Category Archives: Pet Care

Dog Worming

The four main categories of worms that affect the intestinal tract are hookworm, roundworm, tapeworm and whipworm. In the tropical climates heartworm is also a problem (it lives in the right ventricle of the heart).
Breeding bitches should be wormed three or four times a year, including a treatment midway through pregnancy, with a safe worming preparation that covers roundworm, whipworm, hookworm and tapeworm. Vaccinations against distemper and hepatitis midway through the pre 2 nancy will give the pups a healthy, passive immunity which will last the:: to the age of six to nine weeks. The antibodies developed against the vaccination will be passed to the young pups in the colostrum in the first twenty-four to thirty-six hours of suckling.
Pregnant dogs should be wormed at three and six weeks Puppies at three weeks and each two weeks until 12 weeks of age and then three times per year for life. Always dispose of dog farces Keep dogs well groomed and flea free. Wash hands after handling animals. Avoid contact with dogs feces. Don’t foul public places.


Hookworms are 10-20 millimeters in length, and the adult forms are found firmly attached to the lining of the gut. Surveys indicate that in many canine populations the incidence is about 35 per cent.
The life cycle of hookworms is direct—there is no intermediate host, although transport hosts (for example, mice) can play a part in the worm’s transmission.
Female hookworms are prolific egg producers, averaging an output of 10 000 to 30 000 eggs per female per day. A heavily infected puppy can pass Hookworms Hookworms are 10-20 millimeters in length, and the adult forms are found firmly attached to the lining of the gut. Surveys indicate that in many canine populations the incidence is about 35 per cent.
The life cycle of hookworms is direct—there is no intermediate host, although transport hosts (for example, mice) can play a part in the worm’s transmission.
Female hookworms are prolific egg producers, averaging an output of 10 000 to 30 000 eggs per female per day. A heavily infected puppy can pass consideration should be given to early weaning and worming treatment of puppies, together with housing of the dogs on suspended wire floors. It is possible that a vaccination against hookworm will be produced in the foreseeable future.


Heartworm affects dogs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. As the name implies, heartworms live in the chambers of the heart, and feed on the blood. The worms are thin and 12-30 centimeters in length. The number of worms that occupy an infected dog’s heart may vary from a single worm to more than a hundred. In small numbers the presence of the worms may have little effect, but as the number of worms increases, so does the mechanical effect on the heart. Gradually the heart becomes less efficient until the dog begins to show the symptoms of chronic heart failure, namely coughing, low exercise tolerance and fluid accumulation resulting in a swollen abdomen. Severe heartworm infection may result in death.
The heartworm is transmitted by mosquitoes. The adult worms in the heart of an infected dog produce larval stages called microfilaria which circulate in the blood and are picked up by biting mosquitoes. The microfilaria go through another stage of development in the mosquito and can be transmitted to another dog that is bitten by the infected mosquito. In the newly infected dog the microfilaria go through more stages of development, becoming adult worms in the heart about six or seven months later. The adult worms then repeat the cycle. Heartworm is not considered a human health hazard. Other animals, including cats, have been reported with heartworm infections, but this is extremely rare.
In most cases heartworm can be diagnosed by a simple blood test. In more complex cases, further examination by X-rays, electrocardiograms or additional blood tests may be necessary. Because heartworm produces specific symptoms of chronic heart failure and congestion, the veterinarian who sees a dog with the symptoms of heart disease will consider heartworm as a possible cause and carry out the necessary tests. Dogs that live in heartworm areas should be checked regularly, even if they are not showing signs of heartworm disease, to ensure they are not in the early stages of infection. A single blood test or two tests at a short interval will usually indicate the presence of adult heartworms

Heartworm Treatment

Infected dogs are usually hospitalized for treatment. Drugs are then administers: which kill the adult heartworms. The break-up and dislodgement of worm segments can cause side-effects necessitating urgent veterinary attention. The course of treatment may be dangerous depending on the number of worms.

Heartworm Prevention

  • Control mosquitoes by preventing their access to their still water breedir.J. grounds. Rain water tanks, buckets and stagnant ponds should be coverec. or drained.
  • Administration of heartworm preventative medication. (H.P.M.)
  • Puppies should commence H.P.M. as soon as they commence solids. They can start without a prior blood test.
  • Dogs over six months require a blood test confirming they are negative prior to commencing H.P.M.
  • Dogs entering a heartworm area for holidays etc. should commence H.P.M. 4 weeks before and continue 8 weeks after.
  • H.P.M. can be given as a syrup, tablets or chewables. Scientists are working on a vaccine. Currently, depending on the drug chosen, H.P.M. can be given either daily or monthly. Because heartworm can be so dangerous to your pet it is best to consult with your veterinarian.


Whipworms, 4-7 millimeters long, get their name because the first part of their body is long and slender and the back part is short and thick. In many city dog populations there is an incidence of approximately 15 per cent. Whipworms are particularly common in areas with a heavy concentration of dogs.
The worms have a simple life cycle with no intermediate host. Diarrhea, often associated with abdominal pain and dehydration, may indicate the presence of whipworms. The diarrhea is characteristically dark and foul-smelling. Sometimes there are signs of central nervous excitation. In heavy infections, fresh blood may be seen in the farces and there may be generalized jaundice associated with anaemia. Positive diagnosis is made on finding whipworm eggs in the farces under the microscope.
The most important factor in the control of whipworm is the remarkable longevity of the eggs. They remain viable within a wide temperature range and thus an important source of reinfection for up to five years. This means that even dogs with light whipworm infections held in confined spaces such as kennels or training areas will seed the area with eggs that will be a continual source of reinfection. It may therefore be necessary to treat such dogs every ten weeks for a year or more before the residual source of eggs is exhausted.


There are many species of tapeworm, but the one most commonly seen by pet owners is the flea tapeworm. The most important tapeworm to avoid in terms of human health is the hydatid.


The occurrence of this tapeworm in dogs is widespread in rural areas in many countries.
The adult hydatid worm lives in the intestine of the dog. The eggs are passed in the dog’s farces Intermediate hosts include a wide range of animals, sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, kangaroos, wallabies, and human beings—but sheep are by far the most important. In some countries, the domestic dog/sheep life cycle ensures the survival and transmission of the parasite. The eggs, when ingested by an intermediate host, pass to the small intestine and hatch to release a small cyst. The cysts penetrate the tissues of the small intestine, enter the blood vessels and are carried to the liver. Some pass through the liver to the lungs and central nervous system.
Human infection occurs only from the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs of the hydatid tapeworm which are passed by the dog in its farces The worm itself is of little significance to the dog. However, the intermediate or cystic stage is important, firstly in relation to sheep and the economic loss associated with condemnation of hydatidinfected livers at slaughter, and secondly as a cause of hydatid disease in human beings.
The eggs of the hydatid tapeworm can be seen in the farces under the microscope.
To control hydatids all canine infections need to be eradicated. Prevent reinfection of dogs by adequately disposing of infected offal and sheep carcasses. Control strays and free-roaming farm dogs.
The flea tapeworm surveys indicate that up to 65 per cent of dogs in city areas may be affected with the flea tapeworm. Segments of the tapeworm are passed in the farces or may leave the dog spontaneously. They move actively on the dog’s anal area or on the ground and bedding, disseminating egg capsules which are swallowed by the maggot-like flea larva. When the flea larvae mature into adult fleas, dogs become infected by ingesting them while scratching and biting themselves.
The flea tapeworm is of little significance in dogs, except that it causes itchiness around the anal area; to relieve this the dog will scoot (rub its anal area on the ground). Anal itchiness with scooting and rubbing is common.
Segments of the tapeworm are often seen on the surface of the farces They are about 1 centimeter long, flat, pinkish-grey in color and active.
Unless preventive measures are taken dogs will rapidly become reinfected and may passing large numbers of segments in their farces within weeks of treatment. The tapeworm has an indirect life cycle involving fleas and lice as intermediate hosts, and this complicates prevention. Unless fleas are controlled, -_-infection can occur rapidly and repeatedly. Children may become infected ..-py the accidental ingestion of fleas; and the habit of picking fleas from dogs and crushing them between the fingernails is most unhygienic.


Surveys indicate that 40-50 per cent of most dog populations are affected by round worm. Infection may be by one of five routes: Direct infection, when a puppy eats the eggs directly from fecal matter. Within one month adult female worms will be present in the dog’s body although eggs may not be present in the dog’s farces for six to eight weeks. The eggs hatch in the intestine, releasing small larval stages of the roundworm which migrate to the liver within two days. The larval stages also migrate to the lungs and are coughed up and reswallowed into the intestinal tract. During this phase they may go to the uterus of a female dog and, if the bitch is pregnant, infect her unborn puppies.
Intrauterine infection—which occurs when female dogs older than one to three months eat infective eggs and the larval stages become arrested in the bitch’s uterine tissues. If the bitch becomes pregnant, the larval stage is mobilized during the last fourteen days of the pregnancy and migrates through the placenta to the developing fetus, thus initiating an intrauterine roundworm infestation. Infected puppies have larval stages in their lungs when they are born. Eggs of the roundworm can thus appear in the farces of puppies as early as three weeks after birth, and the production of these eggs from the mature female roundworms in the intestinal tract increases up to six months. Not all the dormant larvae in the uterus may be mobilized at the first pregnancy after infection. Some larvae may still be available for fetal infection in subsequent pregnancies.
Roundworms are the most common worm found in a dog. The transmammary infection takes place when roundworm in the larva stages are transmitted through the milk of the bitch. Post parturient infections in bitches—these are caused either by the resumption of the development of dormant roundworm larval stages, or by the ingestion by the bitch of larval stages shed by her prenatally infected pups. During the suckling period the bitch ingests most of her puppies’ feces and any eggs therein have not had time to reach the infective stage; the eggs therefore pass through the bitch and are disseminated in her feces. After period in the environment they reach the infective stage, and then when eaten they complete their life cycle.
Infections through hosts may occur when dogs eat the carcasses of rodents and other animals containing larval stages of the roundworm. The principal symptoms associated with roundworm infection are: coughing, nasal discharge, frequent vomiting (especially after meals), stuntec: growth, intermittent diarrhea, failure to eat, distended and painful stomach, and sometimes convulsions. If the condition is severe, puppies may die within twelve hours to a few days after birth. Postmortem examination of the puppies will confirm the diagnosis. In older animals the diagnosis is made by the fecal flotation test.
The most important aspect of roundworm treatment is to control and limit the effects of prenatal infections in young puppies. Puppies should receive two worming treatments during the first three weeks of life, ideally at two weeks and three weeks. Subsequently, between four and twelve weeks of age, puppies should have fortnightly treatments to ensure complete removal of the infection, because the worming preparations currently available are not completely effective against migrating larval stages.
In addition, puppies less than one or two months old are highly susceptible to direct infestation by roundworm eggs from infected bitches or previously contaminated kennel environments. Puppies may acquire infection from larval stages which are known to be transmitted in the milk of infected bitches. The puppies should be examined at four and eight weeks after birth to ensure freedom from roundworm eggs. It is important to realize that as bitches can become temporarily reinfected in the suckling period and so become a potential source of infection for the puppies, they also should be treated when the pups are three and four weeks old. This treatment of the bitch will not prevent later intrauterine infection. The bitch’s farces should be collected and burnt daily throughout the suckling period.
Eggs of the roundworm may be found on the coats of both bitches and pups, so children should be discouraged from handling the animals during the suckling period—if possible, puppies should be reared in an enclosure until weaning.
The female roundworm produces an enormous number of eggs which unfortunately are highly resistant to the environment and can survive and remain infective for years. The complexity of the roundworm life cycle makes control difficult. The particular susceptibility of young dogs to roundworm means that they are the most important sources of infection for other animals and for human beings. The bitch has an especially important role as a reservoir of infection for successive generations of dogs.

Flea Tape Worm

Surveys indicate that up to 65 per cent of dogs in city areas may be affected with the flea tapeworm. Segments of the tapeworm are passed in the farces or may leave the dog spontaneously. They move actively on the dog’s anal area or on the ground and bedding, disseminating egg capsules which are swallowed by the maggot-like flea larva. When the flea larvae mature into adult fleas, dogs become infected by ingesting them while scratching and biting themselves.
The flea tapeworm is of little significance in dogs, except that it causes itchiness around the anal area; to relieve this the dog will scoot (rub its anal area on the ground). Anal itchiness with scooting and rubbing is common.
Segments of the tapeworm are often seen on the surface of the farces They are about 1 centimeter long, flat, pinkish-grey in color and active.
Unless preventive measures are taken dogs will rapidly become reinfected and may passing large numbers of segments in their farces within weeks of treatment. The tapeworm has an indirect life cycle involving fleas and lice as intermediate hosts, and this complicates prevention. Unless fleas are controlled infection can occur rapidly and repeatedly. Children may become infected puppy the accidental ingestion of fleas; and the habit of picking fleas from dogs and crushing them between the fingernails is most unhygienic.

Horse Worming

Horses are host to a number of internal parasites or worms. Many owners erroneously think that if a horse is fat and performs well there is no need to treat it for worms. Even in small numbers, some worms can cause severe and permanent damage to the internal organs of the horse, particularly young horses and aged horses. A regular preventative worming program is essential.
Worms have adapted to survive and spread rapidly in horse populations. They do not multiply within a horse’s body, but through eggs passed in manure. These eggs are passed in huge numbers and contaminate the horse surroundings, Because horses graze close to the ground they are prone to rapid re-infestation in short pastures. Under damp conditions worm eggs and larvae can survive for extended periods on pastures and stable bedding. Immature developing stages of the worm cause severe damage to internal organs of the horse’s body. Unfortunately, these immature migrating stages are not affected by worming compounds. As young horses have, little resistance to worms, they are prone to heavy infestation during developmental period. The state of pregnancy in mares allows resting.
Because of the mature stages of the worm to activate, thus ensuring that the foal is guaranteed early worm infestation. Some worm species have built up resistant against certain worming compounds. Those that survive the treatments rapidly pass resistance to new generations. As a result, worms may persist although regular worming has been carried out, making it necessary to change worming compounds regularly.

How to Diagnose a Wormy Horse

Most horses have worms, but it is normally a question of how many and what type. A combination of clinical signs, combined with a check for eggs in the manure, is the most practical method of diagnosis. Sometimes clinical signs of worm infestation may not be obvious, and a dramatic response to worming might be the only indication that worms were present. The general symptoms indicating the presence of worms are failure to thrive, poor appetite, poor condition, rough coat, reduced performance, lack of stamina, pale gums, anaemia, poor recovery from work, impaired digest bouts of colic or constipation, lack of vigor, pot-bellied appearance, poor growth rates, diarrhea, coughing, nervousness, persistent scours diarrhea) in foals, without a rise in temperature (and not associated with heat in mares), tail rubbing, skin irritation or discharge from the eyes
Manure examination is the best way to diagnose which worm is pres.= and to what extent it is causing the problem. Collect a fresh sample of warm droppings. One ball of manure is required. If there is diarrhea. Collect about 20 milliliters (3 tablespoons).
Place the sample in a small glass or other container, label it with the name of the horse, date of collect date of last worming, and the wormer used. Store it in a refrigerator and take it to your vet as soon as possible. If long-distance travel is involved, cool de sample in ice. Under refrigerated conditions worm eggs will delay hatching for seventy-two hours. Samples of diarrhea, however, must be examined within twenty-four hours. Results from manure worm egg counts will enable your vet to give you the best advice on the methods of treating and controlling worm infestation in your horse.

Horse Worming Schedule

  • Worm pregnant mares every three weeks until a month before foaling.
  • Do not use organophosphates in late pregnancy.
  • Worm lactating mares every four weeks until foals are weaned.
  • Worm foals when they are two weeks old, again at eight weeks, and then every six weeks until weaning.
  • Worm foals every eight weeks from weaning onwards.
  • Worm adult horses every four weeks while the worm burden is present, and extend the period to eight weeks once control has been achieved.
  • All horses over the age of six months should be wormed every eight weeks.
  • Change the type of wormer every six to twelve months.
  • Worm all horses in a group at the same time.
  • All new horses, introduced horses (including foals over six weeks of age), and horses returning from agistment should be wormed on arrival.
  • Oral pastes are just as effective as drenches by stomach-tube, provided the horse gets the full dose.
  • If a resistance problem develops, the vet may need to make up a special mixture, unavailable as a commercial paste—and this will need to be given by stomach-tube.

Worming Compounds

Most modern worming compounds are very efficient in removing ac: worms. They are formulated into injections, suspensions, powders, granule. pastes and pellets.
Worming preparations come and go according to their effica:. against the different species and the build-up of resistance. It is advisable to check with your veterinarian as to which product should be used currently

How to Give a Worm Paste

Slide your flattened left hand into the left side of the horse’s mouth where there are no teeth.
Take hold of the tongue with your whole fist and turn the tongue back on itself—so that your clenched fist with tongue inside is forcing the jaws apart.
Pull the tongue out of the left side of the mouth through the toothless area as far as possible.
Holding the paste in your right hand, enter it via the right side of the mouth and deposit the contents as far back on the tongue as possible.
Then let the tongue go, and elevate the horse’s chin until the paste has been swallowed.


