounts can easily or quickly be felt by the body since they are important for bone formation, hair and nail growth, good sight, healthy teeth and gums as well as the overall growth and maintenance of the body. Energy and even emotional stability have both been linked to adequate intakes of these essential chemicals.

Vitamins were initially named using the alphabet, reflecting the order in which they were found. Overtime names were added or substituted as the numbers increased and more discoveries about the variations were made (the B complex for example).

The list of commonly know vitamins and their deficiency diseases include:

  1. Vitamin A (related to the chemical Carotene): Night-blindness and Keratomalacia
  2. Vitamin B Complex:
    • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine): Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
    • Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): Ariboflavinosis
    • Vitamin B3 (niacin): Pellagra
    • Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid): Paresthesia
    • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine): Anemia and Peripheral Neuropathy.
    • Vitamin B7 (Biotin or Vitamin H): Dermatitis and Enteritis
    • Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid): Asneural Tube and other defects if deficiency occurs during pregnancy
    • Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin): Megaloblastic Anemia
  3. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): Scurvy
  4. Vitamin D (Calciferol): Rickets and Osteomalacia
  5. Vitamin E: Mild Hemolytic Anemia in newborns (very rare)
  6. Vitamin K: Bleeding diathesis

Ninety-seven years after the first discovery, vitamins fall into two groups:

A, D and K can dissolve in fat hence are called fat-soluble vitamins while the B complex and C dissolve in water and are called water-soluble vitamins.

Vitamin deficiency is far more rampant in developing countries than it is within the developed world because the diets in each region often defer drastically with the former more likely to be lacking in daily essentials. Also, there is a higher tendency to use vitamin supplements or multivitamins within developed countries. In fact, Australia and New Zealand have established acceptable dosages of vitamin supplements for babies. Both countries have very low incidences of Rickets (Vitamin D deficiency) with most occasional cases being found in premature babies. However, some Caribbean countries have a very high rate of the disease although Vitamin D can be produced in the body with the aid of sunlight.

Storage Shelving

Wall-mounted shelving is either fixed or adjustable. With fixed shelving, each shelf is supported independently using 2 or more shelf brackets, which are fixed both to the wall and to the underside of the shelf. With adjustable shelving, the shelves are carried on brackets, studs or tongues which are slotted or clipped into vertical support strips screwed to the wall.

Shelves can he made of natural wood or manufactured boards. Ready-made shelves are usually made of veneered or plastic-coated chipboard (particleboard). The latter traditionally have either a white or imitation wood-grain finish, but pastel shades and bold colours are now more widely available. Otherwise, you can cut shelves from full-sited hoards: chipboard, plywood, (medium-density fibreboard) and blockboard are all suitable.

There are many types of adjustable shelving on the market, with uprights and brackets usually made of metal but occasionally of wood. All operate on broadly the same principle. Start by deciding on the position and spacing of the uprights; this will depend on what sort of shelf material you are using and what load it will carry. Hang the uprights on the wall, making sure that they are perfectly vertical and level with each other. Finally, clip in the brackets and fir the shelves.

You may also want adjustable shelves inside a storage unit. There are 2options. The first involves drilling a series of aligned holes in each side of the unit, then inserting small shelf-support studs. The second uses book-case strip — a metal moulding with slots into which small pegs or tongues are fitted to support the shelves. You will need 2 strips at each side of the unit.


1. Select the correct bracket spacing, and then attach the shorter arm of each bracket to the underside of the shelf, so that it is flush with the rear edge.

2. Fix the shelf to the wail with a Screw driven through one bracket, check that it is horizontal and mark the remaining screw positions. Let the shelf swing downwards 011the first screw, then drill the other holes.

3. Insert plugs for masonry wall fixings if needed. Swing the shelf hack up and drive in the remaining fixing screws. Tighten them fully so that the screw heads pull the brackets against the wall.


1. Decide where to posit ion the shelves, then fix the first upright to the wall by driving a screw through the topmost hole. Do not tighten it fully.

2. Pivot the upright until it is vertical. Mark the position of all the other fixing holes. Swing the upright aside, drill the rest of the holes and drive in the screws.

3. Use a spirit level to make a mark on the wall, level with the top of the first upright and at the required distance front it. Fix the second upright there.

4. Mark the upright positions on the rear edge of each shelf. Align the back of each bracket with the edge of the shelf and with the mark, and screw it on.

5. If the shelves are to fit flush against the wall, cut notches at the upright positions to fit around them and then attach the brackets as shown.

6. Position the shelf brackets by inserting their tongues into the slots in the uprights. The weight of the shelf will lock them in place. Adjust the shelf spacings as wished.


1. Mark the positions of the top ends of the strips to ensure that they are level, then mark the screw posit anis to a true vertical and screw on the strips.

2. Insert pairs of pegs into the strips at each shelf position, checking that their lugs are properly engaged in the slots. Lift the shelf into place.


1. Use at simple pre-drilled jig to make the holes for the shelf supports in the sides of the unit. A depth snip will prevent you from drilling too deep.

2. Drill 2 sets of holes in each side of the unit, with the top of the jig held against the top of the unit to guarantee alignment. Insert the supports.


Think of how to make best use of your new storage area. It is a good idea to make a rough sketch initially, in order to take account of factors such as the height of books or record sleeves, or the clearance that ornaments or photographs will require. Aim to keep everyday items within easy reach— in practice, between about 75 cm/2 ft 6 in and 1.5 in/5 ft above the floor. Position deep shelves near the bottom so that it is easy to see and reach the back. Allow 2.5-5 cm/l-2 in of clearance on top of the height of objects to be stored, so that they are easy to rake down and put back.

Think about weight, too. If the shelves will store heavy objects, you must choose the shelving material with care — thin shelves will sag if heavily laden unless they are well-supported. With 12 mm/1/2 in clipboard (particleboard) and ready-made veneered or melamine-faced shelves, space brackets at 45 cm/18 in for heavy loads or 60 cm/2 ft far light loads. With 20 mm/1/4 in chipboard or 12 MM/V2 in plywood, increase the spacing to60 cm/2 in and 75 cm/2 in respectively. For 20 mm/1/4 in plywood, MDF (medium-density fibreboard) or natural wood, the bracket spacing can be 75 cm/2 ft6 in for heavy loads, or 90 cm/3 ft for light ones.