Author Archives: Ramon.KGS

How to Recycle

We all know of the need to reduce the level of environmental pollution. No matter how insignificant a small action may seem, such as placing a jar in are cycling bin, switching off a light when it is not needed or mending a dripping tap (faucet), if everyone made an effort, the waste of vital resources could be drastically reduced.

Everyday recycling

Buy re-fill containers to fill up bottles and minimize the number of unwanted plastic containers ending up on landfill sites. Separate your household waste into groups: vegetable waste which can be composted in the garden; items that you can take to is local recycling centers such as paper, card (cardboard) and newspaper, metal drinks and food cans and tin foil, glass jars and bottles; and finally any waste which cannot be recycled and needs to go in the dustbin (trash can).

Re-use old envelopes and cut up old letters and scrap paper for writing lists and messages. Keep old margarine tubs to store nails, screws and small fittings, and use jars or bottles to keep scraps of ribbon, string and elastic together the latter containers are especially convenient as they enable you to see at a glance the contents inside. Keep a large bag in which to place recyclable waste such as cans, jars and bottles until you can take them to the recycling centre.

Home ideas

It takes the energy of 1 gallon/4.5 liters of petrol (gasoline) to make just thirty house bricks. Use reclaimed bricks when building to help save the earth’s resources and to give a traditional weathered look to houses, gardens and patios at the same time. The use of reclaimed architectural materials such as floorboards, baths and windows looks good and rarely costs more than the modern equivalent.

Using architectural salvage not only recycles unwanted items, but also adds character to a home. When buying woods, choose only those that you are satisfied come from sustainable sources. Avoid hard woods cut from tropical rainforests, including teak and mahogany, the do-forestation caused by the removal of such woods results in rare species being forced into extinction, and massive forest fires which contribute to global warming. There are plenty of sustainable alternatives, with pine, beech and rubber wood being among the best. These woods can be stained, waxed or varnished to darken them or even painted to achieve a range of attractive effects. To save on new paper, buy toilet paper and kitchen paper (paper towels) that contains a high percentage of recycled material, and look for ‘non-chlorine-bleach’ labels as the use of bleach increases pollution.

Avoid buying aerosols that contain CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons). These destroy the ozone layer, resulting in dangerous ultra-violet radiation from the sun penetrating to the earth. Foam blown plastics (used for food cartons), air conditioners and some refrigerators also release CFCs into the atmosphere, so bear this in mind when buying. There are so many excellent alternatives to all these products that there is no excuse for buying them.
You can also greatly reduce your consumption of fuel by insulating your home properly. Good insulation saves money on heating bills as well as reducing the amount of pollution, so it is a good idea for both reasons. The burning of fossil fuels also creates ‘acid rain’ which kills forests and eats away at buildings that form our architectural heritage, and should be reduced as much as possible.

Electrical appliances

When replacing an appliance such as a refrigerator, freezer, cooker or washing machine, look for the models that are energy efficient and have ‘economy’ programs. Take your old fridge or freezer for recycling, and to a place where harmful CFCs can he recycled or disposed of safely. For economic running, place the refrigerator and freezer on an outside wall and well away front the cooker or a hot dishwasher. Defrosting the freezer regularly will prevent thick layers of ice from building up, which in turn prevent the freezer from functioning correctly and cause it to use more electricity to maintain a low temperature.

Try to cook in batches when using the oven, by making several dishes at a time and using all the oven space. A microwave oven cooks quickly, and consumes far less energy than a conventional oven. It is ideal for reheating foods which tend to dry up under a grill or in an oven.

If you plan to install a gas central heating system, choose one of the latest energy efficient condensing boilers, as it will save both on fuel bills and on unwanted carbon-dioxide emissions. Also, only operate at dishwasher when you have a full load, and use the ‘economy’ setting for normal soiling.

Heat and light

Avoid wasting heat by fitting thermostatic radiator valves to each radiator, so that you can control the temperature of each mess to suit your needs. Shelves above radiators help to deflect heat back into the room, as well as creating valuable storage space.
Fit thermostatic radiator valves to each radiator to avoid wasting heat. They mean that you can control the temperature of each room separately. Try to use curtains or drapes with special insulating fabric to help keep the heat in a room. Blinds (shades) also act as simple heat barriers, so close them at night for additional insulation. Block gaps under doors and prevent draughts by using ‘sausage’ draught excluders.

To save on the cost of lighting, switch to low energy light bulbs. Although these are more expensive than ordinary bulbs, they last up to six times longer and use approximately75 per cent less energy. Try also to get into the habit of switching off lights as you leave a room. Fitting two way switches in the hallway and on the landing will ensure that you have good lighting while going up and down stairs, but can also switch off the lights when they arc not required.


