Author Archives: Ramon.KGS

Wallpapering Corners

In a perfect world, rooms would have corners that were truly square and truly vertical, and it would be possible to hang a wall covering all around the room in a continuous operation, simply turning the lengths that ran into the room corners straight on to the adjoining walls. In reality, corners are seldom square or true, and, if the covering were hung in this way, lengths would be vertical on the first wall but could be running well off the vertical by the time they returned to the starting point. This would be visually disastrous, with vertical pattern elements out of alignment are corners, and sloping horizontal pattern features.

The way to avoid these problems is to complete each wall with a cut-down strip that only just turns on to the next wall. Then hang the remainder of the strip with its machine-cur edge against a newly drawn vertical line on the second wall, so that you can trim its other edge to follow the internal angle precisely. Any slight discontinuity of pattern will not be noticeable except to the very closest scrutiny, and the remaining lengths on the second wall will be hung truly vertically. The same applies to paperhanging around external corners


1. Hang the last full length before the corner of the room, then measure the distance to the corner front the edge of the length and add about 12 mm or 1/2 in.

2. Use a pencil and straightedge to mark a strip of the required width, measured from the relevant edge (here, the left one), and cut it from the length.

3. Paste the strip and hang it in the usual way, allowing the hand-cut edge to lap onto the adjoining wall. Trim the top and bottom edges as usual.

4. Brush the tongue into the internal angle. If it will not lie flat because the corner is out of true, make small release cuts in the edge and brush it flat.

5. Measure the width of the remaining strip, subtract 12 mm/1/2 in. and mark a fresh Vertical line on the adjoining wall at this distance from the corner

6. Hang the strip to the marked line, brushing the wall covering into the angle so that it just turns on to the surface of
.the first wall.

7. Use the back of the scissors blades to mark the line of the corner on the wall covering, then cut along the line and smooth the cut edge back into the angle. Use special overlap adhesive when using washables and vinyl on all lap joints.


1. Plan the starting point so that lengths turn external corners by about 2.5 cm/1 in. Brush the paper on to the next wall, making small cuts so that it lies flat.

2. Carefully tear off a narrow strip of the wall covering along the turned edge to leave a ‘feathered’ edge that will not show through the next length.

3. Mark a vertical line on the next wall surface, at a distance from the corner equal to the width of the wall covering plus about 6mm or 1/4 in.

4. Hang the next full length to the marked line, with its other edge overlapping the feathered edge of the strip turned from the previous wall

5. Brush this length into position, trim it at the top and bottom as before, and run a seam roller down the overlap(do trot do this on embossed or textured wall coverings).Again, use a special overlap adhesive with washable and vinyl coverings.

Home and Interior Garden

Plants can create an interior style of their own or can be used to enhance existing decorations in your home. Flowering plants add a further dimension by either complementing or contrasting with interior color schemes.

The architectural style of your apartment, its proportions and the way it is decorated will affect the choice of plants you display there. Traditional interiors tend to suit small plants that complement fabrics, wallpapers and other furnishings. Starkly decorated modern rooms can take a bolder statement in the form of larger, more sculptural plants. The other main considerations to take into account when selecting plants for your home are the size of the plants in relation to the room area, the way that they grow and their shape and color.

Plants and Scale

If plants are to make a positive addition to an interior, they must he compatible with the space in terms of both size and shape. A large specimen, for example, needs a spacious, high ceilinged room in order to spread its elegant, arching branches and to make a suitably dramatic impact. These large indoor plants generally grow very slowly, and are cultivated in a wide range of heights, so if the room requires a 2 nil6 ft palm, select one at that height or slightly smaller, you could wait a longtime for a 1 m/3 ft specimen to fill the space you have allowed for it.

The lush, bushy shapes of Soleirolia soleirolii make an ideal choice for a low coffee table. These plants can tolerate bright, indirect light or semi-shady conditions. If you want height and a compact shape, select a climbing plant that can be trained to grow up a moss pole or bamboo stake. Ivies will naturally wrap themselves around poles and stakes and with a little pruning can be trained into the desired shape very easily. Several ivy plants grown together in a large container soon make a tower of green or variegated foliage.

Tiered Displays

Shelving is another useful way to gain height, with the added advantage that you can display a range of plants in oneself contained unit. A multi-tiered etagere is a specially designed piece of plant furniture, consisting of an upright from which stem six or seven small square or circular shelves. It is often made from wrought iron, and was particularly popular in Victorian times. Originals are much sought after, but authentic reproductions are now available thanks to the revived popularity of conservatories.