Pinworms come in two sizes, male and female being greatly differentiated. The male pinworm is 1 centimeter long and the female 12 centimeters. The female migrates to the anus of the horse where she deposits her eggs, up to 60000 at a time, around the area under the tail in a mass of yellowish sticky jelly. After laying the eggs she dies. This process causes the horse to be intensely itchy in the tail area and is responsible for tail-rubbing. The intense rubbing causes eggs to fall off on to the ground or into feed utensils and water troughs, so that the horse re-contaminates itself.
Typical signs of pinworm infestation Heavy infestation of adult pinworms causes a loss of condition or general ill-health, mild diarrhea, and excessive rubbing of hindquarters to relieve the itchiness caused by the eggs. Infected horses continuously rub their tail on fences, posts, trees and feed bins, not only pushing over fences and stretching wires, but also denuding the base of the tail of hair.
Horses that spend a lot of time trying to relieve the irritation may not feed. Pinworms are effectively eradicated by most worming treatments (described later). In addition mercurial ointments can be deposited inside the anus to kill the adults.


Tapeworms are not very common in horses. Adult horses are not affected, though young foals can become infested when grazing contaminated pastures. This can lead to poor growth, diarrhea

Large Stomach Worms

Large stomach worms (habronema) live in large nodules or growths it stomach wall. The adult worm is about 2 centimeters long, white, and resemble as a pin. The females lay very small eggs which are passed in the mat and then swallowed by fly maggots. When the maggot pupates it hatches a fly, still carrying the larval stage of the large stomach worm in its stomach parts.
The common small black housefly and the stable fly are COME carriers. As the fly feeds, it deposits larvae around the horse’s mouth eyes, and on cuts and sores. Horses may also eat whole flies that crowd fezi bins. The larvae gather in the stomach and invade the gastric lining. Clinical signs of habronema infestation Typical disorders include pussy conjunctivitis, lumps of proud-flesh-type tissue, irritation to cuts and sores (commonly called summer sores or cutaneous habronemiasis).
These worms can affect skin on the shoulders, belly, sh and penis, causing itchy lesions which the horse rubs vigorously. A worms live in the gastric lining, and heavy infestations may cause inflammation and ulceration of the stomach wall, interfering with digest: Large numbers may cause colic and unthriftiness. Again, most worming preparations are effective.

Large Strongyle Worms

Large strongyle worms grow to 5 centimeter long and are about as thick as the lead in a pencil. They are commonly called large red worms. Another worm in this group, the bloodworm, is about half the size.
Despite its smaller size, the immature wandering bloodworm is considered one of the most damaging of all internal worms in the horse. The adult female can lay as many as 5000 to 6000 eggs a day. These are passed out in the manure and then hatch to contaminate the horse’s environment. The horse eats the larvae when grazing, eating hay or food from the ground, or picking at stable bedding. The larvae then travel to the intestine and burrow into the bowel wall.
The bloodworm larvae migrate along and within the walls of the major arteries that supply blood to the gut and the hind limbs, and can cause aneurisms. These occur when the wall of the blood vessel becomes thin and forms a bulge, thus inhibiting blood flow to the gut and hind limbs. When they have completed this damage, the fully developed larvae migrate back to the bowel, develop into adult bloodworms, and commence production of eggs. This whole phase takes up to six months.
Large red worm larvae migrate through the organs in the gut cavity. They burrow into the lining of these organs and grow to almost mature size, leaving huge scars as they burrow. After several months of migration through these organs, they then return to the large bowel for the development phase to the adult.
Clinical signs of large strongyle infestation Large strongyle adults attach themselves to the lining of the large bowel. They feed on the lining and reduce nutrients available to the horse. They also take blood from the horse as they feed. In large numbers they can cause anaemia and symptoms of illness such as poor coat, lack of stamina, poor condition, colic, lameness and `tying up’ because of restricted blood flow to hindlimb muscles. At this stage very little can be done in the way of treatment except to adopt a stringent worming program and hope the horse can compensate the blood flow caused by the aneurism.


Bots are the larval stages of the horse bot-fly. They attach themselves to the horse’s stomach wall during one period of their life cycle. The bot-fly lays its yellow eggs on the hairs on the front legs and flanks of the horse in autumn. (The life cycle can be broken by shaving off the eggs or by wiping over with kerosene.) These eggs are licked off by the horse, and hatch in the moist conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. In early spring the larvae detach from the stomach wall and pass out into the manure. They burrow into the soil and after a few months, depending on the temperature, emerge as adult bot-flies.

Typical Signs of Adult Bot-Fly Infestation

Adult bot-flies annoy horses as they dart around their legs to deposit the eggs. Young horses may be panic stricken and gallop off and run into fences. Sometimes horses in groups will fetlock. Using the other hand, clean out the foot with the hoof pick. Make sure that all dirt and stones are picked out, particularly in the grooves beside the frog. (The frog is the triangular area in the centre of the sole. It is slightly rubbery and acts as a shock absorber to help prevent the leg from being jarred. It also helps return blood from the ends of the horse’s leg to the heart.
The frog should be kept trimmed so that it does not provide a crevice for infection such as thrush to grow.) Always clean out your horse’s feet before and after it is ridden. If the horse is kept in a stable, its feet should be picked out every day. Once the feet have been thoroughly cleaned inside and out, a hoof dressing can be applied.

Pet Parrots

The more common cause of illness in parrots is incorrect feeding and general management, particularly lack of exercise from too small a cage. Other factors are poor hygiene from placing perches over food and water, cluttering the cage with feeding utensils and toys, and exposure to draughts or marked fluctuation in temperature. In addition, marked variations in the length of time the bird is exposed to light and/or solitary confinement for long periods produce boredom and self-plucking of feathers. Exposure to direct sunlight for long periods without shelter, failure to remove stale food and provide plenty of water, and failure to provide green food are further causes of illness in the parrot family.
Parrots are capable of inflicting skin wounds and should be handled with gloves. When grasping the parrot always try to hold it by the neck with one hand allowing the head and beak to protrude through. The two legs and wings should be held by the other hand.


A suitable feed for parrots is sunflower seed 5 parts, oats 3 parts, plain canary seed 1 part, panicum seed 1/2 part, white millet 1/2 part. Parrots purchased as youngsters are often being fed from a teaspoon on a porridge-like mixture of powdered milk and cornmeal. The new owner must continue with this until the parrot is old enough to dehull its own seed. For cockatoos an ideal feed is sunflower seed 5 parts, whole oats 3 parts, corn 1 part and wheat 1 part. Canary seed and linseed may be added if the bird enjoys them. Parrots will also eat green foods and peanuts. Smaller parrots may be fed with the mixture recommended above for budgerigars. All parrots can handle sunflower seed.
Beaks that are distorted or overgrown need to be ground back with sandpaper. Cuttlefish bone should also be supplied in the cage for the birds to do this naturally. Parakeets are inquisitive and eat almost anything placed in their cage. Parakeets need canary seed, millet seed and steel-cut oats in a ratio of 1:1 for young birds, and 1: 2 :1 for adults. Grit is essential for all caged birds. Pulverised eggshell and 1 per cent iodised salt are also beneficial.


Sexing the parrot family is very difficult and depends on the species of parrot. As there are hundreds of different species, it is impossible to describe the male and female colour differences in this book. Check with a parrot breeder, or with one of the reference books specialising in this subject.


Breeding parrots is a specialised job. Parrots usually nest in shafts inside hollow trees. For the larger parrots these shafts are up to 2 metres deep. In captivity parrots’ nesting logs should be lined with sawdust or wood shavings. Smaller parrots will use hollow logs suspended from the aviary roof or a larger version of a budgerigar nest.

Fish Breeding

Fish Breeding
There are two types of breeding fish: live bearers and egg layers. Goldfish and marine fish are all egg layers only, while tropical fish have both live bearers and egg layers. Live bearers are by far the easiest to breed and are ideal for the beginner.

Live Bearers

The most popular live bearers are the large, active tropical fish, which include Swordtails, Platys and Mollies. These all require plenty of space. Live bearers are highly inbred and although inbreeding is necessary to fix the beautiful strains, it also has undesirable effects. Live bearers, if not properly cared for, may suffer from diseases such as ich, shimmy, and various skin diseases. Should the tank temperature fall, the live bearers are usually first affected. They are active fish, both sexually and in growth potential. Live bearers usually come from harder, more alkaline waters than egg layers. Poorly managed tanks tend to become more acid and hence cause live bearers problems. Live bearers can be kept at lower temperatures (22°C). Those raised at slightly higher temperatures mature more quickly, but their lifespan tends to be shorter.
The water pH for live bearers should be 7.0-7.2. Hardness is tolerated by live bearers but it should be kept at approximately 200 p.p.m. General aquarium maintenance as discussed elsewhere in this chapter is most important.
The sex of live bearers is easily distinguished by the presence in the male of the gonopodium. All young live bearers have a fan-like anal fin, but as they mature the male’s begins to change shape to the typical narrow ‘sticklike’ fin (gonopodium). This is usually carried close to the body, while the female anal fin is spread out. By means of a series of specialized muscles, the gonopodium can be moved and inserted into, the female for fertilization Live bearers’ eggs are not discharged from the ovary until long after fertilization has taken place, and just before the fry are fully developed and ready to be born.
Guppies, Swords and Platys have a regular brood production and will drop young at intervals of twenty-five to thirty-five days, depending on temperature and lighting conditions.
Mollies have irregular brood production and are greatly affected by seasonal or artificial changes in temperature or light. However, since most aquariums provide constant conditions they usually deliver at constant intervals.
The number of young delivered at one time is variable and depends on the age of the mother as well as on her size. The young are about 5 millimeters in length and may number from six to 200 or more. Mollies usually number between twenty and forty, while Swords and Platys number sixty to eighty. Guppies average twenty-five to thirty.
Live bearers have the ability to store the sperm in the female oviduct for tip to six months, which means that five or six broods at monthly intervals can be produced without further contact with the male.
Fish selected for breeding should be placed in their own quarters and fed well. Since there is no need for the male after fertilization, he should be removed as delivery time approaches, because he will eat the young. In all but dark colored live bearers, a dark area can appear on the female’s body near the vent as she fills with eggs. This is known as the `gravid spot’. It should not be used as a reliable indication of the fish’s sex.

Protection of Newborn Fry

Since newborn fry are often eaten by adult fish in the aquarium, it is important to provide some form of protection for them. It can be provided mechanically or naturally.
The mechanical method involves the use of devices known as breeding traps which are usually small containers, partially submerged in an aquarium, and which have small openings or slots at the bottom. The female is placed in the containers and the young, which do not swim immediately

Dog Health


An abscess is a localized collection of pus and may occur in any part of the body as a result of infection by a pus-producing organism. It usually results from a penetrating wound such as those caused by the teeth of another dog or by a foreign body such as a stick, thorn or grass seed.
Characteristic symptoms are pain, heat and swelling of the infected area. The dog may have a high temperature. The abscess should be brought to a head by using h. fomentations or poultices. This is done by bathing the area using a rag soaked in warm water to which has been added a tablespoon of epsom salts per liter. When the abscess is ripe the centre feels soft; it will often burst of its own accord. Lancing may be necessary to evacuate the contents however. The condition is usually painful. Once the contents have been evacuated, the opening should be enlarged so that the abscess doesn’t heal over too quickly, and it should be irrigated with a 50 per cent peroxide and water solution three times daily for three days. After three days irrigate with clean water from a hose. If at any stage the edges cannot be separated easily it may be necessary to reopen the site. The abscess must heal from the inside outwards. If the skin closes too quickly, pockets of infection may remain and the abscess grow to a head again. Where the abscess is small and only one is present, antibiotic treatment is often not necessary; but where a number of abscesses occur, veterinary advice and treatment is essential.

Abdominal Pain (Colic)

Usually the dog is reluctant to walk, and when it does it has a tucked-up appearance with an arched back. If the pain is very severe the dog may adopt a praying attitude—that is. with the chest on the ground and the hindquarters raised.
The animal usually objects to the abdomen being touched. The causes of abdominal pain are many, and because treatment is dependent on the cause, it is important that a correct diagnosis is made. Always consult a vet. In some cases the dog’s condition may be very serious, and its life may be in peril—for example, from torsion (twisting) of the stomach or a twisted bowel. In these cases, the animal usually exhibits excruciating pain, and rolls and may vomit constantly.


Abortion or miscarriage does not often occur in the bitch. Its causes are gross fatigue, injury or infection. Sometimes it can be caused by hormonal dysfunction. Rare chronic infections cause repeated abortions. and it is inadvisable to continue breeding from the bitch—a hysterectomy may be recommended.


Abrasions are sore areas of skin resulting from injury to the surface layers. Usually this kind of injury does not penetrate the skin. (If an injury does penetrate the skin layers and reveal the flesh, it should be sutured by a vet.) Ordinary abrasions can be treated at home. Remove the surface debris and any discharge by washing the wound gently with water from a garden hose.
If the dog will allow it, clean the wound with cotton-wool dipped in warm water, and disinfect with 50 per cent peroxide and water. Once the wound is clean, apply an astringent agent such as gentian violet, mercurochrome or triple dye twice daily. If necessary, cut the surrounding hair away so that medications can be applied for 1 centimeter beyond the edge of the wound.
Alternatively, antibiotic powders may be applied to the surface. Abrasions recover better if left open to the air, so don’t try to bandage them. Don’t worry if the dog licks the wound.

Allergic Reactions

Allergic reactions can be divided into two categories: anaphylactic shock, and urticaria.
Anaphylactic shock is an immediate hypersensitive reaction, in which death may rapidly occur following respiratory and circulatory collapse. The condition usually develops from human interference, although it may also result from a bee or wasp sting. The condition is often attributed to the effect of histamines on the body. Signs are restlessness, diarrhea, vomiting, collapse, sometimes convulsions, followed by a period of calm, then death. The agents that may cause anaphylactic shock include penicillin and other antibiotics, vaccines (though rarely), tranquilizers, vitamins and sometimes certain foods.
Treatment involves the intravenous administration of an antihistamine. so the dog should be taken to a vet immediately. On the way, ensure its air passages are clear by extending the dog’s neck, putting a peg on its tongue and pulling the tongue forward. Bee or wasp stings rarely cause death. Urticaria is characterized by a swelling of the soft tissues of the head and body. It nearly always affects the eyes. mouth and ears. A discharge may develop from the eyes. and the animal frequently rubs its mouth and eyes with its paws or on the ground. The animal takes on a very old appearance. This type of allergic reaction may develop within fifteen to twenty minutes after contact with the causative agent. It very rarely causes serious damage to the animal and is usually the result of food allergies, ingestion of spoiled protein material, insect bites or contact with certain chemicals. Insect bites are probably the most common cause.
Any skin allergy may, however, become an emergency situation because of self-mutilation from excessive itching and scratching. In such a case the dog requires antihistamine injections from the vet. If possible, find out what food, place or substance seems to induce the attack.

All-meat syndrome (Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism. N.S.H.)

This is still an important problem, although it is becoming less common as meat prices rise and more dog owners switch to commercial foods which are properly balanced in calcium and phosphorus. It is more frequently seen in puppies of the larger breeds. N.S.H. is caused by feeding a mainly meat diet with incorrect calcium supplementation. Meat not only contains very little calcium (approximately 10 milligrams per 100 grams) but has a marked imbalance of calcium and phosphorus. In meat the ratio of calcium to phosphorus is 1:20 —in a normal diet it should be approximately 1:1.
The abnormal diet leads to altered levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood, which stimulate the parathyroid gland. The hormone released leads to correction of the blood levels, by resorbing calcium from the bones. Fractures may develop. These appear more frequently in the hind-limbs, and pelvic fractures are commonly seen. They often result in narrowing of the pelvis, problems with constipation and an extra problem in whelping. Sometimes the vertebral column may show deformities resulting in pressure on the spinal cord, giving rise to neurological disturbances. Treatment is to correct the diet by using a calcium supplement. Half a teaspoon of calcium carbonate should be given with each 100 grams of meat fed. Other calcium supplements can be given but the quantities need to be increased to provide a balance.
Calciostelein injections are an unsatisfactory and inadequate method of treatment. N.S.H. can be prevented by feeding young puppies one of the complete, prepared foods that make supplementation unnecessary. The following conditions occur as a result of overfeeding together with inherited components


Anaemia is a condition in which the blood’s ability to carry oxygen is reduced. It can be caused by blood loss from a hemorrhage or by blood-sucking parasite, for example, hookworms in young puppies. A reduction in the number of blood cells able to carry oxygen is also caused by disease, parasites or nutritional deficiencies.
Anaemia due to blood loss is normally quickly corrected by the body as long as the hemorrhage is controlled. The addition of iron and vitamin B to the diet will assist this process. Where anaemia is due to infection, the condition must be corrected and treated before the anaemia can be rectified, but again, supplements of vitamin B and iron assist recovery. Parasitic conditions should be treated with worming preparations and the resultant anaemia corrected by supplementation.
Nutritional deficiencies resulting in anaemia are usually related to lack of iron, cobalt or vitamin B12. Raw liver or liver extracts are very good for correcting anaemic situations. The diet should be well-balanced, nourishing and contain red meat.

Anal Adenoma

This is a small tumor that appears at the anus in both male dogs and bitches. It is a condition of old age, usually brought to the owner’s attention by the dog constantly licking the anal area. Treatment is either surgical to remove the tumor, or cryosurgical, to freeze it out. Alternatively, hormone therapy will reduce the growth.