What is Pancreatitis?
This disease, which affects women more commonly, is due to unknown causes. It appears to be associated frequently (in about 30 per cent of cases) with gallstones and liver disease. Some claim that excess bile production tracks back along the tube that conveys pancreatic juices to the bowel (the pancreatic duct) and causes local interference with normal functioning in the pancreas. It occurs in acute alcoholism and after abdominal surgery.
Pancreatitis Symptoms
There is severe abdominal pain, particularly in the epigastric area (just below the breastbone). This may radiate to the back, and may be associated with signs of peripheral circulatory collapse. Paleness, coldness, low blood pressure and a fast-beating heart are the symptoms when this occurs. The abdominal wall becomes rigidly hard and the patient may turn blue (cyanosis). Diagnosis is often difficult, for the condition may mimic other serious abdominal emergencies. However, a blood test that gives a rise in serum amylase is often diagnostic. More recently needle biopsy is being used in the United Kingdom.
Pancreatitis Treatment
This is unsatisfactory, and due to the acute nature will usually be carried out in hospital under specialist guidance. In recent years certain drugs appear to be of value, but none is established as being useful in all cases.
Rest, intravenous fluids and pain-relieving medication are given. There is an appreciable mortality rate (about 10 per cent or more) and recurrences are likely.

Wall Painting Ideas

Paint is a popular decorative finish for walls and ceilings because it is quick and easy to apply, offers a huge range of colours and is relatively inexpensive compared with rival products such as wall coverings. It can be used over plain plaster, or can he applied over embossed relief wall coverings and textured finishes.

Before starring to paint, clear the room and prepare the surfaces. Start by taking down curtains and blinds (drapes and shades). Remove furniture to another room if possible, or else group it in the middle of the room and cover it with clear plastic sheeting. Take down lampshades and pendant light fittings (after turning off the power supply). Unscrew wall-mounted fittings and remove the hardware from doors and windows if they are being repainted at the same time.

Access equipment

Normally most of the surfaces to be painted can be reached front a standing or a kneeling position, but some access equipment is needed for ceilings, the tops of room walls and the upper reaches of stairwells. A simple stepladder, ideally with a top platform big enough to support a paint kettle or roller tray, will be adequate for painting walls and ceilings.

Coverage will be less than is achieved with subsequent coats. Similarly, textured surface will hold more paint, again reducing the paint coverage.

For stairwells, use steps or ladder sections plus secured scaffold boards or the components of a slot-together access tower to set tap a work platform that allows you to get to all the surfaces without over-reaching.


Paint wall and ceilings in a series of overlapping hands. Start painting the ceiling next to the window wall so that deflected light on the wet paint shows if coverage is even. On walls, right-handed people should work front right to left, and vice-versa.

Texture paints

Texture paints are water-based (latex) paints thickened with added filler. Once the paint has been applied to the decorating surface, a range of three-dimensional effects can be created by using various patterning or texturing techniques. These paints arc ideal for covering up surfaces in poor condition. Most are white, but they can be over painted with ordinary wall-based paint for a coloured effect, if desired. Avoid using them in kitchens — the textured surface will trap dirt and grease making it difficult to clean.

Using Texture Paint

1. Start by gradually applying the paint to the wall or ceiling in a series of overlapping random strokes, recharging the roller or brush at intervals.

2. When an area of about l sq in. is covered, go over the whole area with a series of parallel strokes for an even surface texture.

3. Give the textured finish the look of tree bark by drawing a flat-bladed scraper over the surface to flatten off high spots.

4. Use it texturing comb to create overlapping swirls, working across the area. Practise on cardholder first.

5. Twist a sponge before pulling it away front lie wall surface to create small, over-lapping swirls. Rinse the sponge regularly.

6. You can buy patterning roller sleeves in it range of different designs for use with texture paints. This one creates a regular diamond pattern.

7. This patterning sleeve gives a random streaked effect when rolled down the wall. Apply the texture paint to the roller with a brush for fusing a patterning sleeve.


Vitamins are chemicals that are important in maintaining good health therefore, deficiencies can lead to serious diseases or illnesses. Despite an increase in “megavitamin therapy” or “orthomolecular medicine” (practice of using large amounts of vitamins and mineral including supplements and IVs to treat varying conditions), many of the vitamins we need are found in nature with fruits and vegetables being the main source. For this reason, having a diet that is well-balanced guarantees an adequate daily intake of the chemicals needed because; as essential as they are, they are needed in minute doses. In fact, the measuring units used are micrograms and milligrams.

