Category Archives: Health

Fontanelle

To make birth as simple as possible, nature has been very kind. The largest part of the baby to appear (and usually the first) is the head. It is essential, of course, that the head fits through the mother’s bony pelvis.

That’s right. For this reason the bones of the head are relatively soft and quite pliable at birth. The bones forming the skull are in several segments. Later on, they will grow and finally join up (fuse). However, if the head is a tight fit at birth, the bones are able to move around, overlap and even change shape.

Seeing a newborn baby who has experienced a difficult birth is not uncommon. Frequently the head is quite misshapen. But this is temporary, and merely reflects the versatility of this part of the human body to stress. On top of the skull, where these bones come together, a fairly large hole occurs in the bone. This is referred to as the “fontanelle.”

Right again. If you feel for it, you will always discover it in a new baby. As your fingers move over the firm skull bones, they will suddenly encounter a marked lessening of resistance. The part is soft. The skin of the scalp covers the hole. Underneath this are blood spaces, and under this again is the brain.

In years gone by when baby may have required a blood transfusion, it was often done via the “fontanelle.” Do not be alarmed at feeling the fontanelle. It is perfectly normal.

How to Get Rid of a Bruise

Causes of Bruise

Bruises are caused mainly by damages to the soft tissues under the skin and tend to appear after an area on the body has been inured by a blow or forceful contact with an object. Upon contact, the blood vessels under the area that is injured break and blood starts to ooze. Cells in the area are often damaged as well. When the two occurrences combine, the area tends to darken or turn black especially within 24 hours of the incident.

This discoloration will start to change within a few days giving the appearance of a light yellowish color that will disappear in gradual stages. This gradual disappearance happens as the blood clots and debris accumulated are removed by phagocytes (unique cells found in the blood) and the appropriate enzymes. A black eye of “shiner” is probably the most readily identified bruise.

Injuries to some parts of the body can result in bruises at lower places or levels. For example, a blow to the head may manifest itself around the eye and damages to the legs can cause bruises on the feet. In cases like these, blood in the tissues chooses to gravitate downward. There are cases in which bruises may occur without forceful contact between the skin and an offending object.

Numerous small bruises caused mainly by Purpura and other hemorrhagic disorders as well as a deficiency in vitamin K may occur in some persons using drugs like cortisone (and related products). For this to happen, use of steroids must be prolonged. It is often harmless however, persons should be carefully monitored by a doctor.

Getting Rid of a Bruise

All uncomplicated bruises are treatable at home using one or a combination of analgesics, local applications and hot or cold applications/compresses. Analgesics are used to combat any pain, try Two (2) 300 mg Paracetemol after meals. Half this dosage can be administered to children 6 to 12 yrs, Elixir RM is also sufficient. Aspirin may be used except in infants since bruises can be worsened due to the aggravation of eth bleeding under the skin. A local pharmacist can further advise of this and any other pain killer.

Local applications like Fibriolytic cream can be applied to the surface of the bruise to aid the absorption of the blood being deposited by the damaged vessels. There is a plethora of commercial brands available at pharmacies and stores. Always apply these to the surface of the area, do not rub it into the skin. Most treatments are to be used daily 2 to 3 times.

Hot applications come in the form of hot packs or a towel emerged in warm (to slightly hot) water. Be sure to remove excess water and avoid burns. Cold applications are frequently cold packs or towels soak in icy water. It is now possible to find combination packs that start hot then get cold. Always end treatment with cold packs.

Most bruises and marks disappear completely after 3 to 14 days. For massive bruises or those that appear without cause, consult a medical professional.

Secondary Dysmenorrhoea

Secondary Dysmenorrhoea is a period-associated pain hardly ever occurs before the age of 30. More often it is seen in women past 35 years. As the name implies, the pain is -often secondary to some other precipitating cause. Sometimes the pain is associated with actual diseases of the pelvis.

The most notorious is a condition called endometriosis. This means that small pieces of tissue, much the same as that forming the lining of the womb have started to grow on other pelvic organs – perhaps the outside of the uterus, or the ovaries or tubes.

Often severe pelvic pain sets in two to three days before a period starts. It will persist right throughout the menstrual flow and stops only when the period itself finishes.

Sometimes there are other infections M the pelvic organs, which may be short- , term or long-term. A similar picture results. These symptoms invariably require proper medical investigation. Medication 46 is usually required, and the results of this are often very valuable. But the correct therapy can be given only after the physician. or more likely the gynaecologist, has made a full and thorough pelvic examination and has pinpointed the diagnosis. The actual treatment will depend on the diagnosis made.