Anal Glands, Infected

On either side of the dog’s anus are glands called anal glands, which secrete a foul-smelling lubricating fluid intended to be emptied into the anus each time the dog passes a motion. In many dogs the anal glands have outlived their usefulness, as modern feeding patterns result in motions too soft to require the special fluid. Unfortunately, changing the diet to help the glands may make the dog constipated. The result is that the glands fill and become impacted. The impaction can become infected, forming an abscess which can recur constantly. The first sign of trouble comes with the dog dragging its hindquarters over the grass or the carpet (`scooting’).
In other cases, the dog may be lying quietly when it suddenly squeals and rushes forward. Sometimes the dog may lick the anal area. suddenly looking at the tail base and putting the tail between its legs as though stung. In a simple case of impaction. all that is required is to squeeze the glands by pressing them upwards and forwards, to evacuate the contents. In some dogs the glands may require attention every three or four weeks. If the condition persists and causes the dog continual trouble, the glands can be removed surgically.
If an abscess forms in a gland. the dog shows signs of acute pain, especially when attempting to pass a motion. It may squeal or bite when its tail or hindquarters are handled. If the tail is elevated, a large, painful-looking swelling can be seen on one side of the anus. Sometimes the dog’s temperature is elevated to about 40°C. In these cases the inflammation is so painful that any attempt to empty the glands by pressing them will be unsuccessful. The abscess will either have to be treated by antibiotics for a few days or lanced surgically. This is a job for the vet.

Anal Irritation

Treatment depends on the case, which may be worms, enlarged prostate glands, anal gland conditions, anal fissure, chronic diarrhea or even a foreign body, usually a bone lodged in the rectum

Anal Occlusion

Occlusion of the anus is a condition usually seen in longhaired breeds. The anal opening is completely blocked by a mass of dried feces attached to the hairs around the anus.
The dog suffers great discomfort and the smell is unmistakable. The best method of removal is to use curved. blunt-ended scissors to cut off the hair at skin level. Care must be taken not to cut the skin. Sometimes soaking the mass in warm water before attempting its removal makes it easier for the dog.

Anal Prolapse

anus is seen mostly in young puppies. being, persistent diarrhea which in turn is often caused by heavy roundworm infestation. Sometimes it may be caused by constipation or overfeeding.
One sign of a prolapsed anus is a finger-like projection of mucous membrane from the anus. The pup is usually in considerable distress and licks the protrusion incessantly. Treatment of this condition. by replacing the prolapse and suturing it into position. is best left to the vet.


Anti-coagulants, such as warfarin, are commonly used in modern rodenticides (rat poisons). Symptoms of poisoning include anaemia from blood loss, persistent nose bleeding, bloody urine, labored breathing, bloody diarrhea and increased redness of the skin and the conjunctiva (eye membranes).
It is unusual for a dog to suffer any problem from eating one poisoned rat—usually the dog must eat several poisoned rats over a number of days before an anticoagulant will have any detrimental effect on the dog. It is advisable to have the dog checked by a vet.

Appetite, Decreased

Decreased dog’s appetite appears to have decreased, it is important to distinguish between an actual loss of appetite and the inability to eat. The latter may be because of some painful condition in the mouth or throat, for example, bad teeth. inflammation of the gums, ulceration of the mouth, a bone caught between the teeth, a cracked tooth or inflamed and sore lips. Old age, injury and ill health often produce a decreased appetite. In old age, a lack of appetite is often because of some other underlying problem and if allowed to continue it will frequently result in a loss of weight and condition. Toy breeds invariably eat very little. Sometimes the dog has been fed a selective diet from weaning and will not touch anything else placed before it. In addition, urban dogs are usually overfed and under-exercised, so it is quite feasible for them to go a day or two without eating anything. Ill health. particularly where fever is involved, invariably produces a decreased appetite. This is very common in disease situations such as Septicemia, Toxemia, and Shock.
Appetite, Depraved
With a depraved appetite the dog may eat stones, coal, manure or dirt. Possible causes include teething, worms, indigestion and deficiencies in salt, minerals or vitamins.
Sometimes it can be because of actual hunger. Puppies exhibit this symptom more than adult dogs, and frequently they have a history of an all-meat diet. When this symptom occurs. treat the animal for worms and ensure that its diet contains a balanced vitamin and mineral supplement, particularly calcium. It is common and normal for dogs to eat grass. which is said to provide a fresh source of vitamins.
Other authorities claim that grass-eating induces vomiting to rid the stomach of old, stale food. Dogs frequently bury food and then eat it when it is rotten. The eating of ‘aged’ meat is quite normal for the dog—though it sometimes cases vomiting —so don’t be alarmed.

Appetite, Increased

Increased appetite has three forms:
(a) A normal situation where the increase is because of lactation, cold, increased work. food of poor biological value, or growth. The animal maintains its condition and weight.
(b) Increased appetite coupled with loss of weight—as in pancreatic disease, sugar diabetes or internal parasites.
(c) Increased appetite coupled with weight gain—this can be caused by hormonal imbalance. tumors or overindulgent owners who expect the dog to eat three meals a day just because they do.


Arthritis is an inflammatory condition of a joint or a disease involving a joint. It may be caused by the effects of injury, infection or malfunction of the joint. It can be classified as acute or chronic.
The joint is usually swollen and painful and the dog avoids using it. There are many different types of arthritis, the most common in the dog being hip dysplasia—an inflammatory condition of the hip joints. Relief from arthritis is best achieved by rest and warmth. Pain-relieving drugs and anti-inflammatory agents are often used.
If infection exists, antibiotic treatment is necessary. Temporary relief can be given by administering a quarter of a 300-milligram tablet of soluble aspirin every four hours. In many cases the arthritic condition is exacerbated by obesity, and dieting may help.

Avascular Necrosis of the Hip

Avascular necrosis of the hip is well recognized in breeds such as Yorkshire, Highland, Cairn and Jack Russell Terriers, Miniature Poodles, Chihuahuas and Shih Tzu.
It causes hind-limb lameness in dogs four to nine months, on one or both sides. Pain is localized in the hip joint; associated muscle deterioration is well recognized. Surgical treatment appears to provide a more rapid return to normal than conservative treatment.


Babesiosis is a disease caused by a blood parasite from the bite of an infected tick. It is widespread in all parts of the world.
The dog usually suffers from a high temperature, depression, rapid breathing, loss of appetite, weakness and staggering. Anaemia develops and jaundice may be present.
A blood sample is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Veterinary advice is essential.


The dog with a backache is unwilling to move or to turn round, climb stairs or jump in and out of cars. The condition usually occurs in long-backed dogs such as Corgis and Dachshunds. The dog may cry out in pain without being touched. Sometimes the dog will remain on the ground. unwilling to get up; when it does, it moves stiffly.
The causes may be actual physical injury, a disc protrusion, infection or, in some cases, abdominal pain. Various tests, including X-rays, are needed to pin-point the condition.
Where hack conditions are suspected, particularly in long-backed dogs, it is advisable to keep the dog on a flat surface for at least three weeks, otherwise the condition may progress to paralysis of the back legs.


Loss of balance is caused by conditions affecting the central nervous system, such as distemper, encephalitis, meningitis, space-occupying lesions (such as tumors), tick bite or snake bite. It can also be caused by middle ear infections. This is a problem for the vet


Balanitis is an inflammatory condition of the foreskin (the prepuce). It is a normal condition in most dogs, is commonly seen as a pus-filled discharge from the eye of the penis, and is very difficult to clear up. The prepucial cavity (the fleshy housing of the penis) is warm and moist, an ideal environment for bacteria. Sexual frustration is a contributing factor; the dog continually licks himself as a form of masturbation, so reinfecting the area.
Treatment can be instituted by syringing out the cavity and squirting an antibiotic cream into it two or three times a day for a five-day period. However, once medication ceases, reinfection is likely. As balanitis causes the dog so little trouble, it is regarded as an almost-normal condition and should only lead to a visit to the vet if the discharge becomes bloody, signifying an injury or inflammation of the sexual glands.

Behavioral problems

Many of the behavioral abnormalities exhibited by dogs are the result of neuroses induced by urban dwelling. The most serious problem facing the urban dog is severe territorial restriction—particularly upsetting to the larger breeds. Almost invariably it is the large male dog who becomes involved in wandering, biting, fighting other dogs, chasing cars, barking excessively and destroying furniture.
It is rare to see female dogs or dogs of small breeds wandering far from their homes, as their territorial requirements are more easily satisfied.
Overcrowding in urban areas results in dogfights over territory, particularly between males. Exercise your dog daily.
If your male dog is still a nuisance, castration is recommended. Hormone therapy using progesterone has recently proven successful in correcting abnormal behavioral traits

Dermatitis of the Scrotum

Dermatitis of the scrotum is particularly common in Old English Sheepdogs and Chows and is extremely irritating. Treatment is by astringent agents such as mercurochrome, triple dye or any other antibacterial dermatological agent. Apply to the scrotal surface three times daily for about five days. Try to stop the dog licking the area by using an Elizabethan collar. In cases that continually recur or don’t clear up, castration is the only solution.

Bleeding from the Mouth

Bleeding in the mouth is usually due to cuts or other physical injuries. Usually the dog has pierced one of the major veins under the tongue with a bone or a piece of wood. Other causes of bleeding from the mouth include inflamed gums

Bleeding from the Rectum

Rectal bleeding is usually the result of an inflammatory condition in the intestines caused by either bacteria or parasites. Bleeding of this nature is very serious and the dog should be taken to a veterinary surgeon urgently.
If bleeding is due to a cut or ulcerated tongue, or a cut on the inside of the cheek. Take the dog to the vet.

Bleeding from the Surface of the Body

Surface bleeding can in many cases be stopped by bandaging a pad of cotton-wool into position over the area. Pressure bandaging is the most important thing to do to reduce hemorrhage. Where bleeding is heavy, it can be controlled by applying direct pressure over the injured vessel or to the spot where the blood is escaping.
This can be done with the fingers or by applying a tourniquet. Where sizable vessels, particularly arteries, are spurting blood, a tourniquet is essential. This should be slackened for a few seconds every three or four minutes.
A tourniquet can he left in place for up to three-quarters of an hour without consequent problems. If the dog has lost a lot of blood it should be taken to a veterinary surgeon for treatment to overcome shock and loss of blood, and to restore normal blood pressure

Bleeding Internally

Internal loss of blood usually follows a car accident or other injury. It can be detected by signs of bodily weakness, pallor of the mucous membranes (the eye membranes and mouth appear pale), a weak pulse and coldness of the extremities (the limbs and ears). Place the dog in a head-down position at an angle of about 30 degrees. Keep it warm and take it to a vet as soon as possible

Bleeding Nose

Nose bleeds may result from injury, violent sneezing, a growth, ulcers or parasites in the nasal cavities.
Ice placed over the nose will often help reduce bleeding.
Ensure that any bleeding does not interrupt the dog’s respiration and ascertain the cause of bleeding, taking the dog to the vet if necessary. Reduce excitement and exercise for a day or two after the bleeding stops

Bleeding Tail

Injuries to the tip of the tail often cause bleeding that is difficult to control because the dog wags its tail and knocks it on various objects. Pressure bandaging with an adhesive tape is advised or cautery of the blood vessel.

Blood in Urine

Bleeding can originate from the urinary system—that is, from the kidney or the bladder—or from the reproductive system. If the bleeding is not the normal discharge that occurs when a bitch is in season, take the dog to the vet.

Bone Problems of Growing Dogs

The following conditions affect dogs during their growing period, most frequently the larger breeds. Before discussing the various problems it is necessary to understand the basic anatomy of the growing bone as it will be frequently referred to.
Limb bones basically grow from their ends at special sites known as growth plates. Most bones have growth plates at either end. though some have them at only one end. Although one might expect the bones to grow equally from both ends, this is not necessarily so.
The difference between the growth of the two ends is of little significance except in the forelimbs where the radius and ulna must grow as a pair for the forelimbs to remain straight. Many of the deformities of the forelimbs of larger breeds are due to a disproportionate growth of the radius and ulna.

Car Sickness

The car-sick dog will first salivate profusely and then vomit if it has food in its stomach. For most dogs the problem can be overcome by taking them on short trips on an empty stomach to accustom them to car travel. Put the dog on the floor of the car rather than on the seat where it can see.
Medication for car sickness includes tranquilization and specific anti-sickness tablets available from your vet.

Coat Conditions

A glossy coat indicates a healthy dog. Poor coat condition—dry and dull—can indicate illness or dietary deficiency. Diet supplementation with butter or margarine at the rate of a tablespoon per day, or the addition of a vitamin or fatty acid supplement, will often bring out the gloss in the coat.


Colic simply means pain in the abdomen and can have numerous causes, such as indigestion, flatulence, constipation, a swallowed foreign body causing pain, gastric torsion, twisting of the bowel, distention of the stomach, enteritis (inflammation of the bowel wall), kidney disease, hepatitis, and so on. If the cause is not obvious, consult your vet.


Coma is a complete loss of consciousness often accompanied by heavy breathing and dilated pupils. Coma may be caused by injuries to the head, a stroke, heart attack, circulatory failure, poisoning, drug intoxication, kidney or liver disease, diabetes, lack of calcium in the blood, septicemia, shock or epilepsy. It may sometimes be caused by very low or very high temperatures, brain hemorrhage, abscesses, bruising or tumors.
In many illnesses it is also the last stage before death. Ensure that the dog is lying comfortably without restriction to the throat, chest or abdomen. Extend the head, pull the tongue out as far as possible and ensure a good supply of fresh air. Keep the animal still and warm, using blankets and hot-water bottles. Turn the dog over every three to four hours to aid circulation. Provide subdued light and quiet surroundings to reduce disturbance. Veterinary assistance is essential.


The dog has difficulty passing the hard droppings and may eventually get to the point where it strains without passing a stool. Sometimes the abdomen may appear swollen. The causes:
Nervous system Dogs with a history of slipped discs, paralysis of the back legs or weakness in the back legs are prone to constipation.
Mechanical obstruction The obstruction can be caused by enlargement of the prostate gland in male dogs, diverticulitis in the bowel walls, a fractured pelvis healing to high bone content in the diet. When bones make up more than 10 per cent of the diet they can cause constipation. Painful anal area This can be due to cuts, matted long hair, infected anal glands or other conditions of the anal sphincter.
If the dog to be treated has been on a home diet, first try a canned food, which will sometimes loosen the dog’s motions. The next step is to give the dog paraffin oil orally at the rate of 5-15 milliliters twice daily, depending on the weight of the dog and the subsequent consistency of the droppings.
Fecal softener medications or warm soapy enemas may be helpful. Prevention is best instituted by correcting the diet. Increase the vegetable fiber content of the diet. Add liver and decrease the bones. Dogs which continue to strain need veterinary attention.


A cough is an important indication of disease. Excessive coughing is physically exhausting and harmful. Coughs can be caused by:
• Infectious agents—such as bacteria or viruses which cause tonsillitis or laryngitis. The most common virus is `kennel cough’ which is a contagious disease usually contracted when a dog has been kept in close proximity to other dogs. Symptoms are a dry, loud, harsh cough, with the dog sometimes bringing up phlegm. The dog may be depressed and slightly off its food. The condition can last for five to seven days, during which period the dog will produce an immunity to the virus. Although ‘kennel cough’ in itself is rarely serious, the dog should be put on a course of antibiotics to stop any secondary infection producing pneumonia. For home treatment, a child’s cough medicine given as for a child is often helpful. A mixture of equal parts of raw egg white, honey and water can be given every half hour at the rate of 5-15 milliliters (1-3 teaspoons). Affected dogs should be protected from cold and damp and not be over-exercised.
• Parasites—such as roundworms or hookworms. which may cause bronchitis and pneumonia in young puppies.
• Chemical irritants—such as smoke, spray, gases and fine dust.
• Obstructions—such as tight collars, tumors. and congestion from chronic heart failure (which is particularly common in Poodles), from tonsillitis and from pharyngitis. In these cases coughing occurs whenever the dog becomes excited or takes exercise.
• Heart worm—causes coughing from a mechanical blockage of the heart.


Debarking is an operation in which the vocal cords are cut to reduce the amount of noise produced by the dog. The operation is illegal in many countries, including Australia and the United Kingdom.


In dehydration the body tissues contain insufficient fluid to carry out their normal function. It can be caused by fever, high environmental temperatures, chronic vomiting, increased urinary output because of disease, diarrhea or decreased drinking in severe illnesses.
In smaller animals. The symptoms are tachycardia, dry mucous membranes, a dry harsh coat, slow return of the skin when it is lifted. and glazed eyes. Treatment is to correct the underlying cause of the condition and institute quid therapy with electrolytes. Prolonged dehydration is dangerous. Always take the dog to the vet to determine the cause.


Depression usually happened because of the underlying infectious process or disease. Check for obvious symptom and the dog should be handled by a veterinary surgeon.

Diabetes Mellitus

Sugar diabetes occurs more commonly in obese bitches and also in certain breeds of dogs, particularly Dachshunds and Poodles. A diabetic animal is constantly hungry and despite an increased food intake loses weight. The other common manifestation of sugar diabetes is excessive thirst.
Left untreated, the continued rapid breakdown of the animal’s fat reserves results in the accumulation of toxic products in the blood, and the animal becomes depressed, loses its appetite and vomits frequently. Because it is still losing vast amounts of water in the urine, it rapidly becomes dehydrated. This combination is fatal unless treated promptly by insulin injection. The animal’s daily food and exercise routine must be adjusted so that the maximum insulin effect coincides with the periods of high glucose concentration. The type of food should be kept constant.
If a regular amount is given at a regular time, the control of this illness is more easily achieved. Carbohydrates should be kept to a minimum, and vitamin C should be supplied in large quantities. The insulin must be continued daily for the rest of the dog’s life. Diabetes may cause cataracts.