Referred to as “organic catalysts”; vitamins help to initiate numerous chemical reactions in the body and are unique in that they remain in the body even after being used. They also help with the body’s development with each having its own (sometimes multiple) function(s) and established daily allowances. The absence of even those needed in trace amounts can easily or quickly be felt by the body since they are important for bone formation, hair and nail growth, good sight, healthy teeth and gums as well as the overall growth and maintenance of the body. Energy and even emotional stability have both been linked to adequate intakes of these essential chemicals.

Vitamins were initially named using the alphabet, reflecting the order in which they were found. Overtime names were added or substituted as the numbers increased and more discoveries about the variations were made (the B complex for example).

The list of commonly know vitamins and their deficiency diseases include:

  1. Vitamin A (related to the chemical Carotene): Night-blindness and Keratomalacia
  2. Vitamin B Complex:
    • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine): Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
    • Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): Ariboflavinosis
    • Vitamin B3 (niacin): Pellagra
    • Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid): Paresthesia
    • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine): Anemia and Peripheral Neuropathy.
    • Vitamin B7 (Biotin or Vitamin H): Dermatitis and Enteritis
    • Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid): Asneural Tube and other defects if deficiency occurs during pregnancy
    • Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin): Megaloblastic Anemia
  3. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): Scurvy
  4. Vitamin D (Calciferol): Rickets and Osteomalacia
  5. Vitamin E: Mild Hemolytic Anemia in newborns (very rare)
  6. Vitamin K: Bleeding diathesis

Ninety-seven years after the first discovery, vitamins fall into two groups:

A, D and K can dissolve in fat hence are called fat-soluble vitamins while the B complex and C dissolve in water and are called water-soluble vitamins.

Vitamin deficiency is far more rampant in developing countries than it is within the developed world because the diets in each region often defer drastically with the former more likely to be lacking in daily essentials. Also, there is a higher tendency to use vitamin supplements or multivitamins within developed countries. In fact, Australia and New Zealand have established acceptable dosages of vitamin supplements for babies. Both countries have very low incidences of Rickets (Vitamin D deficiency) with most occasional cases being found in premature babies. However, some Caribbean countries have a very high rate of the disease although Vitamin D can be produced in the body with the aid of sunlight.

Storage Shelving

Wall-mounted shelving is either fixed or adjustable. With fixed shelving, each shelf is supported independently using 2 or more shelf brackets, which are fixed both to the wall and to the underside of the shelf. With adjustable shelving, the shelves are carried on brackets, studs or tongues which are slotted or clipped into vertical support strips screwed to the wall.

Shelves can he made of natural wood or manufactured boards. Ready-made shelves are usually made of veneered or plastic-coated chipboard (particleboard). The latter traditionally have either a white or imitation wood-grain finish, but pastel shades and bold colours are now more widely available. Otherwise, you can cut shelves from full-sited hoards: chipboard, plywood, (medium-density fibreboard) and blockboard are all suitable.

There are many types of adjustable shelving on the market, with uprights and brackets usually made of metal but occasionally of wood. All operate on broadly the same principle. Start by deciding on the position and spacing of the uprights; this will depend on what sort of shelf material you are using and what load it will carry. Hang the uprights on the wall, making sure that they are perfectly vertical and level with each other. Finally, clip in the brackets and fir the shelves.

You may also want adjustable shelves inside a storage unit. There are 2options. The first involves drilling a series of aligned holes in each side of the unit, then inserting small shelf-support studs. The second uses book-case strip — a metal moulding with slots into which small pegs or tongues are fitted to support the shelves. You will need 2 strips at each side of the unit.


1. Select the correct bracket spacing, and then attach the shorter arm of each bracket to the underside of the shelf, so that it is flush with the rear edge.

2. Fix the shelf to the wail with a Screw driven through one bracket, check that it is horizontal and mark the remaining screw positions. Let the shelf swing downwards 011the first screw, then drill the other holes.

3. Insert plugs for masonry wall fixings if needed. Swing the shelf hack up and drive in the remaining fixing screws. Tighten them fully so that the screw heads pull the brackets against the wall.


1. Decide where to posit ion the shelves, then fix the first upright to the wall by driving a screw through the topmost hole. Do not tighten it fully.

2. Pivot the upright until it is vertical. Mark the position of all the other fixing holes. Swing the upright aside, drill the rest of the holes and drive in the screws.

3. Use a spirit level to make a mark on the wall, level with the top of the first upright and at the required distance front it. Fix the second upright there.

4. Mark the upright positions on the rear edge of each shelf. Align the back of each bracket with the edge of the shelf and with the mark, and screw it on.

5. If the shelves are to fit flush against the wall, cut notches at the upright positions to fit around them and then attach the brackets as shown.

6. Position the shelf brackets by inserting their tongues into the slots in the uprights. The weight of the shelf will lock them in place. Adjust the shelf spacings as wished.