As a variation, you could create a striped sandwich effect by interspersing green plants with seasonal colors. The advantage of fixed shelving is that it can be used to combine both display areas for plants and storage for other items. Fitting triangular shelves in the corner of a room is an economical way of providing a permanent plant display area. Painted the color of the walls or the wallpaper, the shelves simply merge into the back ground, making the plants the focus. Higher shelves and those above shoulder level should be filled with cascading varieties to avoid only the container being seen, with lower shelves devoted to upward growing types of plants.


Color is another important consideration when it comes to choosing plants for your home. A delicate paint effect or softly toned wallpaper can be swamped by heavy, dark green foliage. However, the pale fronds of fragile ferns or pastel and white flowering plants will enhance a gentle color scheme rather than dominate it. Pale plain colored walls will complement most plants, but introducing foliage or flowering plants into a scheme with floral or patterned wallpaper and furnishings needs more thought. Take a piece of the fabric or wallpaper with you to the garden centre or plant specialist and use this to help you select an appropriate shade of green.

With the huge selection of seasonal flowering plants available, it is quite feasible to create a continuity of color with different varieties throughout. With this in mind, consider widening a window sill to provide a deeper platform for plants. A recessed window fitted with narrow glass or solid shelves provides the ideal support for a display of small bushy or trailing plants; while light loving climbers will quickly provide a green curtain right to the top of the window if the plants are given a series of thin wires to climb up. Climbers can also be encouraged to act as a frame. A climbing plant trained to scramble around a large picture hanging above a mantel piece, for instance, looks stunning.

This wrought-iron candle sconce has been designed to incorporate a small plant such as this ivy. Be careful not to let the candle burn too low and scorch the leaves of the plant.

This moth orchid provides a graceful organic touch to a collection of wall-mounted stone-colored vases.
If sitting plants at the window, it is essential to select ones that can tolerate hot summer rays or at the very least strong, bright light. A light, bright room may be partially separated by using a group of tall plants to create a room divider, usually partitioning, say, a dining space from a sitting area. As an alternative, fill an open shelving unit in the centre of a similar well-lit room with plants that are viewed from both sides. If the light levels on the lower shelves prohibit living plants, use them for storing books or displaying other inanimate objects instead.

Grouping Plants

Metal wall sconces designed to hold candles are easily adapted for trailing plants. Decorative wire wall containers for bathroom and kitchen accessories also make excellent pot holders. A group of these arranged closely together creates a considerable impact. Table top displays are the other obvious choice for many rooms, but most plants hate being moved around, so it is important that they can be left in peace. Narrow console tables require little space and are ideal for the purpose. If the space around the table is restricted, limit the display to upright plants. Bushy or trailing plants can be introduced if they will not be regularly brushed against. Combined with several treasured objects and planted in carefully chosen containers, these create an attractive still life that needs only a lamp to highlight the collection at night.

A group of low-level plants arranged together in one shallow basket or ceramic bowl, is perfect on a coffee table where it will be viewed from above. Put all the plants in one container making it more convenient if they need to be moved temporarily. A central display table needs plants that are attractive from all sides. Several small pots of miniature roses, Exacumaffine (Persian violet) or primulas grouped together when the table is not in use can then be split up to form a pretty line of color for a dinner or lunch party. These plants will be viewed at very close proximity, they need to be in perfect condition and may remain so only for a couple of weeks.

Plants seen at a distance are better able to carry imperfections, especially if they are arranged in a tight group. With a sensitive selection of colors and shapes, considerable impact can be made using relatively small, inexpensive plants. Choose a color theme of, say, white and green where a Dieffenbachia compacta sets the height of the arrangement for a range of smaller, bushier plants such as Thirnieamenziesii (piggyback plant), Syn (goniumand Fittonia).

A trailing tradescantia will add further dimension to the overall shape of the display, and a brilliant white azalea, Argyranthernum frutescens (marguerite) or scented gardenia will provide seasonal interest and variation. The success of these loose, informal groupings relies on establishing a strong central theme. While they offer numerous possibilities of choice and presentation, it is important to remember that the permanent plants must share the same light and temperature requirements.

