Category Archives: Health

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Vitamin B12 Deficiency


Sometimes in patients who have undergone removal of the stomach (most probably from severe peptic ulceration) a similar situation can occur. However, as the liver can store vitamin B12 with amounts that may last up to five years, it may be several years after surgery that the symptoms will commence. In other patients who have…
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Gastrointestinal Infections Gastrointestinal Infections


What are Gastrointestinal Infections? Infections of the gastrointestinal system producing frequent, watery or loose bowel actions, with or without nausea and vomiting, are very common, particularly in summer. Many of these have now been found to be due to viral infections of the gut system. Many are probably due to eating infected food, particularly milk…
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Congenital Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis Congenital Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis


What is Congenital Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis? This is an important cause of vomiting, but it occurs in infants, usually in the two-week to two-month age bracket. The essential lesion is overdevelopment of the pyloric valve, so producing an effective obstruction to food passing from the stomach into the duodenum. It has nothing to do with…
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Hepatitis Hepatitis


Hepatitis inflammation of the liver is nearly always caused by a viral infection. (Inflammation of the liver caused by drugs or toxic substances may also be called hepatitis, but most commonly the term indicates an infectious origin.) Depending upon the type of virus involved and the individual’s response to it, the inflammation may go undetected…
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Febrile Seizures Febrile Seizures


Febrile seizures are a type of generalized seizure precipitated by a fever. (Because there is a specific reason for febrile seizures, they are not considered a form of epilepsy.) They are estimated to occur in 2 to 5 percent of children between the ages of four months and five years. The majority take place between…
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Poliomyelitis Poliomyelitis


What is Poliomyelitis? Poliomyelitis is a severe nervous system disease that was once responsible for an astonishing number of deaths and an even greater number of cases of paralysis, is now seen much less frequently. In fact, with the wide use of Sabin vaccine in infancy, it is now rare to see it at all,…
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Agranulocytosis Agranulocytosis


In this condition, some white blood cells are partially or entirely removed from the blood circulation. This is extremely important, for these cells, called phagocytes, are vital to protecting the body against invading organisms. They simply devour invading germs and destroy them. When the numbers of these cells (leucocytes) are reduced, the condition is called…
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Electrocution Electrocution


Electrocution may present as a vital emergency, for as long as the victim is in contact with the electrical current, the heart is being damaged, and this may be irreversible. The main danger for first aiders is in disconnecting the power and making certain that they, too, are not electrocuted. Burns are usually small, oval,…
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Otosclerosis Otosclerosis


What is Otosclerosis? This is a progressive disease that often commences in early adult life, particularly in females, producing advancing deafness, accompanied by tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and occasionally giddiness. There is a tendency, apparently, for this problem to run in families, transmitted by the female to her daughters. The condition may proceed to…
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HIV HIV


The immune system is a wondrously complex and efficient mechanism that continuously defends us from a formidable number of microscopic enemies. Most of its functions are carried out silently as would be invaders are identified and destroyed before they multiply enough to cause any symptoms. Even when defenses are temporarily overcome, in the vast majority…
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Glue Ear Glue Ear


Glue ear occurs in children and seems to be increasing in frequency. It may follow on Endolymph fluid Vestibular nerve Hairs Gelatinous mass (capula) Eustachian tube from an incompletely cured otitis media infection when insufficient antibiotics are given or taken for an inadequate period of time to completely cure the infection. Thin, serous (watery) fluid…
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Bilirubin Bilirubin


Bilirubin is a by-product of the breakdown of red bloods which normally circulate in the bloodstream for about four months until they literally wear out. ‘The liver processes and excretes bilirubin. If the liver is diseased, in hepatitis, or immature, as in newborns, the level of bilirubin in the bloodstream may become high enough to…
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Glandular Fever Glandular Fever


What is Glandular Fever? This is a disorder that commonly attacks adolescents, particularly girls in the 15-25 year age group. It is caused by a virus called the Epstein-Barr virus (EB virus for short), and can produce debilitating symptoms that may persist for weeks or even months. A sore throat and swollen glands under the…
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Sebaceous Cysts Sebaceous Cysts


What are Sebaceous Cysts? Sebaceous cysts swellings commonly occur on the skin can be simple sebaceous cysts. They vary in size, and are often small, like a grain of rice or sago. But they may grow and develop into large masses several centimetres in diameter. Generally the skin covering them is unaltered unless infection occurs….
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Esophageal Cancer Esophageal Cancer


The esophagus is a tube about 25 cm in length connecting the pharynx with the stomach. When a bolos (i.e. small ball) of masticated food is swallowed, it gently slides down the tube, assisted by mild waves called peristalsis. At the far end, a valve called the cardiac valve opens to allow this to pass…
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Hiccup Hiccup


This usually benign, uncomfortable phenomenon generally passes of its own accord with no treatment. It is due to rhythmical contraction of the diaphragm (the large muscle dividing the chest from the abdominal cavity), due to stimulation of the phrenic nerve. If prolonged, it may produce considerable discomfort. Often anxieties and a psychogenic overlay may produce…
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