1. Mark the positions of the top ends of the strips to ensure that they are level, then mark the screw posit anis to a true vertical and screw on the strips.

2. Insert pairs of pegs into the strips at each shelf position, checking that their lugs are properly engaged in the slots. Lift the shelf into place.


1. Use at simple pre-drilled jig to make the holes for the shelf supports in the sides of the unit. A depth snip will prevent you from drilling too deep.

2. Drill 2 sets of holes in each side of the unit, with the top of the jig held against the top of the unit to guarantee alignment. Insert the supports.


Think of how to make best use of your new storage area. It is a good idea to make a rough sketch initially, in order to take account of factors such as the height of books or record sleeves, or the clearance that ornaments or photographs will require. Aim to keep everyday items within easy reach— in practice, between about 75 cm/2 ft 6 in and 1.5 in/5 ft above the floor. Position deep shelves near the bottom so that it is easy to see and reach the back. Allow 2.5-5 cm/l-2 in of clearance on top of the height of objects to be stored, so that they are easy to rake down and put back.

Think about weight, too. If the shelves will store heavy objects, you must choose the shelving material with care — thin shelves will sag if heavily laden unless they are well-supported. With 12 mm/1/2 in clipboard (particleboard) and ready-made veneered or melamine-faced shelves, space brackets at 45 cm/18 in for heavy loads or 60 cm/2 ft far light loads. With 20 mm/1/4 in chipboard or 12 MM/V2 in plywood, increase the spacing to60 cm/2 in and 75 cm/2 in respectively. For 20 mm/1/4 in plywood, MDF (medium-density fibreboard) or natural wood, the bracket spacing can be 75 cm/2 ft6 in for heavy loads, or 90 cm/3 ft for light ones.

Planning Your Garden

Simply moving a few plants is rarely enough to transform an uninspiring garden into something special. It is worth having a goal, a plan to work to, even if you have to compromise along the way. Bear in mind that you may be able to stagger the work and cost over several seasons, but having a well thought out design ensures the garden evolves in a structured way.

Use the checklist to clarify your needs, then decide in your own mind the style of garden you want. Make a note of mundane and practical considerations, like where to dry the clothes and put the refuse, plus objects that need to be screened, such as a compost area, or an unpleasant view.

Labour-saving tips

To minimize cost and labour, retain as many paths and areas of paving as possible, but only if they don’t compromise the design.

If you want to enlarge an area of paving, or improve its appearance, it may be possible to pave over the top and thus avoid the arduous task of removing the original.

Modifying the shape of your lawn is easier than digging it up and relaying a new one.

Garden styles

The garden styles outlined here are not exhaustive, and probably none of them will be exactly right for your own garden, but they will help you to clarify your thoughts.


Parterres and knot gardens: Shaped beds and compartments originally designed to be viewed from above. Knot herb gardens, such as ones based on intricate Elizabethan designs, can be stunning but are expensive to create, slow to establish and labour intensive.

Formal herb gardens: Easier to create than knot gardens. Seek inspiration from illustrated herb garden books -both old and new. It is easier to create one if based on a theme.

Formal rose gardens: Easy to create and can look good in first season. For year-round interest under plant with spring bulbs and edge beds with seasonal flowers.

Paved gardens: Particularly suitable for small gardens. Plant in open areas left in paving, up walls and in raised beds and containers.

Courtyard gardens: Floor tiles and white walls (to reflect light), together with some lush green foliage, an architectural’ tree or large shrub and the sound of running water will transform a backyard into a delightful courtyard garden.

A modern interpretation of an Elizabethan knot garden, with gravel and brick paving to keep weeding to a minimum

Traditional designs: A small formal garden, with rectangular lawn, straight herbaceous border plus rose and flowerbeds is a popular choice for growing a variety of summer bedding and other favourites.


Cottage gardens: The juxtaposition of old-fashioned’ plants and vegetables creates a casual but colourful look. Place brick paths or stepping stones through the beds.

Wildlife gardens: Even a tiny plot can attract small animals and insects. Planting must provide shelter and food, while a water feature will encourage aquatic wildlife.

Woodland gardens: Shrubs and small deciduous trees suit a long narrow garden and are effective for screening and dividing up the garden. Under-plant with naturalized bulbs, woodland spring flowers and ferns.

Meandering meadows: Where there is an attractive view, a sweep of grass between curved borders can merge with an unobstructed boundary. If the view is unappealing, curve the border round so that the lawn finishes beyond the point of view.

Decorative features



Borders, for herbaceous Borders, for shrubs Borders, mixed


Bright beds and borders: If plants are more important than design, use sweeping beds and borders with lots of shrubs and herbaceous plants to give shape. Use focal points such as ornaments, garden seats or birdbaths to create a strong sense of design.