Installing Crown Molding

There are 3 types of decorative cornice commonly used in today’s homes. The first type is roving, a relative of sheet plasterboard (gypsum hoard), which consists of a concave hollow-hacked plaster core sheathed in a strong paper envelope. It is fixed in place with adhesive. The second is molded cornice; this is made either from traditional fibrous plaster or from modern foamed plastics to imitate the ornate decorative cornices often found in older buildings, and comes in a range of profiles. Plaster types must generally be secured in place with screws because of their weight, but plastic types can simply be stuck in position with adhesive. The third type is a machined wooden trim with a similar profile to plasterboard cornice, and is either nailed direct to the wall framing or to a nailing strip or barren (furring strip) in the angle of the wall and ceiling.

Apart from its decorative appearance in framing the ceiling, a cornice can also help to conceal unsightly cracks. These often open up around the ceiling perimeter as the ceiling expands and contracts with changes in temperature and humidity, or as the building settles.


  1. Hold a length of cornice squarely in the wall/ceiling angle and draw 2 guidelines on the wall and ceiling surfaces. Cut any mitred edges.
  2. Remove any old wall coverings from between the guidelines by dry scraping them. Cross hatch painted or bare plaster to key the surface.
  3. Either mix up powder adhesive or use already mixed type. Using a flat scraper ‘butter’ the adhesive on to both edges of the rear of the cornice.
  4. Press the length into place between the guidelines, supporting it if necessary with partly driven masonry nails. Remove the nails (if used) once the adhesive has set.
  5. Fit the adjacent corner piece next. Here, the next section also incorporates an external mitre; measure and cut this carefully before fitting the length.
  6. Complete the external comer with a further length of cornice, hurting the cut ends closely together and ensuring that the length fits between the lines.
  7. Fill any slight gaps at external and internal angles with a little cellulose filler(spackle), applied with a filling knife (putty knife) to leave a crisp, clean joint, sand the filler smooth once it has hardened.
  8. Before the adhesive hardens, use a damp sponge to remove any excess from wall and ceiling surfaces and also to smooth over the filled joints.


  1. Make up a large mitre block big enough to hold the cornice, and use this and a tenon saw to make accurate 45° cuts for internal and external corners.
  2. Some cornice manufacturers supply a paper template that enables cutting lines to be marked accurately for internal and external corners.
  3. When using cut pieces to complete a wall, mark off the length required directly, square a line across the cornice with a pencil and cut it to length.

Unwanted Hair

Just as most people desire to have attractive, socially acceptable head hair, hair in other regions is despised as readily. Women regard hair in regions ranging from the pubic area and scalp as a masculine feature, and to be avoided at all costs.

The appearance of hair under the arms and in the suprapubic area is one of – normal secondary sexual characteristics of developing females. However, women show a distinct tendency to produce an above-average growth of hair other parts of the body as well. In majority of cases this does not indicate any hormonal imbalance. A check will tell if other members of the family have a similar problem.

Today there is good medical treatment for women with unwanted hair. Facial hair is usually the major problem (a “moustache “beard,” hated by all women). However hair on the breasts, legs and arms is s. often unpopular, especially when present in large, obvious amounts.

Unwanted Hair Treatment

Treatment should be under the supervision  vision of your physician, and involves of the drug spironolactonc (“Aldactons – as a 100 mg tablet. One (sometimes a tablet is taken daily, for a period of six-twelve months, or maybe more according to the results obtained. This drug balances the uptake of the male hormone testosterone by receptors in the hair which in turn restricts the growth of  hair. In the fullness of time it will thin out, and there will be no further growth while medication is being taken. Most noticeable result occurs after approximately  twelve months. If one tablet is insufficient, two tablets may be taken. The whole procedure is evaluated after 12-18 months.

Blood test for serum electrolytes is normally carried out by the doctor, and if results are abnormal, treatment is started. There are usually no adverse side effects. Men who have an oily skin, often with  lesions, may notice an improvement in skin texture. The drug is not new and has been in use medically for many  years for other purposes.

Although the medication seems suitable for most women, some will probably want to continue to use the methods have been available for many years. Here is a listing of the most common trouble areas, and some of the solutions that may be used if so desired.

Unwanted facial hair.

If this is dark and very obvious, simple bleaching often makes it less apparent. Depilatory creams give instant removal, but they must be reapplied as soon as new hair shows through. Although this may give the appearance of promoting a bristly stubble, this is not so. New hairs, due to their shortness, may appear firmer as they come through the skin. Waxes are not advised for facial hair (as they remove the very fine hairs normally present as well as the unwanted obvious ones). Electrolysis will give a permanent cure. It is imperative that you attend a person skilled in this procedure, otherwise satisfactory results may not occur.