Another type of secondary dysmenorrhoea is commonly called the “pelvic congestion syndrome.” This is more common in women who have a heavy menstrual flow. The pain similarly comes on a few days before the actual flow (usually two to three days). Generally, as soon as the period commences and the blood can escape. The discomfort tends to wane. Sometimes the pain may persist until the end of the menstrual flow.

Often there is a tremendous psychological overlay to this type of problem. It is more common in women who are normally tense, anxious or uptight.

Sometimes it is related to general ill health, vague aches and pains, backaches and pelvic disorders in general. Wry frequently it is associated with the next condition to be discussed, premenstrual syndrome. Often the personality types are identical. The treatment is the same as it is for premenstrual syndrome.

Dwarfism

What is Dwarfism?

Dwarfism means a child is abnormally short compared to contemporaries of the same age and racial origin.

Abnormal shortness is not always associated with a defect of the pituitary mechanism, for it may be related to many other fairly common medical ailments. For example, malnutrition could prevent normal physical development. The food eaten may not be adequately absorbed by the system, as occurs in coeliac disease and mucoviscidosis. Inadequate oxygen in congenital heart disorders or the prolonged use of cortisone like drugs in asthma may be an underlying cause. It is now known that corticosteroid drugs (cortisone like preparations) may suppress the secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary so growth is retarded in this roundabout manner.

Inadequate thyroid hormone may be the basic cause, or the growing bones may fuse prematurely if there is a premature secretion of male hormones as occurs in precocious sexual maturity. It is interesting to note that women are usually shorter than men because the menarche (when secondary sexual characteristics start to develop due to the presence of female hormones) takes place usually about two years before the male equivalent; so males have a longer period in which to grow.

Familial factors may also play a part. With the African pygmies there is an inherited lack of response to the normal levels of growth hormone, so they simply do not grow at the normal rate. Why growth hormone is not secreted in some people is not known. Some claim it may be due to birth injury during or after delivery, in which case it may later be associated with lack of other trophichormones. Sometimes it is due to an inherited familial disorder.

Dwarfism Symptoms

Depending on the cause, the reduction in growing rate may be only a minor part of the general symptoms, the symptoms due to the other basic disorders being of greater import and more noticeable.

Dwarfism as such, and due to deficiency of HGH (human growth hormone), usually becomes apparent after the age of two years. At this age, the rate of growth has already started to slow down. Often medical assistance is not sought until the age of puberty, when the parents are suddenly alarmed at the lack of sexual development that normally occurs at this time.

The patients have normal intellect and are certainly in no way grotesque. They merely have infantile skeletal proportions, and may be likened to “Tom Thumb” of storybook fame.

Abnormal shortness is sometimes, though not always, associated with a defect of the pituitary mechanism. Other factors could include inadequate nutrition, inadequate thyroid hormone, premature secretion of the male hormones, or inherited family disorders.

In neither sex does puberty occur: in boys the testes may be undescended (in itself another difficulty and one that must be quickly attended to, for it may produce its own set of problems, chiefly the risk of the undescended testes turning cancerous).

Sometimes other symptoms may dominate the picture if there is a basic defect affecting, for example, the nervous system.

Dwarfism Treatment

In children the use of human growth hormone has made a revolutionary difference to their future. Injections may be given twice a week. The outlook for many is excellent. “The prognosis in terms of stature is good when the cause of dwarfism is a systemic disease that can be cured or controlled,” Price says. However, it seems that about 25 per cent of patients treated with growth hormone may develop antibodies and become unresponsive after an initial improvement.

On the other hand, others claim that “children with growth hormone deficiency who are short and whose epiphyses have not fused, may benefit from injections of human growth hormone.” the British Medical Journal writers said not long ago.

Growth hormone was originally made from human sources. But this suddenly encountered trouble when a virus appeared to be transmitted in the material injected into the patient. Although rare, it halted its further use. However, soon after, nonhuman supplies were manufactured by DNA recombinant technology.

This is now readily available, and widely used without any fear of the previous adverse side effects.

This again is one of the major developments in the past few years. More drugs will be prepared by recombinant technology. Recombinant insulin is the other most widely used product.

Dwarfs, we are not making a trip to darkest Africa, surely? We are certainly not. But sometimes a child may be deficient in a pituitary hormone chemical called the growth hormone. This may result in the stature being much below normal and a condition referred to as “dwarfism” taking place. There may also be other symptoms of reduced development, such as in the limbs, hands, feet, genital organs. There may be bulging eyes and a high-pitched voice. A tumor is the most likely reason, although other causes may exist.