Distant influences

Japanese gardens: Raked sand and grouped stones translate well to a small space, making a confined area appear larger. Plants can be kept to a minimum. Stone and gravel gardens: These materials can be used to create a dry-river bed feel. Minimal maintenance if you select drought-tolerant plants.

Functional features

Compost area


Tool shed


Children’s play area Climbing frame

Clothes drying area Dustbin (trash can) area Sandpit


In most cities and urban environments, back gardens are small and shady, but these factors need not restrict the garden’s potential, as these great splashes of colour show.

Choosing a style

The most comfortable and visually pleasing gardens are usually the result of careful planning, even those with an informal feel to them. Formal gardens appeal to those who delight in crisp, neat edges, straight lines and a sense of order. Many traditional suburban gardens are formal in outline, with rectangular lawns flanked by straight flower borders, and perhaps rectangular or circular flower beds cut into them. Such rigid designs are often dictated by the drive for the car and straight paths laid by the house builder.

The informality of the cottage garden and the ‘wilderness’ atmosphere of a wild garden are difficult to achieve in a small space, especially in a town. However, with fences well clothed with plants so that modern buildings do not intrude, an informal garden can work even here.

Professional garden designers are frequently influenced by classic styles from other countries, especially Japan, but amateurs are often nervous of trying such designs themselves. Provided you start with the clear premise that what pleases you is the only real criterion of whether something works, creating a particular foreign style can be great fun. Adapt the chosen style to suit climate, landscape and the availability of suitable plants and materials.


Before you draw up your design, make a list of requirements for your ideal garden. You will almost certainly have to abandon or defer some of them, but at least you will realize which features are most important to you.

Use this checklist of suggested features at the rough plan stage, when decisions have to be made… and it is easy to change your mind!

Herb garden

Lawn (mainly for decoration)Lawn (mainly for recreation)Ornaments

Patio/terrace Pergola


Raised beds

Summer house


Vegetable plot


The stomach and duodenum are very important parts of the gastrointestinal system. The cardiac valve at the lower end of the oesophagus leads into the stomach, a dilated part of the bowel, which leads into the duodenum via the pyloric valve. The relatively short duodenum in turn proceeds into the start of the very lengthy small bowel.

The stomach is important, for here digestion really commences. Powerful glands in the wall of the stomach pour forth a variety of fluids that act forcibly on the food as soon as it enters. Under the powerful dissecting microscope, the stomach lining has the appearance of a lattice caused by the opening of myriads of gastric glands. Near the cardiac valve, these glands produce chiefly mucus, a thick, heavy fluid, rather jellylike in nature. (This material is often seen in vomitus.)

The greater part of the stomach walls contain glands that actively secrete hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen and other chemicals. These all play a part in food digestion. Toward the far end of the stomach, the glands produce a powerful chemical called gastrin. The presence of food activates the production of gastrin, which in turn causes the other glands to secrete their gastric juices, and so aid digestion. Controlled by Nervous System But apart from this, most of the glands are under the direct action of the nervous system (the computer like mechanism we talked of earlier). This may also regulate gastric-juice production.

Most people are aware of the effect that mental tensions, anxieties and stresses have upon the stomach. Acting through the nervous system, potent gastric juices (containing all the components mentioned) may be liberated in force.

This is probably one reason why such a high incidence of ulcers attaches to occupations in which stress and mental turmoil are an everyday accompaniment. The stomach and duodenum are sites for some very important pathological processes. Peptic ulcers (that means a break in the mucosal lining) are very common, particularly in the duodenum.

Also, the stomach, being the place where all food and fluid intake must go as the first port of call, is subjected to all manner of abuses. Therefore, dietetic indiscretions (foolish food items, excesses of alcohol and other irritants, acid from cigarette smoking) frequently play a major part in producing adverse symptoms. Not only may they help to cause ulcers, but general inflammation of the lining walls (gastritis) can readily take place.

Infections also may gain entry into the intestinal system through this route. One of the system’s most lethal forms of cancer, carcinoma of the stomach, occurs here. Unfortunately, as with oesophageal cancer, symptoms appear usually when it is too late to provide an effective cure.


What is Urticaria?

Hives are localized skin reaction indicating that fluid is collecting (edema). They usually appear suddenly and arc whitish-pink in colour. They may he small or large, and single hives may coalesce with neighboring ones to form a large area of inflamed surface. (This is called “giant hives” or angioneurotic edema.)

The itch is often marked and there is a persistent desire to scratch. But this brings little satisfying relief and often produces further infection later. Sometimes itch is minimal.