In some very rare sex disorders of the male, the production of testosterone is below normal, and hair growth (in all areas except the scalp) does not occur or is markedly delayed. This disorder is seldom diagnosed under the age of 18 years. It is usually treated by specialists and experts in this field are fairly limited.  Many cases respond well to male hormone administration.

Men desiring greater growth of hair on the face, chest, underarms and pubic region may benefit from the administration of the male hormone in a similar manner. However, you should take over the problem with your family physician and under no circumstances taken without proper supervision.

Wall Fixings

Before making fixings into solid masonry, make a couple of test drillings to find out whether the wall is built of brick or lightweight blocks. It brick is identified from red or yellow bore dust, use ordinary plastic wall plugs; but if grey dust suggests lightweight blocks it is better to use a proprietary block plug which has larger ‘wings’ to grip the softer material. In either case the screw must be long enough to penetrate at least 38 mm long into the masonry behind plaster, so use screws are at least 62 mm/21/2 in. long for a plastered wall. Increase this 1.0 75 mm/3 in for fixings that will carry heavy loads. Screw gauge 8 will be adequate for normal loads; increase this to gauge10 for 75 mm/3 in screws. Make sure, too, that the screw and wall plug sizes are compatible, and take care to drill the holes are right angles to the wall surface, deep enough to accept the screw length.

Making fixings to stud (dry) walls poses fixing problems. Cavity fixing devices such as spring or gravity toggles and cavity anchors can be used only for fixings that will carry the lightest loads. For any other use, the fixing must be made either to a horizontal twigging (cross bridging)fixed between adjacent scuds difficult to fir except during construction of the wall framework — or directly to the vertical studs themselves. These will have to be located with an electronic stud finder or, less satisfactorily, by wrapping and test drilling — they are usually at 400 mm/16 in or 600 min/24 in centres. Make sure that pilot holes are drilled into the centre of the stud, not near its edge, since this could result in a weak fixing. Use screws 50 mm/2 in long for medium loads, 75 mm/3 in long for heavy ones.


1. Mark where the fixing is to go and use a masonry drill, sized to match the wall slip. Wind tape around the drill bit to act as a depth guide.

2. If the drill has an adjustable depth stop attachment, use it instead of the tape to set the drilling depth. Drill until the stop touches the wall surface.


1. If the fixing must be between joists or studs rather than into them, drill a clearance hole for tile fixing device through the plasterboard

2. Push a cavity anchor into the hole so it can expand against the hack of the board, and drive in the screw. Using toggles, thread the screw through the object first.

3. Choose a wall plug sized to match the screw being used, and push it into the hole, insert its rim is flush with the wall. Tip it with a hammer if necessary.

4. Thread the screw through a clearance hole drilled in the object being fixed, insert it in the mouth of the wall plug and drive it home.

5. Alternatively, use long-sleeved frame plugs. Drill holes through the wood and into the wall, insert the plug and tighten the screw to make the fixing.


1. Use an electronic stud finder to locate the stud or ceiling joist positions. It works by detecting the nails which secure the plasterboard (gypsum board).

2. When the stud or joist positions are marked, drill clearance holes in the object to be fixed at matching centres. Check these for accuracy.

3. Drill pilot holes through the board surface and into the stud or joist. Make sure that the drill bit is at right angles to the surface of the wall.

4. Insert screws into the clearance holes, then offer up the object to be fixed, align ii with the pre-drilled pilot holes and drive the screws home.


If there has been excessive secretion of androgens from the adrenal cortex, this may give rise to precocious puberty if it happens in the pre-pubertal age.

Virilisation Symptoms

In females, of any age, this will result in virilisation. which means the appearance of typical male characteristics. There may be an increase in muscular development and hairiness (particularly the face and underarm), as well as enlargement of the clitoris, the equivalent of the male penis. In males the condition may be unnoticed until puberty is reached. Then precocious puberty occurs. This causes premature development of the external genitals, rapid bony growth and muscular development. The voice breaks prematurely, facial and body hair appears.

Libido increases, often dramatically, and can lead to psychosexual difficulties and social problems. Excessive male hormone causes the growing points of bones to close prematurely, so that growth may be stunted.

Apart from coming from the adrenals. the excess hormone may emanate from the pituitary gland due to a tumour that may press on the optic pathways, producing visual disturbances as well.