How to Stop Bedwetting

First and foremost, remember that for the vast majority of children with enuresis will eventually resolve on their own as their central nervous system matures. (Each year after the age of six, 15 percent of children who still have enuresis, spontaneously stop wetting at night.) Enuresis is not of disobedience or weakness of character. Steps can be taken to eventually reach one of two satisfactory goals: Your child holds urine through the night and then voids into the toilet or potty-chair in the morning, or your child awakens during the night when his bladder is full and voids into the toilet or potty-chair.

The following measures may help a child with enuresis:

  • Encourage fluid intake during the day and discourage drinking liquids after the evening meal or within two hours of bedtime. If your child wants a drink before bed, limit intake to one or two ounces.
  • Have your child empty his bladder just before he goes to bed.
  • Encourage your child to get up during the night to urinate. A child who feels that his only goal is to delay emptying his bladder until morning may fail repeatedly. Giving verbal cues before bed (“Try to get up and use the toilet if your bladder feels full”), leaving the light on in the bathroom, or providing a potty-chair near the bed can help. To a degree that is appropriate for his age, let him participate in the cleanup process when the pajamas and bed are wet. This should be presented not as punishment but as a matter-of-fact routine. This can include rinsing out his pajamas and underwear and taking a quick bath or shower in the morning if he smells of urine. Sheets can be left open to air dry but should be washed when they have a disagreeable odor. A dry towel placed under the child’s bottom may help reduce the amount of laundry. A school-age child who wakes up wet during the night can change his own pajamas and place a dry towel over the wet area of the sheet. (Dry pajamas and towel should be made readily available in his room.)
  • Some experts believe that specific measures can increase the functional capacity of a child’s bladder. Younger bedwetters who visit the bathroom frequently during the day can be encouraged to go less often. Children older than six or seven can be encouraged to try increasing the bladder’s capacity by a simple exercise of waiting to use the toilet for at least ten or fifteen minutes after feeling the urge to go. This should only be done if the child is a willing participant and will be most helpful with a child who has a small bladder capacity. (To check his capacity, have him hold his urine as long as he can and then void into a measuring cup. Take the best of three measurements of his bladder capacity, which in ounces should equal his age in years plus one or two.)
  • Protect the mattress with a plastic cover.
  • Offer praise and perhaps a smiley-face sticker on the calendar when he has a dry night or awakens and uses the toilet.
  • Avoid expressing dissatisfaction, dismay, or anger when he’s wet in the morning.

Baby Eye Infections

During birth, baby traverses its mother’s vaginal passage, the so-called birth canal. If there are infections present in this region, the germs may reach baby’s eyes, and set up serious infections.

In fact, it’s possible for partial or complete blindness to occur if left unchecked. Gonococcal and staphylococcal infections may occur. These are now much less common than in the past. It is to be hoped the mother may have received therapy during her pregnancy to make certain these are cleared up.

In recent times the herpes simplex virus has reared its ugly head and is causing problems in some labor wards. This may affect the eyes, as well as other parts of the system.

Baby Eye Infections Treatment

Most of these infections will be attended to if they become obvious during hospitalization. But if not, and any eye disorder occurs after you return home, please do not neglect to get prompt medical attention. This may be vital for baby’s future.

Hodgkin’s Disease

What is Hodgkins’s Disease?

This is a malignant disease of the lymphoreticular system, the regions that produce certain white blood cells. It is also known as lymphadenoma or lymphogranulomatosis.

Hodgkin’s Disease Causes

The cause is unknown, although over the past few years the medical journals have been suggesting a possible infective agent. They point out that the disease often occurs in clusters, families and groups of people living in close proximity frequently being involved. Research also indicated that doctors treating these patients run a higher-than-average risk of contracting the disease themselves. Hodgkin’s disease is more common in males, and the two ages of greatest incidence peak at 25 years and at 70 years.

Hodgkin’s Disease Symptoms

Generally the first noticeable symptom is a painless enlargement of the lymph glands in the neck. It may include those in the armpits or in the groin. There may be a mass in the abdomen as the spleen enlarges, or the liver increases in size in the upper-right side of the abdomen. X-rays may show a mass in the chest as glands there increase in size. As the glandular masses enlarge they tend to press on surrounding structures and give rise to additional symptoms through mechanical pressure.