Diarrhea has many causes including bacterial and viral infections, worms, gut tumors, hepatitis, distemper, leptospirosis, poisoning, coccidiosis, overeating, food allergies, bad foods, sudden dietary changes, abnormal pancreatic secretions, chronic liver disease and nervousness.
Diarrhea may take several forms: it may be acute or chronic; it may affect the dog generally by causing a raised temperature and depression, or the dog may be healthy in every other respect. Acute diarrhea is seen as a watery, sometimes bloody stool in a previously healthy animal. If this is accompanied by elevated temperature, depression and failure to eat, the gastrointestinal tract is inflamed and bleeding. The dog should be taken to a vet immediately.
Even in mild cases of diarrhea where the dog is clinically normal, it is wise not to let the condition proceed for more than twenty-four hours without seeking veterinary advice.
Apparently normal diets can cause diarrhea; the constituents of milk may be at fault, or canned foods, too much vegetable matter, liver or oils. Diarrhea in young pups can be caused by cow’s milk. Replace the milk with water for three or four days and give the animal Kaomagma at the rate of 1 milliliter for every kilogram body-weight (to a maximum of 10 milliliters) every six hours.
After a few days reintroduce cows milk to the pup’s diet but dilute it with water, 50 per cent milk : 50 per cent water, for three to four weeks. Gradually increase the concentration of the milk each three weeks by 10 per cent.
Alternatively, enquire from your pharmacist about a human baby milk product that is lactose free. Worms, particularly roundworms, may cause diarrhea in young pups.
Changes of diet should always be introduced slowly—sudden switches of food, particularly if they require minimal digestion, encourage diarrhea. In acute cases of vomiting and diarrhea, withhold food and water for twenty-four hours to give the gut a rest. Feed the dog for a short time on the following mixture (the quantities given are for a I2-kg dog for one day). Boil one cup of dried rice in two cups of water, then add either 115 grams of cottage cheese or the same quantity of cooked lean meat. Potatoes may replace the rice and cooked eggs may replace the cottage cheese.
Feed small amounts every four hours for two to three days. Where home treatment does not cure the problem within twelve hours, veterinary advice should be sought. When taking a dog suffering from diarrhea to the vet, be prepared to tell the vet about its diet and appetite, duration of any current and previous illnesses, environmental changes, vaccination history, past treatments for diarrhea, worming history and daily number of bowel movements. It is advisable to take a sample of the diarrhea (about one tablespoon) to the vet in a clean container.
If this is impossible, examine the feces to determine the consistency, color, odor and any presence of blood or mucus. Diarrhea is one of the principal causes of dehydration in young animals and must be rectified early.

Ear Disorders


Cropping is the procedure of reshaping the ear flap by surgical amputation. It is prohibited in many countries including Australia and the United Kingdom. It is allowed in most States of America.


This can be a congenital abnormality (White Bull Terriers and Poodles) but is common in aged dogs. There is no treatment, although the dog’s ears should be checked by your vet to ensure that debris is not causing the problem. Deaf dogs are at risk with traffic, particularly if they like to lie on the road.

Fly Bite

Fly bite from blood-sucking flies can cause the tips of the ears to become ulcerated. The dog will shake its head constantly, which may lead to a hematoma on the ear flap.
The best treatment is to apply ointment containing fly repellant to the ears twice daily. If possible, keep the dog in a fly-proof area during daylight hours. To prevent further fly bites, use ordinary insect repellant sprayed on a piece of cloth.
Blood-sucking flies attack the ears causing dermatitis.

Foreign Bodies in the Ear

Foreign bodies in the ear include grass seeds, pieces of twig or even insects, all of which cause the dog extreme distress. If a dog holds its head on one side or paws wildly at the ear, see if you can remove the offending object. If not, see your vet.
A swollen ear-flap indicates hematoma.


A soft swelling on the ear flap could be a hematoma (caused by blood that has effused from a broken blood vessel). It is usually brought on by violent head shaking.
The shaking whiplashes a blood vessel which bursts and allows blood to seep between the cartilage and the skin of the ear. The condition should be treated as soon as possible as the weight of the blood in the ear irritates the dog and leads to further head shaking—this allows enlargement of the hematoma which can quickly involve the whole ear flap. The hematoma can be drained but is very likely to fill up again. A more permanent cure is achieved by suturing the ear flap.

Otitis (Canker)

Otitis (or canker) is an infection of the ear canal. It is more common in dogs with long, floppy, hairy ears which do not allow proper air circulation into the ear canal and hence provide a moist environment suited to the growth of organisms.
The signs of ear infection are usually a discharge, a foul smell or head shaking. Sometimes the dog will hold its head on one side. Quite frequently the initiating cause is ear mites which can lie dormant in the pup from birth, at a later stage multiplying to the point where they inflame the ear canal and allow secondary infections to move in.
Infections of the ear canal can also be caused by bacteria or fungi. Treatment involves cleaning the ear with a 50 per cent peroxide and water solution. plucking out any hair in the ear canal to increase air circulation, and treating with ear drops. As most ear drops contain a local anesthetic to dull the pain, it is important to complete the course of medication and not stop after a few days when the dog appears comfortable, as this may just be the local anesthetic working. Where possible, try to remove any debris from the ear canal daily with cotton buds before applying medication. It is safe to gently work down the ear canal, as the dog’s ear takes a right-angled bend at the bottom before the ear drum. In chronic cases of ear infections, surgery to open the ear canal further to the air can give good results.
An ear-resection operation to expose the ear canal and dry it out.
Dogs often receive injuries to the edges of their ear flaps. These may bleed profusely, and although not serious they can be very difficult to heal, as the dog scratches and shakes its head. The best home treatment is to apply cotton-wool packs to the top of the head, lay the ear flap back on to this and bandage it. Apply acriflavin or a healing ointment to the bleeding area. The bandage holding the flap to the head should be left on for a week to ten days until the wound has completely healed. Failing this, cautery will stop the bleeding.

Elizabethan Collar

A device to prevent the dog licking/biting wounds on the body. It also stops the dog scratching the head and ears.


This means putting your pet to death painlessly. There are several reasons why people ask a vet to perform euthanasia on their pet. Unacceptable reasons, in my opinion, include going on holidays or going overseas, getting married, moving from a ground-floor home to a unit or flat, grooming becoming too time-consuming, or the breed becoming ‘unfashionable’. Legitimate reasons include old age, severe disease. accident victims with severe injuries, prolonged injury and disposing of strays.
The best and most common method of euthanasia used by vets is an intravenous overdose of anesthetic. This is a painless procedure and the pet dies within six to seven seconds. It is the only method that I can recommend. When the condition of a sick pet is gave, it is important to control emotional attachment to the animal and listen to the vet’s advice. The vet knows how much sickness and pain an animal can take and how it should recover; if the advice is euthanasia, consider it seriously and do not let emotional involvement with the pet affect your decision. I believe pets have an advantage over humans at this point in their lives—the availability of euthanasia—so do not be selfish.

Eye disorders


Blindness can occur from not treating any of the conditions described in this section. The most common cause, however, is crystallization of the lens in old age, which reduces or stops the light rays passing through. Senile cataracts, which develop as the dog ages, are seen as a blue haze deep in the dog’s eye. The dog may also bark at known persons some distance away but will quieten when the person moves closer to and is recognized by the dog. Dogs are usually nine or ten years old when the condition begins.
Very little can be done except to be extra careful with the dog in strange surroundings, particularly in traffic. Cocker Spaniels and Poodles are particularly susceptible to this condition. When crystallization is complete, there is a white, pearly, circular centre in the eye which allows little light through to the retina. If these dogs are left in familiar surroundings they can live a happy life. It is possible, depending on eye tests, to remove the lens and return about 40-50 per cent vision.
Pearly-white eyes due to cataracts.

Cataracts can be congenital or can be caused by diabetes mellitus.

Conjunctivitis is an inflammatory condition of the eye and has several causes: An acute injury—caused by a scratch from a piece of grass or twig brushing the cornea. This condition is painful; the dog closes the eye and the eye weeps.
Infection—taking the form of pus appearing in the corners of the eyes. If the pus appears only in one eye, the inflammation is usually caused by a local infection in that eye. (If both eyes are affected, it may indicate distemper or some other general disease.)
Conjunctivitis indicated by red mucous membranes. A blockage of the tear duct—the tear duct usually drains tears from the eye to the inside of the nose. The abscessed root of a molar tooth—in this case the conjunctivitis is usually accompanied by a lump just below the eye on the dog’s face; sometimes the lump has a discharge. Conjunctivitis is a painful condition for which it is wise to seek veterinary advice. Normal eye-washes are usually not strong enough to be an effective cure.

Corneal Dermoid
Corneal dermoid—a plate of epithelial tissue on the surface of the cornea—is an island of skin that usually grows hairs from its surface which grow toward and irritate the cornea. It can be removed surgically.

Dry Eye

Dry eye refers to the absence of the normal tear film covering the corneal surface. It gives the cornea a dry and lusterless appearance. It is seen in all breeds but particularly Yorkshire Terriers, Chihuahuas and Cocker Spaniels.

It may be caused by severe conjunctivitis, distemper, old age or accidental damage to the tear gland. Once an eye becomes dry, the tear film must be replaced by artificial tears immediately or permanent damage can occur. A surgical technique in which a salivary duct is moved from the mouth to the eye gives satisfactory results.

Ectropion is eversion or sagging of the lower eyelid. Breeds commonly affected are Bloodhounds, Basset Hounds, St Bernards, Great Danes and Cocker Spaniels. Ectropion can predispose the eye to excessive drying and the easy entrance of foreign material into the conjunctival sac, which results in conjunctivitis or corneal infection. Rectification is by surgery.

Entropion is inversion of the eyelid margin. The inherited form of this condition is seen most commonly in King Charles Spaniels, St Bernards, Cocker Spaniels, Golden and Labrador Retrievers, Irish Setters and English Bulldogs.
It may be noticed when the puppies are born but usually doesn’t cause any outward signs of disease until the dog is a few months old. In the mild form, the disease may correct itself as the dog ages. Mechanical damage is caused by the eyelashes rubbing on the eyeball. Treatment of entropion is by surgically excising an elliptical piece of skin from the eyelid to evert the eyelid margin. This plastic surgery is usually successful.

Glaucoma is an increase in the normal pressure of the fluid within the eye. The usual signs are blueness of the lens, and conjunctivitis. Medications can control it.

Pupil Constriction
Constriction of the pupils occurs normally in bright light; it may also occur when the dog has ingested a toxin or poison.

Pupil Dilation
Pupil dilation occurs normally in dull light, but it also occurs in tick poisoning and sickness.

Strabismus—in-turning or out-turning of the eye—is usually seen in the broad-headed or short-headed breeds such as the Pekinese or Pug.

Third Eyelid Deformities
Most animals have a ‘third eyelid’—a necessitating membrane—in the inner corner of the eye, controlled by an involuntary muscle. It acts to lubricate the eye, particularly in dry, dusty conditions. However, when the dog is ill, or under the influence of a tranquilizing agent, the muscle controlling the lid may relax, allowing the membrane to cover one-third of the eye. Pet owners often refer to this as a ‘skin growing over the eye’.
Deformities of the third eyelid—an inwards-to-outwards rolling of third eyelid margin—is usually seen in large breeds of dogs, having its highest incidence in Great Danes, German Shepherds, St Bernards, Old English Sheepdogs and Afghans. The condition usually appears before the animal is one year old and causes a mild form of corneal irritation. It can be corrected surgically.
Trichiasis — an extra row of eyelashes.

Trichiasis—an extra row of eyelashes—causes irritation of the cornea. It occurs most frequently in Pekinese, French Poodles, Boxers, English Bulldogs and Cocker Spaniels.
The eyelashes can be removed by depilation.

Tumors—for example, wart-like growths—can occur on the margin of the eyelid and can develop to a point where they physically and mechanically damage the cornea. They should be removed surgically.


Examine the stools regularly for the presence of adult worms or segments of adult parasites. The most common is tapeworm segments which are the size of cucumber seeds, a grayish-pink color, and active. They are usually on the outside of the stool. Roundworms are very common in puppies’ stools. They are white, coiled, 5-8 centimeters long, the thickness of a pencil-lead, and pointed at ends.
The presence of blood, undigested meat or fat globs in the stool indicates illness. Note the odor from the stools. The color may also be of great clinical significance. The usual color is brown because of pigments excreted in feces from the liver. A dark brown to black stool ma indicate either that the animal is on a high meat diet or the blood pigments are present. Grayish-White or clay-colored stools may indicate bile obstruction. Light brow or tan-colored stools are frequently seen in nursing puppies and dogs on a diet high in milk. A green stock containing undigested material indicates a liver problem. A red stool may indicate a recent bleeding attack in the low bowel or rectum.
Normal stools contain only a small amount of mucus. but chronic enteritis, chronic irritants, malabsorption c: high doses of oral antibiotics over long periods may lead to excessive mucus. For further examination of the stop: microscopically, a sample of about one dessertspoonful ( milliliters) should be taken in a clean, labelled container to your veterinary surgeon.


The dog’s feet are often presented with problems. Unclad they come into contact with broken glass, sharp tins, nail, tar, acids, detergents and other harmful materials.

Cut Pads or Webbing

Cuts in the pads or in the webbing between the toes bleed profusely as this area is very vascular. Bleeding can be stopped initially by the application of a tourniquet and a firm bandage around the foot. Where the cut has gone right through the pad or skin, it is best to have the wound sutured, as sensitive tissues underneath the pad’s surface would otherwise cause the dog prolonged irritation when they touch sand and gravel.

Fish Hooks
Fish hooks are commonly found in the feet (and also in the lips after fish bait has been eaten). Do not try to pull a hook back against the barb. Instead, the shank of the hook should be cut and the passage of the barb continued through the skin. This may require a general anesthetic.

Foreign Bodies Between the Toes
Foreign bodies between the toes are usually grass seeds. thorns or pieces of stick. Sometimes the skin may heal over the site of the wound and days later an abscess will form. A chronically draining sinus may be the first symptom.
Often a general anesthetic has to be given while a probe is used to find the foreign body. If possible, where there is a hole in the skin, irrigate with 50 per cent peroxide and water for several days. The foreign body may wash out.

Interdigital Cysts
These are swellings that appear between the toes and are caused by a blockage of the sweat glands in the feet. Soak the foot in a bowl of warm water with salt, at the rate of one tablespoon per liter. This will bring the cyst to a head. When it ruptures, clean the area with warm water and salt (1 tablespoon salt per liter) three or four times a day. Occasionally the swelling may have to be lanced by a vet.
Sometimes a foreign body (for example, a grass seed or splinter) causes the problem.

Interdigital Dermatitis
Interdigital dermatitis is an inflammatory, irritating dermatitis between the toes. It is usually precipitated by an allergic reaction to a grass which causes the dog to lick between the toes. The licking combined with the allergic re action allows bacteria to multiply between the claws. Ap- plications of astringent agents such as mercurochrome, triple dye or gentian violet will dry out the areas. The dog should be prevented from licking the areas by use of an Elizabethan collar or a bucket. Sometimes antibiotics and antihistamine injections may be necessary.

Female Disorders

By far the highest incidence of the female disorders listed below occur in undersexed mature bitches not being used for breeding. The incidence of these disorders in bitches desexed before they have a litter and under one year of age is practically zero.

Mammary Tumors
Mammary tumor is the hard lump surrounding the nipple. Mammary tumors are one of the problems of older bitches, usually undersexed bitches which have not had a litter and which suffer from pseudopregnancy. There are even the smaller rheumatoid type, should always be removed surgically as soon as they are detected. The longer the tumor is allowed to remain, the greater the danger of secondary growths appearing, not only in the mammary gland, but also in the lymphatic glands within the abdomen. It is important to take the bitch to a vet as soon as any mammary lump is detected.

Mastitis is hot, swollen mammary glands caused by bacterial infection. Mastitis means inflammation of the mammary gland. It is caused by bacterial infection, the bacteria usually gaining entry through scratches or wounds in the teats. These wounds are caused by hungry pups, most often when the bitch is short of milk because of an inadequate diet. The first signs are restlessness, possibly an elevated temperature, and loss of appetite. Examination will show a hot, painful and markedly swollen gland. If the condition is not brought under control quickly, all the milk will disappear and her entire litter may die. Fortunately, mastitis in the bitch responds rapidly to modem antibiotic therapy and prompt treatment is invariably successful. Hot fomentation together with manual stripping of the gland will help the condition resolve quickly.


Pus discharging from the vulva.

Metritis is an inflammation of the womb which most often occurs after whelping. It can be caused by the presence of dead pups, injury during, whelping, etc. The first signs are usually discharge from the vulva, loss of appetite and a high temperature. This condition is very serious and requires immediate veterinary attention and antibiotic treatment. Treatment is usually successful, but occasionally a pyometron (womb full of pus) may develop. In these cases, a hysterectomy is needed


Polyps are wart-like growths on long stalks which form in the uterus. Hard lumps can be felt in the uterus. There may be a bloody discharge, but the bitch is otherwise completely normal. The only effective treatment is a complete hysterectomy.


Prolapse describes the condition where the cervix and the vagina fold back on themselves and protrude from the vagina. Sometimes the bladder is included in the prolapse and very occasionally the uterus as well. It appears as a red inflamed mass protruding from the vulva which the bitch licks incessantly. Treatment is to replace the prolapse surgically under general anesthetic and suture the organs in place.
Vaginitis means an inflammation of the lining of the vagina. It is usually caused by bacteria infecting an injury caused by mating or a difficult whelping. The bitch shows considerable discomfort and may repeatedly strain as though in labour. There may be a red or yellow discharge. Treatment involves a course of antibiotics together with daily insertion of a pessary.
Normal body temperature of a dog is 38.5°C. Body temperatures higher than 41°C for prolonged periods can cause permanent brain damage. Temperatures above 43°C are associated with high mortality.
The pet with a fever is usually depressed, off its food and lethargic; some will appear to be cold and shivery. Feverish dogs usually seek out a cool place such as a linoleum or tile floor. The dog’s nose may be wet or dry. The causes are Overexertion from excitement or an overactive thyroid gland.
Obstructions to the panting or heat-loss mechanisms. Obstructions in the air passages of the short-faced breeds—Pugs, for example.
Paralysis—for example, because of ticks. Confinement in a hot, humid, poorly ventilated area. Septicemia and infectious diseases.
Where the animal has a high temperature, it is important to reduce the temperature or at least stop it getting higher. Place wet towels over the dog, keep it in a cool place, place it before a fan, administer half a tablet of aspirin, and seek veterinary advice as soon as possible.