The lesions vary in the time they persist. This may be from a few hours to days or even weeks.

Urticaria Causes

Generally hives are a manifestation of an allergy. A product called histamine is liberated by the cells, and this produces the swelling, irritation and itch. The factors producing this sensitivity are many.

The possible ones include:

Sensitising drugs. Practically any medication is capable of producing an allergic reaction in a susceptible person. For example pain-reducing preparations (aspirin etc), antibiotics (particularly penicillin, but others as well), sulpha drugs, antihistamines and many others. Sensitizing foods. Many foodstuffs may produce allergic skin eruptions. Some of the common offenders include wheat products, milk, eggs, pork, fish, shellfish and crustaceans, tomatoes, strawberries and chocolates.

Physical factors. Extremes of heat and cold are fairly common in producing urticarial reactions. (For example, after a hot shower, or a swim in a very cold surf or pool, eruptions can suddenly appear.) Other general factors. Chronic infections, foci of infection (such as bad teeth or tonsils), anaemias, and a similar list of “poor health” conditions have also been incriminated. They may play a part in certain people.

Urticaria Treatment

The occurrence of hives is fairly easy to diagnose, and many people have experienced them on many occasions before. Most cases are simple, and home remedies often bring prompt relief.

Local applications

Cool (or sometimes ice-cold) packs often bring soothing relief from the itch, heat and discomfort. Apply often (but discontinue if there is any worsening). Simple lotions and creams containing an antipruritic (anti-itch) product often give relief if the irritation and itch is excessive (for example, calamine liniment containing benzocaine 3 per cent and camphor 1 per cent). Many commercial products are available for this purpose (eg Dermocaine).

Antihistamine creams do not afford much relief (as would he expected). Antihistamines. In simple cases, an antihistamine tablet will often bring quick relief. The non-sedating brands arc best, for this will not cause drowsiness and will enable a good result without the risk of becoming drowsy while driving or working. Terfenadine (“Teldane”) tablets and astemizole (“Hismanal”) tablets do not induce sleepiness and are worthwhile.

However, if sleepiness is not a problem, any of the older antihistamines are suitable. Many brand names are now available over the counter.

Mild laxative

This often assists to eliminate the cause from the system, particularly if the hives appear suddenly and tend to persist. “Coloxyl” or “Colox: with Senna,” or paraffin and its various commercial products are all effective Natural products include psyllium fibre (“Metamucil” powder in water) or taking processed bran with your morning  breakfast cereal. “Durolax” an “Granacol” are also effective. Drinking plenty of fluids (especially water) is quick way of eliminating toxins from the system, or diluting them in the gut.


Many people are aware of the foods that produce symptoms. During outbreak it is wise to eliminate the foods  listed above that could cause trouble. Stick to simple foods for a few days.


Do not take any medication unless under doctor’s orders. Even if on medication, and relief is not  forth coming, it is wise to have this reevaluated by your physician. You may allergic to some of the items taken.

Further Treatment.

Simple hives often respond quickly and effectively to simple routines. If they persist, or if they become more marked, if they tend to blister or the irritation becomes annoying, further medical advice may be required. Sometimes acute widespread complications take place. Two major complications requiring immediate medical attention a – commencement of hoarseness sudden- or a harsh noise coming from the box, especially if associated with respiratory difficulty and “Anaphylactic. shock,” in which there is uneasiness a feeling of faintness, headache throbbing in the ears. This requires prompt treatment by a doctor.

Adrenaline by injection by the physician may be required and steroid therapy may also be necessary in certain cases. Further investigation is needed if the response persists.

How to Use a Paintbrush

The paintbrush is the most versatile and widely used tool for applying paint. Choose the brush size to match the surface that you are painting. For example, for painting glazing bars (muntins) on windows or narrow moldings on a door, use a slim brush or perhaps a cutting-in (sash) brush if you are painting up to an unpainted surface, such as glass, where a near edge is needed. For expansive, flat areas, select larger brush for good coverage. Get rid of any loose bristles in a new brush by flicking it vigorously across the palm of your hand before using it. Wash previously used brushes that have been stored unwrapped to remove any dust or other debris from the bristles, and leave them to dry out before using them to apply a solvent based paint.

Paint rollers are generally used to apply water based (latex) paints to large, flat areas such as walls and ceilings. Choose a sleeve with a short pile for painting plaster, a medium pile for painting embossed or textured wall coverings, or a long pile for sculpted surfaces such as those created with textured finishes (texture paints).Rollers can also be used to apply solvent based (oil) paint to flat surfaces such as flush doors, but tend to leave a distinctive ‘orange-peel’ texture rather than the smooth finish left by a brush.