But with the progress of time, the disease spreads and may involve almost any organ of the body. The skin may be affected, as may also the gastrointestinal system, the lungs, kidneys, but seldom the nervous system.

Strange to say, the swollen lymph glands are seldom painful, but after taking even small quantities of alcohol, they may become extremely painful. In addition to these symptoms, there may be constitutional changes. A generalized itch may occur, irregular fevers may take place. There is general lassitude, loss of weight and feeling of being unwell. Anemia and the symptoms attributed to this may also be evidenced.

All these symptoms usually indicate a poor outlook. Other infections commonly take place, as the system’s general immunity wanes. Herpes zoster (shingles) in some parts of the world is much more common in patients with Hodgkin’s. Also, tuberculosis may be a relatively common associated disease.

Diagnosis is confirmed when specimens are examined from the lymph glands, the liver or bone marrow. Special cells called Reed-Sternberg cells are a diagnostic feature.

Hodgkin’s Disease Treatment

If a diagnosis is made in the early stages, many patients may now be cured of this disease that until fairly recently was considered to be uniformly fatal. Major advances in the use of radiotherapy and in available chemotherapy have made this contribution, which now enables many patients to live many more years of useful and relatively comfortable life.

In the early stages, large doses of radiotherapy are claimed to “allow over 80 per cent of such patients to survive for five years, and if they are free of disease at that time they are almost certainly cured,” one modern textbook states.

Chemotherapy is used in two ways. It may be complementary to radiotherapy; or it may be given as the first choice, particularly if the disease is more widespread. Drugs used in the treatment of acute leukemia are also effective in Hodgkin’s disease. These include the nitrogen mustard group – mustine hydrochloride, chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide. Also used are the vinca alkaloids – vincristine and vinblastine.

It is claimed that these drugs used either singly or in combination will control the disease in most patients. It may produce remissions in 25 per cent of cases, and partial remission in a further 50 per cent.

The corticosteroids are also used in some cases, but high doses are necessary, and their beneficial effect may be short-lived. However, with various combinations of these drugs it is estimated that 90 per cent of patients derive benefits, and 80 per cent will return completely back to normal.

Treatment differences will take place in various centers. A routine referred to as MOPP is popular in Britain. As time passes, it is inevitable that better methods will be devised, more competent combinations will be worked out, and the outlook for the patient with Hodgkin’s – considered to be hopeless a short time ago – will improve further with the progress of medical knowledge.

Phenylketonuria

This disease interestingly, occurs in babies as an inherited genetic defect. It prevents the production of a special body hormone called phenylalanine hydroxylase, which in turn makes it impossible for chemicals in certain foods to be dealt with in the body. So they accumulate, and unless treated may cause severe mental retardation.

It seems more likely in blue-eyed blond babies. They may seem normal at birth, but soon after develop vomiting, restlessness and irritability, a peculiar smell, skin rashes and an odd behavior. Sometimes convulsions take place. Mental retardation will occur and intelligence suffers as the child becomes older. Many become hyperactive and their behavior may be erratic. Excessive sweating is also common.

Ideally they are treated from birth with foods that do not contain the chemical phenylalanine. This usually means a restricted diet, especially with milk, or synthetic forms may be used that do not contain the chemical that causes the trouble, and which cannot be dealt with by the system because of the deficiency. This routine may be continued for quite a few years. It is yet undecided at what age it can be discontinued, if ever. Some say a minimum of five years is essential. Others believe it may require care for the rest of life.

A great deal of progress has been made in diagnosis in recent years. It is now a routine for all Australian hospitals to check every baby by performing a blood test at birth. If present, it can be picked up rapidly, and immediate steps taken for correct dietary therapy.

Do many infants suffer from the disorder? Some textbooks claim the figure is about 1 in every 15,000, boys and girls being equally affected. Of the first 2.5 million babies screened in Australia, 222 positives were detected, which means about one case in every 11,000 born. In a recent year, eighteen cases were detected. Screening has made an enormous difference to detecting these cases and is a very worthwhile check. The amount of worry and money saved is almost incalculable.

Hearing Impaired Devices

Hearing aids are now widely used and can offer considerable assistance to many with hearing defects. With continued improvement in electronics, better, more efficient and smaller models are constantly being produced. The older “body-level” devices are rapidly giving way to the more sophisticated aids that arc worn at ear level.

There are two main kinds of devices, an air-conduction aid and a bone conduction aid. The unit consists of a microphone, amplifier and receiver.