Whatever you do, don’t try to stop a dog fight with your bare hands. Use water, or hoses or garbage cans. If you are quick and have presence of mind, grab a tail and fling the dog away.

Poisoning First Aid

Poisons may be absorbed internally or through the skin or via the respiratory tract. If the animal was in physical contact with toxic or corrosive material, wash its skin clean with large quantities of water.
If the dog has eaten a poison, induce vomiting by administering orally a tablespoon of bicarbonate of soda to a quarter of a cup of water, or 5 milliliters of hydrogen peroxide.
If the dog is excited or convulsing, try to protect it from injuring itself.
In all cases, after the first aid measures (given above) have been carried out, take the dog immediately to a vet. Don’t forget to take a sample of the suspected poison and its container along to the vet with the animal. This is important because the medications the vet must use will depend on the type of poison the dog has ingested. The vet will also be able to give the dog any necessary supportive treatment using medications and treatment which you will not have available at home.
Should a vet not be handy, try to induce vomiting (see above). Remember, these solutions should only be given in an emergency when there is no vet available, as neither solution is particularly efficient in making the animal vomit. It is also possible that such fluids given orally will pass through the stomach and wash the poison into the small intestines where it will be absorbed more rapidly.
Most poisons produce early gastrointestinal signs, such as vomiting, and progress rapidly to fits and weakness in the legs. Others will cause neurological signs such as fainting or trembling. Urine color can sometimes help in the diagnosis: the carbamate in one snail bait produces a bright blue urine; the metaldehyde in another snail bait produces a light green urine.
There are so many potentially toxic substances now on the market that it is impossible to mention them all. Only the most common problems will be covered here.


The number of things that could be kept in an emergency first aid box is limitless. The following is a basic list.
A roll of 5-centimeter wide adhesive bandage, such as
Two rolls of conforming gauze bandage or clean white cloth
Antiseptic wash (e.g. chlorhexidine)
Hydrogen peroxide 3%
A tape to muzzle the dog
Guillotine-type nail cutters
50 milliliters liquid paraffin
Acriflavin, mercurochrome, triple dye, zinc cream
Wound dressing powder (preferably one containing an antibiotic)
Soluble aspirin
Bicarbonate of soda
Antibiotic/cortisone skin ointment
Antibiotic dispenser
Antibiotic eye ointment
Eye wash
Flea powder
Flea rinse


When the dog starts to have a fit, leave it in a dark room and keep it quiet. If possible, place a peg or other wooden object between the dog’s teeth and pull out the tongue. The fit usually lasts only two or three minutes. Afterwards the dog will be exhausted.
If the fit continues longer than three minutes, causes other than epilepsy, such as POISONING, should be suspected. Among the most common causes of poisoning are snail bait and strychnine. Other common causes are insecticidal rinses used on dogs to control fleas and ticks. If this is the case, wash the dog immediately, use copious amounts of water and soap to prevent further absorption of the toxic material. In the case of snail bait and strychnine, take the dog to a vet immediately so that an injection can be given to make it vomit. If you are a long way from a vet, try to induce vomiting by administering a tablespoon of bicarbonate of soda to a quarter cup of water. These poisons can quickly be fatal.
Fits can be caused by epilepsy, poisoning by insecticidal chemicals used in washing dogs, strychnine, snail bait, distemper, rabies, meningitis or low glucose, levels in the blood to the brain.
Epilepsy in pups usually occurs when they are cutting teeth, from two to six months, particularly if they are heavily infested with roundworms. A roundworm-info, pup is typically pot-bellied. The actual cause in these cast-, is not understood.
Toy breeds are particularly susceptible to fits, but often medication will help them to grow out of the fits by six around seven months of age. In young puppies the exact causes of the fits are not understood, but it may be due to pressure on the developing brain from the cranial cavity. It is rare for this type of fit to continue through to middle age.
When it occurs in older dogs, the cause can be shock. fear, injury, sexual excitement, pain or stress. Sometimes a sudden change of temperature can bring on attacks. The fit can be small (petit mal), where the dog remains on its feet. chomps its jaws and froths at the mouth, or it can be a major fit (grand mal), where the dog collapses to its side. partly unconscious, with its legs extended rigidly from its body. The head is usually turned back and the dog ma-, urinate or defecate.
In older dogs, fits may also be due to brain tumors or other pathological space-occupying lesions within the cranial cavity.
Pregnant or whelping bitches may suffer from fits, shaking or twitching because of low sugar or calcium levels. In these cases, stop the pups suckling, administer calcium tablets, give the bitch milk to drink, and take her immediately to the vet


Flatulence occurring in bottle-fed pups is serious. It may be because of overfeeding, the use of unsterile feeding equipment, or feeding a formula that is too high in carbohydrates. The signs are an acute stress condition and a distended stomach. Prompt attention by a veterinary surgeon is vital.
Chronic intestinal flatulence and anal release is common in adult dogs, particularly the large breeds, though it can be embarrassing to owners. Flatulence is an indication of excessive bacterial fermentation in the bowel and is usually caused by feeding a high carbohydrate diet—potatoes. other root vegetables, beans, cauliflowers, cabbage an,: onions may be at fault. Cereals, milk and sweets can cause upsets. Some of the commercial rations with a high carbohydrate content may cause the problem. Dogs that tend to eat their food too fast and gulp air may also suffer from the problem. Change the dog’s diet to a protein-type ration, ensure it is not constipated and have it treated with a wide-spectrum intestinal antibiotic to reduce the population of fermenting bacteria in the bowel.


This is a common condition in warmer countries during the summer months and is caused by flies biting the dog It particularly affects dogs that are chained or have restricted access to sheltered areas. The flies bite prominent spots such as the tips of the ears or the highest fold in the ear. Long-haired dogs can also be flyblown around the crutch area and wherever there are sores protected by matted long hair.
Long hair should be cut away and any maggots physically removed. Douse the area with an insecticidal rinse. Where the animal cannot be placed in a fly-proofed area, use insecticidal ointments or sprays for protection. If the dog does not like the sound of the pressure pack, spray the insecticide on to a cloth and wipe it over the ears. This should be done at least twice a day.

Fracture of the Penis

The male dog has a small bone in his penis. Occasionally this bone is fractured (usually during attempted mating). Clinical signs are a severe swelling and acute pain. Diagnosis is by X-ray.


Frostbite is uncommon in dogs, but it can affect the ears and the feet. Treat quickly with warmth and massage. Sudden heat should not be applied. The area should be wrapped in cotton-wool after being dressed with an astringent agent such as acriflavin. The dog should be offered warm milk, and all parts of its body should be rubbed and massaged. Veterinary attention is essential if the part of the body is to be saved


Gangrene is the death of body tissues following degeneration of the tissues involved. Restricted circulation in an area because of tight bandages or plaster casts can sometimes result in gangrene. Fortunately these days, with modern antibiotics, gangrene is rarely seen.

Glandular Enlargement

The dog has a large number of lymph nodes situated throughout the body. These have several functions, the most important being to filter the blood to remove infection from local areas as well as certain other unwanted matter. When infection is present, the glands may swell

Grass Eating

Grass eating is common in dogs. It is generally used as a mechanism to stimulate vomiting to rid the stomach of stale food and may also be a symptom of gastritis, digestive discomfort or worm infestation. Another theory is that dogs eat grass as a source of vitamins.

Heart Disease

The heart can be considered as a four-chambered pump with valves between the chambers. Disease may affect any one of the chambers, the valves, the muscles that make the heart function or the nerve centers that control the heart movement and beat.
For any heart disease, veterinary attention is essential. For first aid when the dog has a heart attack, it should be kept as quiet as possible in a darkened room, and stimuli of any type should be avoided. Where the dog suffers from a continuous cough, and veterinary advice is not immediately obtainable, a small amount (1 to 5 milliliters, or up to a teaspoon) of brandy or whisky may be given in milk, depending on the size of the dog, and a quarter to one codeine tablet as additional treatment while waiting for veterinary advice.
The most common heart condition in dogs is congestive heart failure. It is particularly common in Poodles. The initial clinical sign of this condition is a cough, sometimes referred to as a cardiac cough, which is stimulated by exercise or excitement. This is due to the congestive nature of the heart failure. Subsequent signs include difficulty in breathing, reduced tolerance to physical exercise, enlargement of the liver and a filling of the abdomen with fluid (this gives the dog a pregnant look). Treatment is aimed at eliminating the fluid accumulation by decreasing the work of the heart, reducing salt intake in the food and encouraging cardiac compensation by means of drugs.
Cardiovascular disease in dogs is not closely associated with diet problems, except for the consideration of salt in congested heart failure. A low salt diet should be considered only as an adjunct to other medical therapy and only when clinical signs of congestive heart failure are present.
A fluid-filled abdomen, usually due to chronic heart failure. A dog with a circulatory condition requires food with a low sodium content and a fairly high level of protein and carbohydrate. Such a dog usually cannot excrete sodium, which encourages the fluid within the body to stay in the tissues, which in turn impedes the circulation. A low salt diet can be formulated from boiled beef or chicken (discard the water used for boiling), together with rice, oatmeal or macaroni, and low-salt, bulk-forming vegetables such as corn, squash, beans or peas. Vegetable oils and honey are low in salt and seasoning agents such as garlic or onion powder may tempt the dog’s appetite. Avoid the standard commercial pet foods, canned or prepared meat, dairy products, cheese and pastries and ‘treat’ tidbits such as crackers, chips and salted nuts. It is difficult to create a palatable low salt diet.
Heart-worm is also a common cause of mechanical congestive heart failure.


Heatstroke heatstroke is a problem in Pekinese, Pugs and Boxers, those breeds with pushed-in faces; as well as in the readily excitable breeds such as Poodles and Terriers. In the former group, it is a problem of deficient respiration, whereas in the latter group it is a result of physical activity in hot or humid environments. All dogs, irrespective of breed, are susceptible to heatstroke if confined in hot conditions—for example, in a closed car.
Heatstroke is relatively rapid in onset. The patient pants incessantly and drools saliva, yelps with distress, and champs the saliva into large bubbles which adhere to the face and forelegs as a froth or foam. There is a staring expression of apprehension and concern. The patient becomes excited with the discomfort and moves constantly to change position. This excessive muscular activity generates an increase in body temperature which further worsens the condition. Muscular weakness with distinct tremors and later spasms will be evident from the onset of distress. The heatstroke patient in a collapsed condition with muscular spasms will invariably die. Vomiting is a frequent symptom, and persistent vomiting increases the risk of death. A body temperature of 42-43°C is usually fatal, even when present for less than one hour.
First aid for heatstroke Since excess body temperature and reduced ability to lose body heat are the primary problems, any first aid measures should be directed at resolving these problems quickly. Remove the patient from any confined space to facilitate an airflow in the general vicinity.
Spray the dog with cold water from a hose or iced water and place it in front of a large electric fan. Ice packs may be applied to the head and neck. Cold-water enemas are also of value in lowering internal body temperature. Massage the legs to aid general circulation and heat loss from the skin. Do not give sedatives to an overexcited dog, as they have an adverse effect on its blood pressure. When the patient’s temperature has fallen to the normal level, about 38.5°C, it is usually safe to dispense with first aid temporarily and seek veterinary assistance. This will involve intravenous infusions, therapy against secondary infection and monitoring the kidneys for damage.
Preventing heatstroke Ensure that whenever dogs must be confined in a restricted space, they are protected from the direct rays of the sun. Adequate ventilation and plenty of cold drinking water are essential. Feeding times should be changed to early morning or late evening in hot weather, as the digestion of food results in a higher body temperature. Clipping the coat, contrary to popular belief, is not necessary, since the coat provides an insulation against the rays of the sun in a normal, healthy outdoor dog.


Hernia is the protrusion of an organ or part of an organ outside the space it normally occupies, while it is still enclosed in the membrane lining the cavity in which the organ is normally contained—that is, the protruding part is enclosed in a sac of lining membrane when it enters the incorrect position. The commonest forms of hernias are diaphragmatic, inguinal, perineal and umbilical.

Diaphragmatic Hernia

Although the name hernia is used, this condition is strictly speaking a rupture. It is seen in dogs that have suffered from a severe accident or fall. The diaphragm is torn and parts of the abdominal organs enter the chest cavity. Respiration is restricted as the lungs become squashed. Surgical repair is necessary.

Inguinal Hernia

Inguinal hernias are seen most commonly in adults of either sex. A swelling occurs in the groin, usually on side only, as part of the intestines press down through a weakened muscle wall. In the male, the hernia may ins the scrotum, in which case it is often termed as scrotal hernia. Surgical repair is necessary.

Perineal Hernia

Perineal hernia, seen mainly in elderly dogs, is a soft swelling on one side of the anus. This type of hernia is not to repair, but surgery is often attempted.

Umbilical Hernia

An umbilical hernia is usually seen in puppies, where umbilical ring does not close or is damaged. A bubble of fat forms in the opening, it may be pressed back into the abdomen but will reappear. An umbilical hernia can sometimes be caused by premature or careless tearing of the umbilical cord at birth. These hernias should be repaired where possible to prevent strangulation as a result of the hernia and causing the death of the dog.

Hip Dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is an inherited condition in which the ball and socket joint of the hip does not fit properly, the resultant irritation causing arthritis. It can be difficult to diagnose, as dogs that are clinically normal can be found to have hip dysplasia on radiographic examination. Puppies bred from parents and grandparents that are radiographically free from hip dysplasia may still develop the condition, although the chances of it occurring are greatly reduced. It is most common in breeds that grow to more than 15 kilograms at three months of age. Breeds most likely to be affected are Golden Labradors, Retrievers, Boxers, German Shepherds, German Short-haired Pointers, Dobermans, Great Danes and St Bernards. The condition is very rarely seen in greyhounds, however, as selective breeding has operated to eliminate affected dogs (which race poorly) from breeding programs.
The symptoms of hip dysplasia include reluctance to rise from the sitting position. The affected dog usually takes two or three awkward steps before the hip joint war:: allowing the dog to walk normally. Affected dogs e:. a ‘roly-poly’ action when viewed from the rear. The condition may prevent a dog from walking as early as seven months or as late as old age. Most Labradors some degree of hip dysplasia; by the time they are nine ten years old, it is rare to find a Labrador who can SU:- up quickly and walk without hesitation.
Dogs cannot be certified free of hip dysplasia by X-7. until twelve months of age. Treatment is by surgery. T: involves cutting the muscles inside the legs or removing I: hip joints. Alternatively, anti-inflammatory tablets a:- pain-killers may be used. The best prevention is not breed from affected dogs.


Incontinence is the unexpected passing of urine. In puppies this is usually because of nervousness and wears off in time.
In older dogs the causes are quite varied, including kidney disease, bladder disease, paralysis of the nerve supplying the bladder, bladder stones, tumors, enlarged prostate glands in the male and hormonal deficiencies in desexed females. Because the condition has a number of causes, it is best to take a 30-milliliter sample of urine along to the vet, together with an exact history of when and where the dog passes the urine. Where the incontinence is caused by the bladder becoming over-full and the excess dripping out, it is essential to ensure that the bladder is emptied twice a day using gentle pressure on the flanks if this is possible. Long-backed dogs that have had a back problem are often incontinent. Hormone therapy is useful for desexed females.


Incoordination can be the result of tick paralysis, central nervous system diseases, back problems, conditions of the middle ear, meningitis and encephalitis.


Infection is caused by micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or protozoa. The infection can be generalized (for example, septicemia) or localized (for example, an abscess).

Infectious Diseases

Diseases may be caused by many different viruses, and a single virus may produce many different manifestations of disease, for example, distemper. Viral diseases cannot be cured because few antibiotics or other drugs will kill the virus. However, they may often be prevented by quarantine, good hygiene and management and by vaccination.

Canine Parvoviral Enteritis

The signs of the parvovirus are vomiting and diarrhea of short duration. It may occur in an isolated dog or appear in an outbreak form in a kennel, affecting both puppies and adults simultaneously. Some dogs will cease eating and vomit for twenty-four to forty-eight hours and recover without treatment. Other dogs may have prolonged vomiting and diarrhea, and if treatment is not instituted they may die of the combined effects of dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. A third variation is the dog with prolonged vomiting and diarrhea with a severe bloody diarrhea developing. The dog will die within twenty-four hours.
The cause of this disease is a virus. There is no specific cure, but correction of the dehydration and electrolyte imbalance quickly and vigorously by the use of intravenous fluids is important. Veterinary attention is essential. Prevention is by vaccination.