Virilisation Treatment

Substitution therapy with cortisone type drugs often successfully checks symptoms. However, if due to a tumour in the adrenals, the outlook may be poor. If cancer is causing the symptoms. spread can rapidly take place to other organs. Tumours of the pituitary must be treated either surgically or with radiotherapy. Sometimes hormonal therapy (medroxyprogesterone) by injection may assist if given long-term.


Although there are far more overweight people around than underweight, the latter may be a problem in those afflicted. Sometimes disease can cause person to become underweight, often dramatically, and needs medical investigation by the doctor. However, there are many ways to improve weight; the methods are simple and practical.

It is a strange paradox, but while one of the world is today starving to the other half is eating itself to death!

Many developing lands, and in particular the developing world in general, suffer from undernourishment to a severe degree. Unfortunately, in many of these countries populations are constantly in hunger.

Warning: sometimes an attempt to gain weight is to anticipate nature increasing at an alarming rate. The population tends to catch up to the total food availability, and invariably goes way past it.

Therefore, in many lands there is under nutrition, underweight (with consequent inroads of disease and debility) and general body thinness. However, while the Western world in general has too much food, and an excess of availability of it, there are some people who are underweight. They are outnumbered by far by the overweight, but thin people contrast even more sharply with the well-fed people with whom they inevitably associate. This tends to make them stand out in stark relief. The very thin dislike their appearance almost as much as the overweight, although as a class they are far less vocal about it. Doctors are frequently visited by the underweight and asked for advice as to what to do.

Causes of Underweight

Of course, there are many causes. Just as there are constitutionally obese persons, so the reverse also holds true. There are many who have a genetic predisposition to be thin. “Small boned” is a common phrase, used in the hope of hiding the suggestion of any disability.

Just as many overweight people have been brought up on foods since babyhood that predisposed to adult obesity, so the underweight person most likely has been brought up on a dietetic intake that tends to produce a thin adult body.

Many thin people simply do riot enjoy the high-carbohydrate (and consequently high-kilojoule) foods. They do not eat sweets and chocolate and cake and pastry by choice. Their consumption of potato and allied products tends to be low. Their intake of sugar and sugar based foods is also much lower than average. They prefer foods to be unsweetened, don’t have sugar in their beverages, and drink simple water or unsweetened fruit juice in preference to bottled carbonated drinks, which are notoriously high in sugar (arid kilojoule) content.

On the whole, underweight people tend to be healthier as a class than the overweight. They tend to be quicker in their movements, be more active in the total daily volume of exercise, may he more mentally active, but not necessarily so.

However, a very underweight person, particularly one who is losing weight, may have some inherent disorder that must be corrected. Weight loss can be a sign of serious disease. Such wasting disorders as cancer and tuberculosis are notorious in this respect. Anaemia and many other illnesses cause the body to deplete its food stores quicker. It may be due to a reduced intake of kilojoules simply because the illness is making the person less hungry and consequently eat less. Or it may be due to increased metabolic rates. There are various views.

The sudden onset of weight loss should be considered a potentially serious symptom. It often follows acute illnesses, and in these events, if it is a relatively short lived, mild infection, may not be of consequence. For example, a bad bout of a viral influenza, particularly if accompanied with a gastric component where there is nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea, will quickly lead to a rapid weight loss. If this persists for a week or two, it can readily strip four to ten kilos from a pers frame. Many of these sicknesses or brief duration, and as soon as the illness is over, and the fluid losses are stop; and the normal eating pattern is resumed, the weight will gradually cc: on again.

Actually, some people welcome a short illness such as this, for it may strip away enough unwanted fat to bring weight to a level they may have striving to achieve for a long time. Once the weight has reduced, it is far easier keep it at a static level simply by diet and discretion.

If there is no obvious cause for be: underweight, if it is worrying the patient or if it has occurred suddenly for no apparent reason, a medical examination is worthwhile. The doctor may order to exclude serious causes, such as cancer or TB. In younger persons these are unlikely, but anything can happen. Do not say to yourself, “I’m only 30. Nothing serious could possibly happen to me.” It may, and the only way to be sure it won’t is to obtain an expert opinion.

Wall Decorating Ideas

The first involves finishing off apart-riled wall with a band of narrow tiles in a colour or design that complements or contrasts with the main riled area, to form a decorative border. These tiles are available in lengths that match standard rile widths, and are usually 50-75 minimum 2-3 in wide. They are cur and fixed just like any other tile.