There are some drawbacks with paint rollers: they cannot paint right up to internal comers or wall/ ceiling angles, so these need to be painted first with a brush or pad. They can also splash if ‘driven’ too fast, and the sleeves take a good deal of time and effort to clean thoroughly, especially if they have been used for a long period and there is dried paint in the pile.

Paint pads tend to apply less paint per coat than either a brush or a roller, so an additional coat may be needed in some circumstances, but they make it easy to apply paint smoothly and evenly with no risk of brush marks.


  1. Tie a length of string or wire across the mouth of the paint kettle. To load the brush, dip it into the paint, but only to about one third of the bristle depth. An overloaded brush will cause drips, and paint will run down the handle. Use the stung or wire to scrape excess paint from the bristles.
  2. Apply the paint to the wood in long, sweeping strokes, along the grain, until the brush begins to run dry. Load up the brush with more paint and apply it to the next area. Blend the paint using short, light strokes, again along the grain direction, so that no join is visible.
  3. Repeat this process while working your way across the whole area to be painted, always blending the edges of adjacent areas together using light brushstrokes.
  4. At edges and external corners, let the brush run off the edge to avoid a build up of paint on the corner. Repeat the process for the opposite edge.


  1. Wipe the lid to remove any dust, then prise it off with a wide lever such as the back via table knife to avoid damage to the lip. Decant the paint into a paint kettle or small bucket. This will be easier to kindle than a full container.
  2. Remove any paint skin from partly used containers. Strain the paint into the paint kettle through a piece of old stocking or tights (panty hose), or a piece of muslin (cheesecloth), to filter.


  1. Pour some paint (previously strained if from an old can) into the roller tray until the paint level just laps tip to the sloping section. Slide a sleeve on to the roller.
  2. Brush a band of paint about 5 cm/ 2 in wide into internal corners and wall/ceiling angles, around doors and windows, and above skirting (baseboards).
  3. Load the roller sleeve with paint by running it down the sloping section of the paint, then roll it tip and down the slope to remove the excess.
  4. Start applying the paint in a series of overlapping diagonal strokes to ensure complete coverage of the surface. Continue until the sleeve runs dry.
  5. Re-load the sleeve and tackle the nest section in the same way. Finish off by blending the areas together, working parallel 1’0 corners and edges.


  1. Pour sonic paint into the special applicator tray and load the pad by running it backwards and forwards over the ridged trading roller.
  2. On walls, apply the paint in a series of overlapping parallel bands. Use a small pad or a special edging pad (see step 4) to paint right up to corners or angles.
  3. Use smaller pads for painting narrow areas such as moldings on doors or ginning bars (muntins) on windows, brushing out the paint along the direction of the grain.
  4. Special edging pads are designed for painting right up to internal angles, and leave small wheels which guide the pad along the adjacent surface as you work.
  5. Some larger pads can be fitted to an extension pole to make it easier to paint ceilings and high walls. Make sure than the pad is attached securely.


Aerosol paints and varnishes are ideal for hard to decorate surfaces such as wicker work. Always follow the maker’s instructions when using them.

How to Use Fresh Ingredients

Fresh ingredients are essential to a healthy, balanced diet, and we are now encouraged to eat at least five portions of fresh fruit and vegetables a day. Vitamin C is found almost exclusively in fruit and vegetables and because it cannot be stored by the body, levels need to be topped up continually.

Fruit and vegetables are also extremely rich in fiber, particularly when eaten with the skin in tact. High-protein foods such as meat, game, poultry and eggs contain many other essential nutrients. Use frozen produce when fresh is not available; it is perfectly acceptable from a nutritional point of view.

Fresh ingredients

Fresh Fruit

Fruits are very versatile and can be enjoyed raw or cooked, on their own or as part of a recipe. They are also good sources of vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin C. A piece of fresh fruit makes a quick and easy, nutritious snack at any time of the day. Try topping whole wheat breakfast cereals with some fruit such as raspberries for a tasty and nutritious start to the day.

Fresh Vegetables

Vegetables are nutritious and are valuable sources of vitamins and minerals, some being especially rich in vitamins A, C and E. Vegetables also contain some dietary fiber and those that are particularly good sources include broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, carrots, fennel, okra, parsnips, spinach, spring greens (collard) and sweet corn. Vegetables are also very versatile and many can be eaten either raw or cooked. Add vegetables to dishes such as soups, stews, casseroles, stir-fries and salads, or simply serve them on their own, raw or lightly cooked and tossed in a little lemon juice.


Potatoes are one of the most commonly eaten vegetables in the world and are valuable in terms of nutrition. They are high in carbohydrate, low in fat and contain some Vitamin C and dietary fiber. Wash old and new potatoes thoroughly and cook them with their skins on, for example baked, boiled and roasted. The flavor will be just as delicious and you will be getting extra fiber.