Distemper is a highly contagious viral disease which is universal in dog populations and is transmitted through contaminated objects or by close contact. The incubation period is about nine days, the first signs being a high temperature for one to three days; the temperature may fluctuate from high to normal for a week. Pus accumulates in the corners of the eyes, which squint.
Sometimes there is a nasal discharge. The dog is usually depressed, off its food and develops diarrhea. Coughing may precede fatal pneumonia. A dog may recover from these symptoms and then succumb to further complications about four weeks later. These include nervous signs involving convulsive seizures, inability to stand, jerking movements of the head and jaws and paddling motions of the legs.
Sometimes there is a trembling of the muscles in the temple, just in front of the ear. The dog may wander aimlessly, unaware of its surroundings. Attacks of distemper vary from an apparently mild infection to obviously serious disease. The disease can last as little as ten days but more often will be prolonged for several weeks or months, with intervening periods of apparent improvement followed by regression. A typical distemper case is not difficult to diagnose, although many cases do not present the signs until the condition has advanced. Distemper should be suspected in all sick puppies, particularly if fever is present and there is no other apparent cause. Distemper is often confused with canine hepatitis and leptospirosis.
Prevention is best achieved by immunizing the pregnant bitch halfway through the pregnancy to give the puppies an increased immunity at birth. All puppies should be immunized at six weeks and again at sixteen weeks. Because the condition is caused by a viral agent, treatment is not always effective. It is, however, always preferable to treat the dog because even the most serious cases can sometimes show a remarkable improvement.


Hepatitis is a contagious viral disease characterized by a slight temperature, congestion of the mucous membranes and severe depression. Dogs of all ages are susceptible.
The disease is transmitted through urine and droppings.
The incubation period is six to nine days, with the virus localizing in the liver and kidneys. The degree of severity varies from a slight fever to fatal illness. The first sign is an increased temperature, lasting for one to six days and usually fluctuating between quite high and near normal.
General signs are apathy, loss of appetite, thirst and conjunctivitis, accompanied by discharge from the eyes, mouth and nose. The mucous membranes and tonsils become congested and there will be signs of abdominal pain and sometimes vomiting. After the period of general illness ends, the animal eats well but regains weight slowly. Some 25 per cent of sufferers develop a redness in the eyes seven to ten days after the disappearance of the acute stage of the illness. Although the disease can be fatal, there is a fair recovery rate. Vaccination, combined with distemper immunization, is very effective in preventing the disease. The mother should be vaccinated halfway through her pregnancy and the pups at six and sixteen weeks. Live hepatitis vaccines may cause keratitis

Herpes Virus

Herpes virus is a newly recognized, yet fairly common, fatal viral disease which occurs in pups under a month old. The virus kills the tissues in the liver and kidneys and causes pneumonia. The pups usually die within twenty four hours. There is no vaccine.


Leptospirosis is caused by an organism called a spirochaete, which can be transmitted to humans. Nearly half the rat population carries it, and dogs become infected after eating food contaminated by rat urine or by eating infected rats. Dogs of all ages are affected, males being more susceptible than females.
After an incubation period of five to fifteen days, the disease may have a sudden onset characterized by slight weakness, refusal to eat, vomiting, high temperature and often mild congestion in the eye. Within two days the temperature drops sharply, depression is more pronounced, breathing becomes labored and thirst develops. Muscular soreness and stiffness develop, particularly in the hind legs.
The mucous membranes of the mouth first show patches like a graze or burn, which later dry out and drop off in sections. In some cases the tongue may show dead patches of skin and the entire tip may drop off.
Prevention is by vaccination. Always keep your dog on a leash when in an area frequented by other dogs. A constant supply of fresh water should be available to discourage random drinking. Garbage, pools and fishponds are often contaminated and are prime sources of infection. It is essential in all cases to administer an antibiotic combination for at least ten days. Dehydration and acidosis can be treated with fluid therapy at the vet’s surgery.


The usual sign of myocarditis is that puppies three to seven weeks of age are found dead or dying following a brief period of difficult breathing. Those affected are usually vigorous, healthy puppies with no prior indication of any illness. The mortality rate within a litter may vary from 30 to 100 per cent with deaths occurring over a period of two to three weeks and in some cases up to six weeks. The cause is at present unknown but it is strongly suspected that it is caused by a virus. Treatment is non-specific.


Rabies is a virus disease of all mammals, including humans, which is spread by the saliva of an infected animal entering the bloodstream of another animal, usually by a bite. The period of incubation varies from two weeks to six months, and depends on the site of infection. The virus has to travel to the brain from the point where it entered the body; therefore the further from the head the bite occurred, the longer the incubation period. Symptoms are basically a change of temperament followed by a period of great excitement. Finally, if the dog survives long enough, a period of paralysis follows. The excitement stage is characterized by the dog attacking, without fear, anything that moves or makes a noise. The dog may run for miles. In the paralytic stage the dog shows symptoms of paralysis of the lower jaw and limbs. Collapse quickly follows, then death.
Any person bitten by such a dog should report to their doctor as soon as possible. The dog suspected of suffering from rabies should not be killed but should be confined in a safe area from which escape is impossible. This is necessary for correct diagnosis of the disease. As rabies is fatal and can infect humans, it is essential that all control measures be rigidly enforced and that suspected cases be reported immediately. Check with your veterinarian if vaccination is necessary in your area.

Insecticide Rinses

Organophosphate compounds are the common active ingredient in many flea collars, liquid dog washes, aerosols and flea powders. Poisoning with insecticidal rinses is usually due to incorrect concentration. Sometimes the correct concentration of solution will have a detrimental effect in very young, aged or debilitated animals.
Poisoning is by absorption through the skin or by licking. The symptoms vary depending on the drug, dose received and individual sensitivity, but the usual symptoms are salivation, muscle tremor, shivering, weakness in the hind legs, convulsions, vomiting, diarrhea and constriction of the pupils followed by dilation. Immediately this form of poisoning is recognized, wash the dog in copious quantities of fresh water to prevent further absorption of insecticides, then take it to the vet.


A jaundiced condition develops where there is an concentration of bile pigment in the blood, yellowish staining of the white of the eye, the membrane of the mouth and, in severe cases, the self. It may be caused by: leptospirosis; the after-effect a blood transfusion; sclerosis and liver tumors; bile duct obstruction. If your dog appears jaundice is best to consult a vet.

Kidney Disease (Nephritis)

Nephritis simply means inflammation of the kidneys. a common and serious disease in aging dogs and difficult to treat. It always requires the attention of a
The first sign is an increased thirst and the passing excess urine. While the dog’s appetite may be good, it loses weight. Some dogs will have foul breath. The dog might vomit, particularly in the morning, and especially after drinking water. In advanced cases the dog may collapse.
The cause is usually an infection of the kidneys, and veterinary attention should be sought immediately to avoid irreversible damage to the delicate structure of the kidneys. A 30-milliliter sample of urine should accompany the dog to the vet. This is best collected by confining the dog overnight with water, then taking the dog on a leash into the garden and quietly collecting the urine in a clean shallow vessel. Once the dog has received the appropriate treatment, it should be fed a special diet.
A dog with severe kidney trouble often excretes a lot of protein in its urine, so extra protein should be supple: preferably white meat (rabbit or chicken) or fish. Other suitable foods include cereal, milk, egg custard, cheese (small quantities), hard-boiled eggs, vegetables, boiled and rice pudding. Extra vitamin B should be supplied, yeast tablet two or three times a week is ideal.

Long backs

Corgis and Dachshunds are the main sufferers of back trouble, which may lead to paralysis of the hind legs. Bassets rarely have trouble with their backs. Paralysis of the back legs may be of a temporary nature, lasting one or two weeks, or it may become permanent, necessitating euthanasia.

Milk Fever or Eclampsia

Milk fever is a calcium deficiency in the blood of the bitch, caused by loss of calcium in the milk to the pups. It is more commonly seen in smaller breeds with large litters but can occur in any breed. Milk fever most commonly occurs two or three weeks after the birth of the pups, although it can happen much earlier, and can be rapidly fatal if immediate treatment is not given by a vet. The first symptoms are weakness and trembling of the limbs; it then progresses to convulsions, paralysis and heart failure. An all-meat diet will aggravate the condition because of :he low calcium and high phosphorus content of meat.
Giving the bitch milk to drink helps by supplying calcium, but a balanced dry food diet is more helpful in preventing calcium deficiency. It also provides the calories necessary to make milk. There is some evidence that heavy oral calcium supplementation before lactation may actually increase the likelihood of calcium deficiency during lactation, as it causes a depression of the mechanism whereby the bitch dissolves the calcium in her bones to supply the calcium in her blood.

Mouth Disorders

Dogs do not sweat through the skin. They exchange most of their heat through the mouth, and can extend the tongue to increase the surface exposed to the air.
Most young puppies up to six months of age bite and chew a lot in the process of cutting their teeth. Some exercise on sticks, others on shoes, slippers, socks and even furniture if they get the chance. One method of satisfying a pup’s requirements is to give it several ‘chews’, which are pieces of rolled-up, dehydrated cattle hide. Use these with caution, as small pieces may rehydrate in the intestine and cause a blockage. Another solution is to give the pup large ox shank bones from the butcher. These shanks have sheaths of meat and tissue which are good for the dog to chew and tear. Make sure that the bone is not one that can fracture into sharp pieces.

Bad Breath
Foul breath can be caused by eating raw meat, or meat buried too long, by tartar build-up on the teeth, or inflammation of the gums (gingivitis). This causes the gums to fall away from the teeth, allowing food to be trapped and then decay. Ulcers, viral attacks and bacterial infection can all cause bad breath. Bacterial infections of tonsils or lymph glands of the mouth can lead to tonsillitis, pharyngitis or laryngitis, all of which give bad breath. Other causes may be gastrointestinal upsets or kidney trouble. In sugar diabetes there is a distinct smell of acetone.

Bad breath is commonly caused by tartar on the teeth and infected gums.
Spaniels often suffer from an extremely unpleasant mouth odor which arises from ulceration of the outer surface of the lower lip. This occurs in the deep creases seen in this breed which fill with saliva and then become infected. Creases so affected should be cleaned, washed -.- Phisohex soap, or a 50 per cent hydrogen peroxide/«a:_- solution, dried and powdered with a wound dressing powder, or one of the astringent dyes.

Bleeding can occur in small quantities from ulcerated inflamed gums, or from the sockets of bad teeth. The mouth can also bleed from trauma and from cuts receive: from sticks or from car accidents. As the mouth contains many blood vessels, with a particularly large pair under tongue, dogs playing with sharp sticks or bones can easily lacerate a vein. Bleeding from the mouth is difficult to treat without an anesthetic. Dogs rarely suffer a fatal bleed don’t panic—but do see the vet.
Typical gap in the roof of the mouth formation of cleft palate.

Cleft Palate
This is a congenital abnormality in which the roof of the mouth fails to join down the centre, leaving a gap through which food can pass into the respiratory sinuses. subsequently causing pneumonia. Puppies with this abnormality rarely reach maturity because of pneumonia. It car_ be corrected surgically in some cases.

The normal color of ,a dog’s gums is pink. Pale gums are a symptom of anaemia or shock. If the dog suffers from anaemia, the cause should be identified. If the anaemia could be caused by shock after an accident_ have the dog examined by a vet to make sure it is not bleeding internally. Then offer warm milk and keep the animal in a head-down position. Keep the animal warm. Red gums, particularly around the margins between the gums and the teeth, indicate gingivitis, caused by excess tartar which should be scraped off while the dog is under anesthetic.
A generalized redness of the gums indicates a toxic condition of the blood.
Tumours of the gum, not usually malignant, need only be removed by the vet if they appear to give the dog mechanical discomfort. They are particularly common in Boxers.

The most common cause of excessive salivation is car sickness. Anti-sickness tablets are available. Salivation can also be caused by poisons such as Baysol, Defender and Malathion.

Normally the dog has forty-two teeth, twenty in the upper jaw and twenty-two in the lower. The six front teeth in the upper and lower jaws are called incisors. Behind these are the single-pointed canines. The premolars and molars are the big grinding teeth at the back of the jaw.
At birth the puppy has no teeth; later temporary (milk teeth) appear. From three to four weeks after birth the incisors erupt, the temporary canines appearing at about the same time. The three temporary premolars appear at about six to nine weeks. During the eruption period, the dog’s teeth should be examined once a week, to check whether there is space for the erupting teeth and whether the adult teeth are appearing before the temporary teeth are shed. Overcrowding of the mouth is particularly common in the pushed-in face breeds such as Maltese Terriers, Chihuahuas, Pekinese, Pugs and Boxers. In the toy breeds, supernumerary or retained deciduous teeth, especially the canines, may be seen at about six months of age. Supernumerary or retained teeth should be extracted.
The retained temporary canine is immediately behind the whiter, shorter less pointed permanent tooth.
Dental decay is on the increase, as more and more owners feed soft prepared foods to their pets. Large bones or hard biscuits help to reduce tartar accumulation. Some breeds, such as Poodles, are particularly susceptible to bad teeth. Once tartar has formed in the margins of the teeth, tooth decay and bad breath quickly follow. If your dog is docile, it is possible to clean the tartar from the teeth with a metallic object or hard plastic, or even to brush the teeth with a hard toothbrush. If the tartar persists or the dog won’t co-operate, it will need its teeth descaled while under a general anesthetic.

The natural color of a dog’s tongue is pink—except the Chow’s, which is purple. The tongue is very vascular (that is, it contains many blood vessels) because it is the point of exchange of heat for dogs. Dogs that play with sharp objects can easily lacerate some of the large vessels in the tongue. If this happens, the dog should be taken immediately to the vet.

Nervous Conditions (Chorea)
In dogs chorea is usually a legacy of the distemper virus. Viral and bacterial infections affect the central nervous system. The dog will have a persistent and uncontrollable twitch. This can be in the temporal muscles between the eye and the ears, over the forehead, or it may affect a leg or the whole body. Because the central nervous system does not regenerate, the best that can be hoped for is that the twitch will not get worse.
If the dog begins to have fits or becomes paralyzed, the future is hopeless. Where only a limb is involved, the animal can sometimes live a reasonable life.

Facial paralysis

This is usually due to a traumatic knock to the head which injures the facial nerve. The mouth becomes twisted and the tongue lolls to one side. Usually the nerve repairs and the dog’s future is good—with patience and time the only cure.


An hysterical dog appears to go mad, racing around blindly, howling, oblivious of all attempts to calm it. An attack is usually triggered by excitement or sudden noise. It may last for several minutes or half an hour. At the end, the animal may fall down in a fit or convulsion. The condition is common in toy breeds and in some instances is due to a dietary deficiency of vitamin B I. Treat the dog as for FITS.


The most common form of paralysis (apart from radial paralysis—see below) is paralysis of the hind legs. This can be caused by ticks, severance of the spinal cord in motor vehicle accidents, or disc protrusion in long-backed dogs such as Corgis and Dachshunds. It is important to seek veterinary advice.

Radial Paralysis

The radial nerve provides both motor and sensory functions to the forelimbs. It is particularly susceptible to mechanical damage as it lies just under the skin on top of the bone in the front leg. Traumatic damage to this nerve results in radial paralysis and prevents the dog elevating its foot from the ground. Consequently, the elbow drops and there is a slight curling of the leg from the wrist down. The dog has no feeling in the toes and drags its leg along the ground. In many cases the tops of the toes will be abraded to the point where the bone may show. Treatment and recovery depend on whether the nerve is bruised or actually severed. If the nerve is bruised, there is a possibility of recovery over a three-week period and the toes should be bandaged to prevent further damage. If there is no improvement after three or four weeks, it can be assumed that the nerve is permanently damaged and amputation is advised. Dogs can exist very happily on three legs.


A stroke is caused by the rupture of one of the smaller blood vessels in the brain, generally in older dogs. The dog is usually brought to the vet with a history of staggering; the head rolls from side to side. Treatment depends on the part of the body that is affected but invariably requires a long convalescence and much loving care from the owner. If the legs are involved, they should be massaged to prevent muscle atrophy or wasting.

Nose Troubles

A normal, healthy dog has a cold, moist nose. This may become dry and warm from stress, ill health or merely from excessive exercise.
Bleeding from the nose may occur after an accident, from a tumor, poisoning, constant sneezing from sinusitis or after violent exercise.
Changes in color
Changes in the color of pigmentation of the nose are common but do not seem to indicate disease.
Crusting on top of the nose can be due to distemper or a fungal dermatitis.
A yellow discharge from both nostrils usually indicates an infection lower in the respiratory tract, such as pneumonia. This could result from distemper or the inhalation of medication into the lung.
Pus in both nostrils could also indicate a generalized infection of the sinus cavities of the head. Pus coming from one nostril indicates a local infection of the sinus on that side of the head, a decaying tumor in one of the sinuses or even a decaying tooth root. Offensive discharges often indicate that bony tissues are involved.


Many urban dogs suffer from overweight problems. This is the result of the excellent diets provided by the pet food industry coupled with the small territorial space allowed for most dogs. A vicious cycle is established once the dog begins to get fat. The overweight dog is lethargic, and later develops other health problems. These further discourage the exercise which would normally keep the dog slim by burning up energy.
In the wild, overweight animals would not survive as they would not be fast enough to catch their prey. As with human dieting, a rapid reduction in weight is dangerous. Record the weight of the dog by carrying it onto the bathroom scales and then subtracting your own weight. Establish the correct weight for your dog by contacting a breed society or your vet. Do not try to reduce the dog’s weight by more than half a kilogram per week.
The following routine should be successful:
Give the dog access to plenty of water.
Seek out a balanced, good quality commercial dog foot that your dog does not find very palatable. Remember, the more moisture it has the more palatable it is. Dry dog foods (unmoistened) may therefore be your answer.
Feed one meal per day of this food, and nothing else. If the dog continues to overeat on the dry food diet, keep changing brands until you find a less palatable food, c: keep the dog’s intake restricted.
Be sure the dog is not ‘eating out’ at the neighbor’s place. Increase the dog’s exercise—but slowly.
Keep the dog away from kitchens at meal-times and don’: give any ‘treats’.