The second method is to incorporate a group of patterned tiles as a feature panel within a larger area of plain riling. The group may simply be contrasting patterned tiles, or may be a multi-tile motif a group of four, six or more tiles that fit together to form one large design when they are fixed in position. Tile manufacturers offer a range of mass-produced designs you can choose from, or a motif panel can he commissioned from a specialist tile supplier. Plan the motif’s position on the wall carefully, and build it in the usual way as tiling progresses.

I. Use a tiling gauge to mark the position of the first row of tiles on the wall surface. Put up a support batten (furring strip) if necessary then spread some tile adhesive on the wall, and place any plain tiles that will be below the decorative panel. Start placing the first tiles that will form the decorative panel. Here the tiles are being laid at an angle of 45°, so half-tiles are placed first.

2 .Continuous adding whole and half-tiles to build up the pattern, checking is you work that the edges of the panel are uniformly horizontal and vertical.

3. Here the panel is being surrounded by slim border tiles. Add whole border riles to the top of the panel first, working from the centre line outwards.

4. At the corners of the panel, fit an over-long horizontal border tile and hold another vertically over it so you can mark a 45° cutting line on each tile.

5. Make the 45° cuts on the end of each corner tile, then bed the horizontal tile in place. Check that the CUE end is precisely aligned with the panel comer. Repeat the process at the other end of the horizontal section of the border. The pieces should be the same length, as the border is centred.

6. Fit the border riles up each side of the decorative panel, then mark the position of the mitre cut on the final tiles, cut them and fit them in place.

Plant Decoration

Herbaceous borders bring wonderful colour in summer but die down to next to nothing in the winter, so it is good to provide an evergreen structure of plants to get you through all the seasons. These can also contribute to the ‘architecture’ of the garden, creating levels, screens, and even sculpture. You can plan to have taller shrubs at the back of the borders, slowly graduating toward the front, or you can make more structured steps. You can arrange rows of small, lightly screening plants across the garden to create a living screen, and you can use specimen trees or neatly trimmed topiary as living sculpture.

The colour scheme can he planned against this basic structure. The decorative garden room is at its prettiest with plenty of colour. The structural shrubs and trees also can be chosen to make certain there is some colour all the year round — fruit trees for blossom in spring; shrub roses for summer colour and late-flowering clematis and wonderful berries, such as those of the pyracantha, in autumn, and of holly in winter. This display can he complemented by autumn-flowering bulbs such as colchicum, schizostylis, and cyclamen.

But the most variety of colours can be added with pots and containers. There is always a choice of seasonal colour at garden centres. By planting up in movable pots, you can easily put the colour where you want it and replant with new seasonal colour as the old blooms die.

Colour creates much more impact if it is kept to a theme — of blues and pinks, perhaps, or oranges and yellows. This theme can be strengthened with the use of paint and stain on nearby fences, garden buildings, furniture, or even the pots themselves.

Adding decorative colour

In a decorative garden, colour is very important. Not only can the paint you choose suggest mood and ambience, just as it does indoors, it can emphasize the colour scheme of the planting.

The surfaces you paint may be the house walls, walls of outside buildings, or the garden walls. Maybe you have a hopscotch of fencing and trellis work, all of slightly different woods and ages, that has resulted in a visual muddle. Paint them all in the same decorative finish, and you will have a much more coherent look. Or you may have newly erected trellis work that has a year or more to wait for a verdant covering of creepers. Paint it, and you will have a reasonable finish while you wait.

Colour can also be used to highlight areas. You may pinpoint an area destined for a particular colour scheme or you may wish to highlight the planting. Burnt-orange fencing would provide a stunning background for marigolds, while yellow picket would highlight the nodding heads of pansies. Painted fences and surfaces also lend colour throughout the year. They are particularly valuable in winter when many plants have died down.

Ideas with paint

Whether you want to paint your garden wall or a house wall that makes up part of the garden, there is plenty of inspiration to be had. Experiment not only with colour but with technique.

As well as straight colour, you can create depth by layering the colour. Try to add effects such as marble, stone, slate, or moss or by stenciling to a wall. The trick is to consider the scale of the garden.

These effects will have to be seen from much further away than they would be if used inside the house. Even a 10 m/30 ft garden is much larger than the average room, so everything has to be exaggerated a little.