Potatoes are very versatile and are used in many dishes. Mashed potatoes (with their skins left on, of course) make an ideal topping for pies and bakes. For roast potatoes use a minimum amount of oil, and if you like to make chips, leave the skins on and cut the chips thickly using a knife. With baked and mashed potatoes avoid adding high fat butter, soured cream or cheese and instead use skimmed milk, reduced fat hard cheese and herbs to add flavor.

Fresh Beans and Other Pulses

There are many varieties of fresh beans and pulses available, either fresh or canned, including peas, broad (lava)beans and runner beans, and more unusual ones such as fresh flageolet beans, black-eyed (peas) beans and butter (wax) beans. Fresh corn on the cob and sweet corn are also popular.

All are good sources of dietary fiber and contain other nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Beans and pulses are very versatile and can be used in many dishes including hot and cold salads, stir-fries, casseroles, pasta sauces, soups and curries. Some varieties, such as sugar-snap peas and mangetouts (snow peas) can be eaten either raw or lightly cooked.


Virtually a complete food and extremely versatile, eggs provide protein, iron, zinc and vitamins A, B and E.


Increasingly research points to the great benefits gained from a diet high in fish. All fish is rich in protein, B vitamins and minerals; white fish is very low in fat. Oily fish, such as sardines, mackerel, herring, tuna, trout and salmon, also provide vitamins A and D and Omega 3 fatty acids, which are believed to be beneficial in helping to prevent coronary heart disease.


A good source of quality protein, B vitamins and some iron, poultry is also low in fat, particularly if the skin is removed.

Meat and Game

Although the general health advice is to moderate your intake of red meat, thus reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet, red meat is still the best source of readily absorbed iron, zinc and B vitamins. Meat today is much leaner than it used to be, and it fits the profile for a healthy diet if it is cooked with low-fat cooking methods.


Because nutrients in fresh foods, especially valuable vitamins, deteriorate as food ages it is important to always buy the freshest and best quality available. Storing the food correctly at home will also ensure that the minimum of nutrients are lost before they are eaten. Whilst some fruit and vegetables can be kept at room temperature, they will not last for long in a hot kitchen and should be stored in a cooler environment. Quickly perishable foods such as meat, poultry, fish and dairy products should be stored in a refrigerator.
A freezer is useful for keeping many fresh foods longer term. You can buy them when they are plentiful and cheap for the freezer, using them when they become out of season or more expensive in the shops. Follow the freezer manufacturer’s instructions for storing and blanch fruit and vegetables as required.

Storing Fresh Fruits

Those fruits that can be kept at room temperature while still unripe include apricots, kiwi fruits, mangoes, nectarines, papayas, peaches, pears, pineapples and plums. Once ripe, refrigerate and eat within 2-3 days.

Fruits that can be stored at cool room temperature include apples (although they will be crisper if refrigerated), bananas, dates, grapefruit and oranges. Apples can be kept at room temperature for a few days, dates for several weeks, and grapefruit and oranges for up to a week. Unless you intend to eat them on the day of purchase, refrigerate fully ripe and perishable fresh fruits. These include berries, cherries, figs, grapes, lemons, limes, melons, pomegranates and tangerines. They can be kept refrigerated for 2-3 days.

Storing Fresh Vegetables

Like fruits, there are some vegetables that can be stored at room temperature. A dark, cool place (about 10°C/50°F) with good ventilation is ideal, however. Suitable vegetables are garlic, onions, potatoes and sweet potatoes, swede and pumpkin can be kept for about 2 months. Store tomatoes at room temperature until they are ripe, after that, refrigerate.
Perishable vegetables should be refrigerated. Some, such as peas or sweet corn, should be used quickly, while others like carrots or cabbage, can be kept for a longer period. In most cases, do not wash the vegetable until just before using. Celery, frisee, escarole, spring greens (collard), herbs, lettuce, spinach and watercress should be washed before storage.

Cold Storage

All foods kept in the refrigerator or freezer should be well wrapped or stored in sealed containers. This preserves flavor and moisture, and prevents the flavors and odors of other, stronger foods being transferred. It is essential to keep raw meat and poultry well wrapped as their drippings can transfer bacteria to other foods.

Perishable fresh foods, such as meats, poultry, fish and seafood, eggs, cheese and other dairy products, and many fruits and vegetables must be kept refrigerated at a temperature ofI-5°C/35-40°F. For longer storage, many can also be frozen at 18°C/0°F or lower. Cooked leftovers must also be refrigerated or frozen. Use a special thermometer to check temperatures; integral thermostats often give false readings over time. If temperatures are too high, food will spoil rapidly