Old Age

A dog’s lifespan varies with the breed and weight of the dog. Larger breeds live shorter lives, usually eight to twelve years. Smaller breeds live between fifteen and twenty years, although toy dogs are relatively short-lived. There 1- no accurate method for determining the age of a dog after six months, when it has acquired a full set of teeth.


In old age the number of calories required by the dog is reduced, but the preparation of the food becomes more important. The amount of calcium and phosphorus ma:. need to be increased to maintain the health of the dog’s bones. Protein is essential. Carbohydrates should be cooked to break down the starch granules to help digestion, while vitamin supplements should be increased. For the older dog you could prepare a diet of cooked cereal (oatmeal, wheat or rice), plus cooked meat, cottage cheese or boiled egg for added vitamins, but there is no need to change a dog to this diet unless it is not eating its norm., food. If the dog is aging, losing its appetite and becoming thinner, it is important to upgrade the appeal of the diet
This can be done by adding more fresh meat. If the dog is fed on commercial rations, convert the dog to a tinned food rather than a dried food. Fats should be supplied only in very small quantities. Good foods for old dogs include meat (especially white meat), fish, cottage cheese, poultry, cooked eggs and cooked cereals. These should be given as small, frequent meals, rather than one daily feed. In the same way, clean water should be offered frequently.

Geriatric Medicines

There are several medications available from your veterinary surgeon which will give the dog a lift in older age. Thee are particularly helpful for dogs suffering from geriatric conditions such as arthritis, rheumatism, and cardiac and kidney troubles.

Illness in Old Age

Large breeds in old age are often affected by arthritis and kidney troubles, more noticeably in cold climates. The dog may initially have difficulty rising, but after a few strides the gait becomes normal. In the early stages of illness the dog can be made more comfortable by keeping it in warm surroundings and possibly by the judicious use of analgesic or anti-inflammatory agents. Speak to your vet.
Many of the small toy breeds, such as Poodles and Cocker Spaniels, develop severe eye troubles in later life. Providing the dog is in its own familiar surroundings, it is usually able to lead a normal life. Care should be taken where the dog may be able to venture on to the road. Some eye conditions can be treated to return a little eyesight.
Heart conditions are particularly common in Poodles and Cocker Spaniels, and usually involve congestive heart failure. The signs exhibited by the dog are a cardiac cough brought on by excitement or exercise. Sometimes the dog may have an increased thirst and its abdomen appears to swell.
Signs of a kidney complaint are an increased thirst with frequent urination. The dog may also be lethargic.


Orchitis is an inflammatory condition of the testicles, usually caused by an injury, a kick or bruise; very occasionally it may be due to an infection by bacteria. The testicles are hot and painful, and the dog resents them being examined. If an abscess has formed, the dog’s temperature may be elevated to about 40°C. As a first aid measure, the testicles may be fomented with epsom salts and warm water at the rate of a tablespoon to 6 liters. It is best to have the condition treated by a veterinary surgeon—usually with long-acting antibiotics and an anti-inflammatory agent.


Osteochondrosis is an arthritic condition due to an abnormality in bone development which causes a delay in conversion of cartilage to bone. Sites commonly affected are the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hock joint.
Osteochondrosis has a breed and familial tendency, and is more common in overweight males. Breeds affected include Labradors, Rottweilers, German Shepherds, St Bernards, Retrievers, Irish Wolfhounds and English Setters. Clinical signs include a low-grade progressive lameness at four to eight months. There is usually pain on manipulation of the elbow and there may be reduced flexion of the joint. Surgical treatment appears to be helpful and prevents further progression of the osteoarthritis.

Patella Luxation (Knee-cap Dislocation)

Most cases of luxated patella in small breeds are due to displacement of the knee-cap towards the inside. The problem affects many small breeds, generally appearing at four to eight months. Initially the lameness is intermittent, but eventually the patella dislocates permanently and the lameness becomes persistent. Surgical correction is best


Pain is one of the earliest signs of disease. The pet may become restless, move constantly, refuse to stay in one place, roam and whimper. It may have a frightened expression, resent handling or forced movement of painful’ parts.
Acute pain
Sharp pain is usually associated with fractures, ruptures or torsion twisting of internal organs.
Slowly developing pain
Gradually developing pain is associated with arthritis, tumours and inflammation, and here your observations may help the vet to make a diagnosis.
Although a dog may ‘nurse’ one part of the body, for example, a leg, it does not necessarily mean that the dog is in severe pain. Dogs can get along quite well on three legs, and sometimes even a minor complaint will make a dog carry its leg. However, it is always best to have a vet look at the dog to determine whether anything can be done for the injury or whether it is best left to rest. In some conditions, particularly after surgery, it is best that the dog does not use the affected part and therefore pain-killing drugs will not be used


Peritonitis is an inflammatory and sometimes infectious disease problem of the lining of organs and the internal abdominal wall. It is usually caused by septic penetration from either the gastrointestinal tract or the outside abdominal wall.
The animal will resent palpation of the abdomen, arch its back, be reluctant to move, have a fever and be off its food. In all cases the dog should be taken to the vet


Pleurisy is an inflammatory and infectious condition of the lining of the lungs and the wall of the thorax. The inflamed linings rub together during respiration and cause extreme pain. The problem requires veterinary attention.


Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by infection, injury or by migration of parasites, especially in young animals. Signs of pneumonia include shivering, high temperature, loss of appetite, difficulty in breathing and a grunting sound with each breath. It is often possible to hear a ‘grating’ sound if you listen closely to the chest. Veterinary attention is essential.


The prostate gland is an accessory sexual gland in male dogs. When this becomes inflamed and enlarged, the condition is known as prostatitis. The dog, usually middle aged or older, has difficulty in passing motions; he squats for prolonged periods without success and often strains. He may be ‘off’ his food and tend to vomit.
The vet can confirm the diagnosis by rectal examination and institute treatment with injections of female hormones. Sometimes the enlargement is caused by a cancerous growth triggered off by aging male hormones. Large doses of the female hormone reverse the process in the majority of cases. To avoid recurrences it is advisable to have the dog castrated.


Inflammation of a bitch’s womb can result in a more serious disorder, pyometron, in which the womb is filled Pyometron Inflammation of a bitch’s womb can result in a more serious disorder, pyometron.

Respiration Rate Increase

An increase in the respiratory rate occurs during fever, increased environmental temperature, pneumonia, pleurisy, congestion of the lungs caused by ticks or chronic heart failure, space-occupying lesions such as tumours or diaphragmatic hernia, where some of the abdominal contents may be in the thorax.


Rickets is a very rare disease, yet the term is frequently, but incorrectly, used to describe bone problems in larger breeds. Rickets is due to a deficiency of vitamin D and calcium and/or phosphorus. Provided an affected dog is given correct quantities of calcium and phosphorus, the condition can be somewhat alleviated.
It is rare in countries with plenty of sunlight, more prevalent in the northern hemisphere. Dogs with rickets develop abnormalities of their limbs, with the growth plates becoming enlarged and prominent. Affected dogs are inactive.


Excessive salivation can be caused by poisons, fits, car sickness or medications taken orally which can stimulate saliva production.


`Scooting’ is the term used to describe the action of a dog as it pulls itself along the ground in a sitting position to relieve an irritation in the anal area. The irritation is caused by tapeworm fragments, compacted anal glands or itchiness around the anal sphincter.
The contents of infected anal glands may be forced out by holding the dog’s tail in the left hand and, with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand held at eight o’clock and four o’clock positions over a pad of cotton-wool, squeezing inwards and upwards. Anal itchiness can be treated with calamine lotion, gentian violet, mercurochrome or triple dye.


Septicemia is a condition where bacteria entering the bloodstream, sometimes from the gut or another infected source in the body, cause a generalized infection of the body. Localization of the infection occurs in the joints, lungs, liver and kidneys. This is a very serious disease. The dog is obviously unwell, will have a fever, tends to lie in a cool place and will not eat or drink. Veterinary treatment must be given at once. Antibiotics are normally given intravenously initially to obtain a quick response to suppress the organisms circulating in the body.


Shivering is an involuntary movement of the muscles. It can be caused by cold, fever, eclampsia (milk fever), the initial stages of poisoning or fright.


Shock is a failure of the circulatory system resulting from injury or illness. It is commonly seen after motor vehicle accidents where there is severe internal or external bleeding.
It is a serious condition from which the animal rarely recovers without intensive veterinary care. Symptoms are weakness, loss piratory difficulty or failure, an particularly of the gums and Keep the animal warm and cc Stop external bleeding.

Skin Disorders

Eczema appeared on the skin when the gland that is blocked.
Eczema is an inflammation of 3 types: acute moist eczema, dry eczema and scrotal ) that occurs in hot, humid weather. If it can, it will lick skin is broken and surface moist dermatitis. Examine for circular moist patch. Usually the area may house a scab, also called ‘hot spots’ spread. Eczema impacts breeds such as Golden Labradors, golden-colored Pugs, and occurs on sites where there is ample space at the base of the ears, and hindquarters. Treatment is to remove possible allergies. Eliminate any irritating infections. Ears or anal area should be washed with shampoo or soap several times on the affected areas. If the possibility of infection by staphylococcal germs exists, an astringent dye such as or triple dye can be applied. The infection can be very large and in these cases a veterinary examination is warranted. Anti-inflammatory injections, together with antibiotics, may be necessary. Allergic eczema is one of the most common skin problems in warm countries. The allergic reaction may be because of fleas, mites, environmental vegetation such as grasses, or diet. Allergies to plants are the most troublesome; they may flare ‘up every time the pet roams in the garden or only at certain times of the year. The types of vegetation most likely to cause allergies are wandering jew, paspalum, kikuyu and buffalo grass. Lesser irritations can result from allergies to straw, wool or nylon. Low-slung breeds such as Dachshunds, Corgis and Cocker Spaniels are more susceptible. An acute red rash will appear suddenly on the undercarriage, sometimes with angry pimples or larger infected areas. The dog scratches the affected area incessantly, setting up a self-inflicted cycle of injury. Treatment has two aims: to eliminate the allergic cause, and to break the self-inflicting cycle of events by the administration of antihistamine injections or tablets and the topical application of ointments or astringents.

Digital eczema This frequently occurs between the toes, where the dog licks because of some initiating cause, usually a grass allergy. The moisture and natural bacteria from the dog’s tongue set up an inflammatory process. Sometimes the inflammation may be transferred to the muzzle. Frequently the pads become swollen, sore and painful. Treatment is the same as for allergic eczema Dry eczema This is one of the most difficult skin conditions to diagnose. The causes are often obscure and it seems to be more common in pedigreed dogs. Sometimes a diet high in starch or carbohydrate can be at fault. Symptoms are persistent scratching producing a dry, scaly area. Veterinary examination will be required to eliminate other possible causes such as mange mites, fleas and lice. Treatment is usually by anti-inflammatory injections and ointments, plus any other remedial measures prescribed by the veterinarian.

Scrotal Eczema

This is a moist dermatitis of the skin of the scrotum, seen particularly in Old English Sheepdogs and Chows. The large pendulous testicles in these breeds cause the overlying skin to stretch to a point where circulation is impaired, allowing dermatitis to become established. Treatment is the same as for acute moist eczema. If this is not effective castration is recommended.


Flea bite allergy is one of the main causes of skin problems in small animals. Fleas are wingless insects with legs adapted for jumping. They are not host-specific and go from one animal to another. Fleas are also the intermediate host for the flea tapeworm. The eggs are laid on the host animal from where they soon fall to the ground and infest the dog’s environment. Depending on weather conditions, the egg can hatch in a few days to a few weeks. Vibration is needed for hatching, which explains why houses that have been empty for some time often suffer massive flea problems when they are reoccupied. The adult female flea can lay up to 500 eggs during her lifetime, which is usually two years. All dogs can play host to fleas, but ungroomed animals, particularly long-haired dogs, provide the ideal environment for fleas to congregate. The most common site for fleas is the base of the tail and forward along the back line, but in severe cases fleas will be seen all over the body. Flea bite allergic dermatitis: Note the black spots which are flea feces.
Many animals become hypersensitive to the irritating bites. Symptoms of flea bite dermatitis include partial hair loss, red skin, flaky scaling and intense irritation, and in the later stages the hair becomes bristly around the tail area rather than soft. In severe cases the dog may be partially bald over the tail and back area with few hairs, and the skin becomes elephant-like. Large numbers of fleas and their droppings (little black spots) will be found if you `back-comb’ the hair over the tail area. The dog also has an unpleasant smell.
Fleas breed in dust, debris and bedding material. It is essential for control to treat both the host and its surroundings. Other hosts such as rats and mice should be eradicated. Dogs should be clipped prior to treatment. Flea powders containing carbaryl, amitraz or Malathion should be used—the powder should be brushed into the dog’s coat twice a week and any debris burnt. Alternatively, flea rinses may be used on a weekly basis. Flea collars are 95 per cent effective for periods of up to five months but they are rendered ineffective by immersion in water. Oral insecticides given in the form of tablets or liquids are also available—these are administered every third or fourth day.
Use only one of the above treatments at any one time. In general fleas spend only short periods on the host and therefore it is extremely important to treat the environment of the affected animals. In some cases it may be necessary to employ professional fumigators. Fleas can be controlled indoors by thorough vacuum cleaning to remove all debris and thorough spraying with an insecticide of all places offering shelter for adult fleas and larvae. This can be achieved by using a residual insecticidal spray around the skirting boards and under furniture. Fumigation may be carried out by placing flaked naphthalene on the floor at the rate of 2 kilograms per 10 square meters and leaving treated areas sealed for forty-eight hours.
Stables, kennels and the ground underneath the house should be treated for fleas. Treat all animals and eradicate rats and mice, clean up dust and burn surface litter. Sprinkle coarse salt on the soil and keep damp for two to three weeks. Spray lower walls and places that would provide shelter for fleas with insecticidal preparations.


Several species of flies will attack dogs, the most trouble- some being the stable-fly’ which is a particular nuisance during summer and autumn. It is a blood sucker, has a painful bite and is fond of ear tips. The usual signs are black, crusty sores on the tips and folds of the ear, with loss of hair over the affected areas. Fly-repellant ointments and lotions should be applied twice daily. Where possible keep your dog in a fly-proofed area during daylight hours. The ears should be cleaned and mercurochrome or triple dye applied to the ears twice daily
Once the initiating cause is eliminated the ears will heal. Long-haired dogs sometimes harbor maggots around the anal area or around infected wounds. Hair should be clipped away and the area cleaned. Visible maggots should be removed and the area dusted with insecticidal powder. Sertoli cell testicular tumor causing extensive hair loss in this terrier.

Hormonal Baldness

Hormonal baldness can occur in young pups at birth, often as the result of thyroid deficiency through lack of iodine in the mother’s food. Supplementation of the pup’s food with thyroid extract tablets, combined with small doses of iodine, is often effective.
The same condition can occur in females and is due to failure of the thyroid gland to produce sufficient thyroxin. The animal seems dull, the coat harsh, and bare patches appear under the throat, on the flanks and behind the thighs. Various tablets are available to rectify this problem. In whelping bitches a hormonal deficiency may cause the coat to fall out in patches especially around the rear. There is no itching. Hormonal injections may be used, but multi hormone tablets give a good result.
In middle-aged to old-aged male dogs the hair may fall out along the back and sides, and the dog may become attracted to others of its own sex. This may be due to a sertoli cell tumor of the testicle. Sometimes all of the hair will fall out. The best cure is castration. A completely new coat often grows in twelve to fourteen weeks. In Cushing’s disease, too much cortisone is produced by the body and the animal loses hair.


Lice are small wingless insects (1-3 millimeters long) which live as permanent dwellers on the skin of the dog. They spread from dog to dog mainly by contact and are very host-specific. The females glue their eggs to hair fiber. Lice can be found on all parts of the body but prefer areas where the skin is folded, so the pendent ears of Spaniels and similar breeds are often infested. Usual signs are itchiness, redness of the skin, hair loss and trauma caused by the dog scratching. Biting lice are most common in puppies and in dogs that cannot groom themselves, while sucking lice are more prevalent in long-haired dogs.
Eradication of lice is easy because the complete life cycle is spent on the host. In a long-haired breed, clip the dog’s coat back to the skin all over and wash the dog once a week with an insecticidal rinse, such as Malathion, Seven or Diazinon, -for four weeks.
Lick granuloma always occurs on the limbs in a convenient position for licking.

Lick granuloma

This condition is brought on by the dog constantly licking a particular part of the body and causing ulceration. The most common sites are the forelegs and the outside of the hock region of the hind legs. These are the areas which can be licked at leisure when the dog is lying down. The irritation can start from a small scratch or abrasion. Certain breeds such as Labradors, Boxers, Great Danes and Fox Terriers are particularly susceptible to this condition. As licking starts and perpetuates the problem, the first step is to prevent the dog licking the area. This can be done by bandaging, or by using an Elizabethan collar or a bucket over the dog’s head. Treatment includes corticosteroid ointments, corticosteroid injections into the lesion, and in some cases cryotherapy, where the skin over the affected area is deep frozen for several minutes. Sometimes surgical excision or radiation of the lesion is successful. Frequently these conditions are the result of boredom.

Lumps under the Skin

All lumps under the skin should be checked by a vet, particularly if they are increasing in size. Sometimes they are due to tumor formation but in many cases a fatty lump may appear in an obese dog. The latter are usually not harmful and in some cases can even fluctuate in size.