Older models had the microphone, amplifier and batteries on a cord around the neck and located in front of the chest, with a wire leading to the receiver in the ear. With current models, the total equipment is incorporated into one structure.

Nearly all patients do better with an air-conduction device. Bone conduction depends on the receiver being pressed against the mastoid bone behind the ear and kept in position by a spring band. Vibrations are transmitted via the bone.

Ear-level devices seem more suitable for youngsters and schoolchildren, for they largely remove the noise generated by rubbing clothing, and sound is received at its normal site. With the methods by which they may be concealed, embarrassment may also be largely overcome, a substantial consideration for schoolchildren.

It is essential that the patient be permitted to have an adequate trial with the device under all normal conditions (at home, at work etc) before being committed to a final purchase.

Cochlear Implants

In recent years considerable progress is being made with cochlear implants, used mainly for the profoundly deaf. They are small electronic devices surgically inserted into the ear region. At present they certainly do not allow clear discrimination of words without visual clues, but are helpful in distinguishing environmental sounds and warning signals, all vital to personal safety. They help the deaf to modulate their own sounds, so making their noises more intelligible to those around them. With more research, better definition may be possible. It is much better than total silence.

Signing

In profoundly deaf children, when hearing devices are not assisting. and they are not candidates for cochlear implants, signing is often successful. This means talking with fingers, hands and using other methods of “signing.” Thousands of words and phrases are quickly learnt, and communication is quick and successful. This is taught at special schools, usually commencing at an early age. Hearing brothers or sisters usually learn the skill, and even at an early age can communicate proficiently with the deaf child. It is amazing to see the alacrity and understanding that occurs. Laughing, crying, happiness, sadness are emotional traits that occur normally in the deaf as with anyone else.

Premenstrual Syndrome

At least 50 per cent of women (probably more) are affected at some stage or other with an unpleasant condition called premenstrual syndrome (or PMS for short). This can vary from vague symptoms that produce little disturbance, to a set of extremely uncomfortable symptoms. It is often referred to as dis-ease, rather than a disease. A great range of symptoms can take place. These can be consistently the same, or they may vary from month to month. Usually they are a manifestation of the production of the hormone progesterone during the latter part of the menstrual cycle. The nearer the time comes for the menstrual flow, the more noticeable the symptoms usually become.

Irritability, crankiness and an unnaturally bad-temper are the most common symptoms. Many women who are normally loyal, loving, dedicated wives suddenly become bad tempered and spiteful, hating themselves and their partners, as well as anyone else within range. The degree can vary from very mild symptoms to those that provoke considerable personal distress and frequent marital disharmony. Indeed, this single symptom has often been blamed for marital break-ups, so it is a very important one.

Lethargy and constipation are common about this time. Other patients develop dark shadows under the eyes, and facial pimples frequently appear. The increased hormone levels make the little fat-producing skin glands of the face jam up with overproduction, to add to the victim’s misery. Others often complain of fullness in the abdomen and pelvic pressure. Frequently the breasts tend to swell, becoming tender and uncomfortable.

Sometimes actual lumps seem to occur in the breast tissue. This is associated with a sudden weight gain, which may be quite excessive. These are symptoms of fluid retention. When fluid is retained in the tissue cells, the discomfort gradually becomes increasingly prominent. Fortunately, with the onset of the menstrual flow, there is an abundant fluid loss, and many of these symptoms tend to vanish automatically. However, with discomfort and emotional and physical distress gradually escalating over a seven to ten day period, many women are acutely aware of their dilemma and seek a way out.

Premenstrual Syndrome Treatment

Today, treatment for premenstrual syndrome is good. It should be undertaken under proper medical supervision. Once commenced, sticking to the recommended routine will quickly and successfully bring relief to the majority of women. Modern therapy revolves around the following systems:

The Diuretics

These have come into great prominence during the past few years, and bring untold relief to large numbers of PMS victims. They are also known as fluid pills. Their chief function is to greatly increase the urinary output of the system, usually within hours of being taken.

Many different brands are commercially available, all requiring a doctor’s prescription. A common dose is one or two diuretic tablets daily for seven to 10 days before the expected onset of menstruation. This can be easily worked out on a calendar by most reasonably regular women. The thiazide diuretics or the quicker-acting and more potent drug frusemide is often prescribed. Often heavy diuresis ( where large amounts of urine are passed) follows. When taking these tablets, due consideration of one’s social obligations, outings etc, is suggested, to avoid embarrassment and being “caught unprepared”.