An enchanting little pond, complete with fountain and cherub, adds colour and interest to a shady corner of the garden.

Although you may spend less time in the front garden, colourful plants growing by the door will create a welcoming impression.

Paint Practicalities

Any outdoor paint job has to be able to withstand a lot of beating from the weather, such as frosts, strong winds, torrential rain and the summer sun.

For this reason, it is best to use exterior-quality products. They are less likely to peel and flake, their colours are less likely to fade and they are specifically designed to protect the surface they are covering.

Alternatively, when decorating items such as pots and containers, which are not crucial to the garden structure, you can achieve a reasonably hard-wearing finish using a wider variety of paints over a primer, finished with a varnish.

Whatever you plan to paint or stain, it is important to use primers and varnishes that are compatible with each other, otherwise they may react adversely. Remember too that, if you have the patience and time, several thin layers of paint always produce a more enduring and better-looking finish than one thick one

Wound Care

Wound Care

Bruises (also called contusions) usually form a bluish discoloration at the site of the injury and fade from blue to green to yellow over one to two weeks.
A hematoma (goose egg) is a collection of blood and swelling in the skin or just underneath it. Depending upon its size and location, this swelling will go down in one to ten days.
Apply ice intermittently to the injured area for a few days. The ice can be applied for 20 minutes every two to four hours and will help to limit bleeding into the tissues. If your child won’t allow you to put ice on the bruised area, it will still heal fairly quickly in most cases.
Abrasions (or scrapes) are broad areas of superficial skin damage; they seldom result in any deep underlying damage and rarely leave a significant scar. They heal quickly and usually do not become infected.
Cleanse the wound gently with warm soapy water to remove any dirt and debris. A painless antiseptic such as hydrogen peroxide can help cleanse an abrasion.
Apply an antibiotic ointment such as a neomycin-polysporin mixture (Neosporin) or one prescribed by your child’s physician. Cover with a nonstick wound dressing to keep it clean.
Change the dressing once or twice daily until the wound is no longer moist and sensitive.
A laceration can range from a minimal break in the skin surface, requiring only a brief cleansing and a day or two of a simple dressing, to a long, gaping wound requiring extensive repair. A deep laceration may damage tendons, nerves, joints, or other underlying tissues. It may also contain dirt or other foreign material that can lead to infection. Because of these potential complications, most wounds deeper or wider than I or 2 mm should be examined by a physician to determine appropriate treatment.
Treatment First aid for lacerations that might require sutures (stitches) includes the following:
Apply steady pressure with clean gauze or washcloth to stop bleeding.Keep the area clean.
Rinse with clean water if available.
Keep covered with a sterile bandage, or at least a clean cloth, until the wound can be examined by a medical professional.
A laceration should be closed within 24 hours. The sooner the
wound is treated, the less likely it will become infected. If a laceration is not sutured, the consequences are usually not serious, but healing could take longer and the resulting scar is likely to be wider or more prominent.
Sometimes lacerations are deep enough to involve injury to a nerve or tendon. For this reason, any laceration that looks deep at all should be examined and cleaned by your child’s physician or another medical professional.
With some contaminated lacerations or certain types of animal or human bites, the physician may not use sutures because closing the wound could increase the risk of infection. In such cases the wound will be left open, but it will gradually heal as the body’s repair processes close the defect.
Any laceration, puncture, bite, abrasion, or burn should prompt a review of a child’s tetanus
Immunization status. Tetanus is a potential threat following any wound, but it is a greater, tern following punctures or contaminated wounds. If a child is on schedule for Isis or hernunizations or is fully immunized, no tetanus update will be needed. Otherwise a tetanus booster should be given.
Signs and symptoms of infection include local pain, swelling, and redness, which may cover a large area around the wound. There may also be fever. Inflammation of local lymph channels may form a red streak that extends away from the wound. Some bacteria can the production of discolored drainage (or pus). If a wound appears to be level wing an infection, show it to a physician. Mild heat on the affected area, rest, elevation of the affected area (if an arm or leg), and antibiotics will most likely be recommended.
Be sure to obtain specific wound-care instructions before leaving the office or emergency facility. In general, if sutures or sterile strips have been used, the wound should be kept dry for a few days. This will mean that the child should not go swimming or soak the wounds while bathing. In some cases, the physician may instruct you to clean the wound and apply fresh dressings. He or she should also tell you when the strips or bandages should be removed. A follow-up appointment is usually required when stitches need to be removed.