Analgesics

Sometimes an analgesic (as set out under the subheading “pain-killers” in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea) is effective if aches and pains and headaches are a feature.

The Pill

Anything that will reduce the production of the hormone progesterone will tend to improve the picture. That is why the contraceptive pill is so successful for this problem in many women. Although in some it may accentuate headaches, depression and nervous tension, in the main it does not do this. Many women in this age segment take the pill for purely contraceptive reasons. Therefore, they reap an additional bonus benefit. By inhibiting ovulation, pregnancy is impossible, but progesterone production is stopped, and the unpleasant syndrome of PMS is abolished.

Sedation

Some doctors find their patients respond well to mild sedation. Today, this comes in the form of the benzodiazepene derivatives, such as diazepam. For practical purposes, barbiturates are no longer prescribed and are best left alone. Any type of sedative should be taken only under recommendations from your doctor. Under no circumstances should anyone resort to illicit drug taking, even excessive use of analgesics! This could only breed even greater, long-term problems. Neither is it worth resorting to alcohol to soothe the nerves and make you feel better. By endeavouring to subdue one set of symptoms, an even greater number could loom and rapidly increase. The number of cupboard- drinking women with PMS is astonishing. Do not add to their unhappy numbers, for this is no cure.

Natural Remedies

In recent years many doctors believe that nutritional deficiencies may play a vital part in PMS. Therefore they often recommend an increased daily intake of pyridoxine (vitamin B), plus minerals such as zinc, magnesium and others, probably in combination with natural diuretics. A popular remedy in the early part of this century was the use of hot and cold baths. The patient sat in a tub of hot water, immersing the buttocks, lower part of the back and thighs. (This brought fresh blood to the muscles and pelvic region.) After 3 – 4 minutes, she then sat in a similar tub of cold water for 1 minute, then back to the hot. This was carried out 2 – 3 times a day for 10 – 15 minutes. It improved the circulation, and often brought relief without the need for medication. It is still very useful, taken for 10 days before a period is due, the results are often remarkable.

Oil of evening primrose capsules are claimed to help some women. No prescription is required. They may be taken regularly, or commenced midway between periods. Three capsules are taken twice a day. A variety of herbal products have proliferated in recent years. Some doctors claim natural laxatives help. Some believe a high-fibre diet assists, and it certainly may by increasing fluid output.

Some claim that large doses of progesterone each month, given artificially as a tablet, assists, even though others believe this hormone is one of the major causes. There are probably many “cures,” and not just one. In time, we may have the full answer. Right now, it is a case of trying the known remedies that appear to offer relief. Incidentally, more exercise never does anybody any harm.

Think Positively

As with any emotionally charged situation, thinking positively and thinking thoughts of success always assists. It may not entirely cure the situation, but it will certainly improve the situation. By making a determined effort to overcome apparent (real or imagined, and it is often hard to tell the difference at the time) problems, the mind sets to work on an avenue in your favour. Give it a trial. The wonders of a positive mental attitude have to be experienced to be actually realised. Think positively and assistance will certainly come your way.

Menstruation Is Normal

Get the idea permanently removed from your psyche that period time is something abnormal. Menstruation is a very normal occurrence. There is nothing sinister, fearful or depraved about your menses. There is no need to limit normal activities at this time unless you so desire. Even intercourse is not contraindicated, unless both partners prefer to abstain for aesthetic reasons.

However, in ancient Bible times the Levitical code prohibited intercourse at such times. Medically, it is perfectly safe and entirely harmless. At period time, use whatever type of sanitary protection you desire. All are suitable, and can be varied according to your personal tastes. External napkins or internal tampons are equally suitable. In other words, live normally. One gynaecologist of world renown recently summed it up this way:

“The few days before menstruation and the time of menstruation itself are times when an increased sexual urge is felt by many women. Intercourse during menstruation may be un-aesthetic, but it is not medically dangerous, and patients who seek advice can be reassured that there is no medical reason to avoid intercourse at this time.”

The closer a couple lives to normality the better. In these days of the emancipated woman, everything is going for her. Gone are the bad old days when a woman’s problems were not to be listened to, let alone to be acted upon. Comfort and freedom from distress both mental and physical are right on hand. But she must take the first step in the direction of seeking assistance. Sensible women are now quick to detect any abnormality, and to take full advantage of the remarkable aids that modern medicine currently offers. If this is your problem, why not seek professional assistance from your family doctor or gynaecologist this week: You could be so glad you did!