These are found on or just below the skin surface. The most common are demodectic mange mites and sarcoptic mange mites (or scabies).
Demodectic mange mites These are microscopic mites which complete their life cycle deep in the sweat glands and hair follicles of the skin. Demodectic mange usually occurs in dogs under a year old, usually in short-haired breeds. Infection is by direct contact, so a bitch can transfer the mites to her pups during suckling. The most common lesion occurs around the eyes. The dog loses hair around the eyelids giving a bespectacled appearance. Other lesions can occur around the muzzle and back of the legs. There are two forms of demodectic mange: squamous, and pustular.
In the squamous form the hair falls out in patches and dry lesions appear which become inflamed and swollen. These patches appear as local areas around the eyes, muzzle folds, elbows, feet and neck. There is little evidence of irritation and the condition may remain static for several years. However, it may become generalized, with widespread hair loss accompanied by thickening of the skin. The pustular form of demodectic mange results from a secondary bacterial infection. The skin becomes thickened, wrinkled and inflamed, and is obviously itchy. Demodectic mange is hard to treat, and always require veterinary attention. You should first clip the dog. cleanse its skin with an agent such as Seleen, gene: -a available from pet shops, chemists and vets. Treatment is. complicated; always take the advice of your vet. Sarcoptic mange (scabies).
Scabies: Note the flaking skin, and redness due to in lesions may not be sharply defined, and the coat has a moth-eaten appearance. There is also a dry form of scabies which occurs in young pups. Instead of the usual irritation accompanied by pustule formation, the skin becomes covered with large bran-like scales and the hair may lift off in large tufts. Although the diagnosis of the disease is difficult, treatment is quite simple. Insecticidal treatment with washes is highly effective. Scabies infection has become less common in urban areas as insecticides are in general use.


Ringworm is fairly common in young puppies. The term `ringworm’ is a misnomer in that the infecting organism is not a worm, but one of four types of fungus. The fungi live either on the skin surface or in the hairs of the affected area, and spread rapidly between puppies, particularly where there is poor feeding or overcrowding. The first signs of ringworm are scratching and biting of the skin. Examination reveals a round patch of crusty skin with the hairs falling out. Laboratory analysis of skin scrapings confirms the diagnosis. Because ringworm spreads rapidly, infected dogs should be quarantined from others. Children should be forbidden to handle the pet since all forms of dog ringworm can infect humans. The best treatment is to use anti-fungal tablets and washes ointments alone are inadequate because the fungus will spread through the hair.


Urticaria is a very common allergic condition. It affects pups and adult dogs of all ages and is usually the result of a bee or wasp sting. Fly bites, chemical toxins from some plants, or food preservatives can also cause the problem. The dog’s head and the skin of the eyelids bulge and swell, making the dog look ‘old’. Sometimes patches of skin become covered in lumps. In severe cases the dog has difficulty in breathing. The dog should be taken to the vet for an injection of antihistamine. Some relief at home is given by the application of household ammonia products.


Warts are extremely common in dogs. In young animals they appear around the mouth and lips. In old dogs they can grow anywhere. Because warts are caused by a virus, they are usually self-limiting and finally fall off. Sometimes warts may cause mechanical interference in some parts of the body and may bleed. In these cases surgery is the answer.

Snake Bite

Whether the dog survives a snake bite depends on the type of snake and the amount of venom the snake was able to inject into the animal. The dog’s tough skin and hair make A benign skin tumor, a common problem on older dogs. it difficult for the snake’s fangs to penetrate, particularly if the dog is moving around. Symptoms are trembling, vomiting, salivation, diarrhea, weakness in the back legs, dilated pupils, slow or absent light reflexes of the pupils, respiratory distress, bloody urine, continuous bleeding from the wound where the snake has bitten and a flaccid paralysis progressing to coma or to respiratory failure. Reaction to the bite can be sudden. Sometimes the animal will collapse soon after being bitten, recover almost completely within half-an-hour, then begin to show other symptoms.
In other cases the symptoms may not develop for some time. The key signs are weakness or paralysis in the back legs and dilated pupils. Blood takes a long time to clot. Sometimes snake bite may be confused with tick bite, poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides, or an acute infectious disease such as canine hepatitis or leptospirosis. In treating snake bite it is helpful to know the type of snake responsible so that the correct antivenin can be administered, but don’t put your own life at risk. The principles of treatment are:
Neutralize the venom with antivenin.
Treat locally: wash the wound and apply a firm wide bandage if the bite is on a limb, but do not cut the site of the bite. Keep the dog calm and take it to the vet as soon as possible.
Provide general supportive measures for shock, paralysis and loss of blood. Keep the dog warm on the way to the veterinarian.

Snail Bait

Two common generic compounds are carbamate and metaldehyde. Symptoms of poisoning are lack of co A poison bait — bread laced with blue snail bait. ordination, anxiety and muscle tremors which sometimes become severe muscle spasms. These symptoms are similar to strychnine poisoning but spasms are not accentuated by auditory or physical stimulation.

Spider bite

Spider bites should be treated in the same way as snake bites. The symptoms can be similar.


Staggering can be due to a number of different causes: concussion or trauma caused by motor vehicle accident; disc lesion or disc protrusion, which may affect the nerves to the back legs; severe constipation; spondylosis, which usually occurs in the aged dog and particularly in large breeds, it is caused by calcified joints in the back impinging on the nerves to the back legs; tick paralysis; tranquilization from drugs; or weakness caused by other disease.


Straining can be due to: constipation; blocked anal glands; diverticulum; fecal matting in long-haired dogs; prostatitis; or urinary blockage


Some rat poisons and some of the older patent medicines contain this substance, although strychnine poisoning in urban areas is usually the work of a dog hater. When this happens, several dogs in one area are usually poisoned at the same time.
This form of poisoning should be suspected when a mature, healthy dog suffers from shortness of breath, blue mucous membranes, stiffness of the limbs and throwing back of the head. The animal can be stimulated into a fit by sudden loud noises near the ears or by slapping the body. Spasms increase in intensity until respiratory paralysis and death occur. Take the dog immediately to a vet; this is an emergency.


This is rarely seen in dogs.

Tail Injuries

Injuries to the tip of the tail are usually caused by a young dog chasing its tail and biting it, or a dog catching its tail in a door. The happy dog wags its tail, bumping it on tables, doorposts and other objects, thus continually reopening the wound and stopping healing. Bandage the tail with adhesive bandage until it heals or, if this fails, take the dog to the vet to have the tail cauterized.

Tail Kinks

This usually occurs in puppies as the result of a dislocated joint in the tail. The joint can be reset and splinted under anesthetic, but if left untreated will cause the dog no problem. The only reason for treating a kinked tail is cosmetic

Tail Limp

Sometimes a dog that normally carries its tail elevated will have a limp tail. This can be because of bruising or fractures at the base of the tail, or infected anal glands.


There are several species of ticks; but the most important to dog owners is the paralysis tick, which lives on warm-blooded fauna such as bandicoots, possums and other scrub-dwelling animals. Domestic animals and humans are accidental hosts, dogs and cats being the most susceptible.
A fully engorged female can produce a single batch of between 2000 to 3000 eggs within seven to fourteen days of falling from a host. After hatching, the larvae become active within seven days and attach to a host. At this stage they are very small. After four to six days they drop off and go into a second growth stage and finally into adulthood. Infestations can occur at any time of the year if conditions are suitable, but usually they are confined to the spring and Life cycle of the tick.
Spastic behavior of a dog affected by tick poisoning. summer. The tick population in any year is usually governed by the previous year’s rainfall and temperature variations. The main sign of a dog suffering from tick bite is paralysis, beginning at the hind-legs, moving to the front legs and then to the respiratory system.
Progressive signs to be watched for are: the dog is reluctant to walk up a flight of stairs or jump into a car; the dog may have a slight wobbliness or weakness in the hind-legs; vomiting; depression; pupil dilation; loss of control of the hind-legs, with partial loss of foreleg co-ordination; salivation; respiration becomes labored and more frequent; as paralysis becomes advanced, barking ceases; increased blood pressure in conjunction with decreasing and irregular heartbeat.
The cause of these reactions is not yet fully understood, as the chemical structure of the toxin has not yet been identified, but it is strong enough to paralyze cats, calves, sheep, foals and even humans. The interval between the attachment of the tick and the onset of weakness in the hindquarters is up to four days, although in some cases clinical signs may not be seen until all the ticks have engorged and dropped off. If partly engorged ticks are removed, paralysis may still occur one or two days later, depending on the amount of toxin that has already been injured. In these cases the attachment site is seen as a raised crater-like swelling.
Removal of engorged ticks from an otherwise normal dog does not mean that the dog is out of danger. Enough toxin may already have been injected into the dog to cause its death. Tick toxin is as dangerous as snake bite. A dog bitten by a paralysis tick can die if not taken to a vet for full assessment immediately. Even if a tick is removed as soon as the first symptoms are noticed, the dog has only a 50 per cent chance of recovery without further treatment. The toxin can take up to two days to have its full effect. The longer the delay between the appearance of the symptoms and the giving of anti-toxin injections, the greater the risk to the dog’s life. Therefore, take the dog to the vet for antitoxin immediately.
Ticks can be found on any part of the body, but 80 per cent are found between the nose and the shoulders. Areas such as the toes, the external ear canal and inside the anus and mouth should be thoroughly searched. Once the tick has been found, place a pair of tweezers as close to the skin as possible and gently pull the tick out. If the mouth parts are left in the skin, do not worry; they will fester out. Another tick cannot grow from them. Do not place methylated spirits on the tick or cut the tick’s body, as these methods allow a very angry tick to continue to inject toxin in its saliva into the dog’s body. When searching for ticks always remove collars or leads. Dogs in tick danger areas may need to be clipped all over every summer and an anti-tick wash applied weekly. Dogs affected by ticks should be bathed in an insecticidal wash to help kill any ticks. But don’t rely on this method—hand searching is the only effective means.
To control tick infestation certain steps should be taken regularly to protect your pet.
Bathe the dog weekly in an anti-tick wash and use a flea collar. These two methods will help reduce tick infestation but they are not foolproof.
Search your dog every day, particularly around the head and shoulders, remembering to remove collars and leads before you start.
Eliminate any thick undergrowth from around your home and discourage fauna such as possums and bandicoots which are major intermediate hosts for the tick.


Tonsillitis occurs most frequently in toy breeds such as Poodles and Maltese Terriers. The symptoms are lethargy, fever, loss of appetite and a slight cough. The condition can be alleviated by antibiotics, but repeated bouts will require removal of the tonsil tissue by surgery. Once the tonsils have been removed in dogs where they are causing a problem, the difference is remarkable.


Toxemia is any condition in which the blood contains toxic products. These can be produced by the body cells or caused by the growth of organisms. The clinical signs of toxemia vary widely and depend on the type of toxin involved.
Generally, the dog will be lethargic, off its food, and the mucous membranes of the eyes and gums may be red rather than pink.
Toxic conditions are usually dangerous and any dog suspected of having toxemia should be given urgent veterinary attention.
Tumors are the result of an abnormal development of cells within the body, whose growth does not conform with the laws of tissue differentiation. Tumors may be classified as benign or malignant. Benign tumors usually grow slowly and are restricted to the point where they first develop. They may cause damage to surrounding tissues but usually don’t invade the neighboring areas. Surgical removal is usually satisfactory. Malignant tumors usually grow rapidly and spread to neighboring tissues; they can develop in other parts of the body after being carried by the circulation. Surgical removal of malignant tumors rarely completely removes the cancerous development.
Sometimes malignant tumors, if near the surface of the the skin. Some tumors respond to radiation therapy.
others to drugs. Most require surgical removal. Veterinary treatment is essential and should be started as early as possible. There is a tendency on the part of owners to delay the first veterinary consultation as they are afraid of being told that the condition is incurable.

Tumors of the Testes

Tumors of the testes are not uncommon, though as a rule only one testicle is involved. The testicle is hard and solid, yet not painful. It usually occurs in older dogs and is much more frequent in undescended testicles. The only effective treatment is castration.

Undescended Testicles

Undescended testicles are fairly common, particularly in the toy breeds. An owner should not worry about this condition until the dog is nine months old. Then the testicles become prone to tumor formation and should be removed.
This condition is hereditary.


As;nom uterine inertia, this condition is generally due to an obstruction by a twisted or deformed pup. The bitch strains repeatedly and strongly, but is unproductive. Again, a caesarian section is necessary.

Urine disorders

The urine is often a good indication of the condition of the animal. Normal urine is a light clear yellow.
Dark or bloody urine can indicate infection of the bladder (cystitis).
Bladder stones can cut the inside of the bladder wall, releasing blood into the urine. Cloudy urine means there is an abnormality.
Increased frequency is usually accompanied by thirst. The causes include diabetes, diarrhea, fever, heart disease, and kidney disease. If an animal is showing signs of urinary disease, a 30-milliliter specimen should be collected in a clean vessel for veterinary inspection. This is best done by locking the dog up overnight and walking it on a lead the next morning with container at the ready. Take the sample to the vet within four hours.
Incontinence usually occurs in desexed females. They unconsciously urinate while lying down. This can be because of a bladder infection or a hormone deficiency.

Urinary Tract Blockage

Blockage should be suspected when the dog strains to urinate but passes only a few drops. Sometimes the urine is discolored. Usually the cause is stones in the bladder. In the male dog these may enter the urethra and pass through to block the urethral tract in the penis. The condition is extremely painful and the dog should be taken to the vet.

Uterine Inertia

The bitch fails to strain after breaking water, and generally looks uncomfortable. After a few hours she passes a blackish-green discharge, but no pups. This is a sign that the afterbirths are separating and she should be taken to a vet immediately. Contractions of the uterus may be stimulated by injections, but if this doesn’t work, a caesarian section is necessary to save both pups and bitch.


The history of the vomiting attack is important to your vet when making a diagnosis and treating the animal. Is the vomiting related to eating? How many times a day does the dog vomit? Is the vomited food digested or not? What color is the vomited matter? If possible, take a sample of the vomit to the vet when you take your dog.
Apparently healthy dogs vomit from time to time. If this happens once every fourth or fifth day and the dog appears completely normal in every other way, there is no need for concern. Dogs will sometimes eat grass for medicinal purposes and then vomit. This may be the dog’s method of internal cleansing.
Diseases such as distemper, hepatitis, pyometra, septicemia, or kidney disease can also car vomiting.

Drugs—when a dog commences to vomit while on dram the drugs should be suspected immediately. Digitalis (chew tablets), for example, given to excess cause vomiting. The tablets for a day and then commence with half recommended dosage. To prevent the build-up of the dandruff in the dog’s system, only give the tablets six days a week. Certain antibiotics and morphine can cause vomiting. As with any such case it is always best to consult your veterinarian about the problem.

Dry retching or coughing as if the dog has a bone – in its throat is typical of the virus ‘kennel cough’. Indigestion, overeating, bad food (particularly if a dog likely to dig up old bones or meat) and poison. Nervous problems such as car or motion sickness , lesions within the brain.

Ticks – One of the initial signs of tick poisoning is vomiting and salivation.

Weight Changes

Small dogs can be weighed on ordinary household. kitchen scales. Put a towel on the scales first. Larger dogs can be weighed on bathroom scales. The simplest method is to carry the dog on to the scales am:: then subtract your own weight.

Wobbler Syndrome

Wobbler syndrome is associated with an abnormality of the spine in conjunction with compression of the spinal cord. It is a problem in Bassets, Dobermans and Great Danes. The breed incidence suggests that the problem May be inherited.
The dogs usually have incoordination of the hind limbs. They may knuckle the foot and fall over when turning sharply. All four limbs may be affected. Most cases occur at five to nine years of age. Treatment is not particularly successful, although various methods have been tried.

Commercial Dog Food

Commercially prepared dog foods are very commonly used (feeding at eight of every ten dogs). These fall into two main categories: complete diets(the bulk of the dog food sold on the market), and incomplete diets that require meat added to them. Pet foods are also divided into three la groups, depending on their moisture content.
There are three groups of moist foods: frozen, fresh meat or canned meat -products, which are packed as an incomplete diet and are best used as an ingredient in a home-mixed formula where cereals and possibly calcium supplements are added. There are, in addition, completely balanced canned products which have been fortified with minerals and vitamins or a combination of meat, cereals and other ingredients. When buying a moist canned food, read the label to ensure that you are buying a balanced food. Canned foods are usually highly palatable because of their high water and moisture content, which means they are expensive per calorie. Generally they have a poor-quality protein source.
Semi-moist foods are sold in plastic wrappers. They look like chunks, patties or packets of fresh meat and are made from meat, meat by-products, soya beans, vegetable oils, sugar and preservatives. Semi-moist foods are a complete balanced diet, highly palatable, easily digested, with a high kilojoule density. All of these points make them well suited to young, growing or pregnant pets, but for the same reasons they may promote obesity in mature or sedentary dogs. They should not be fed to dogs over six months old. Many of these foods contain a high density of cereals, which may promote allergic skin conditions in some dogs.
Dry foods are a mixture of ground cereals, meatmeal, soya beans, cheese, vegetables and animal fats, with trace ingredients and preservatives. They are usually presented as meals, biscuits or kibbles, pellets or expanded chunks (listed in order of increasing palatability and expense). They tend to have a low-quality protein. In general, dry food products are not very palatable, but they are inexpensive. They are ideal for feeding mature dogs or dogs that tend to become overweight. Their unpalatable nature, coupled with a low protein level, renders them ideal for self-feeding, as the dog is unlikely to overeat and become fat.
The highest number of calories and food value come from high-protein dry foods. This is because moist foods or canned foods contain about 72 per cent water, while high protein dry foods contain only 8 per cent water. Which commercial ration is best? This is difficult to answer, because each dog is an individual, with its individual metabolism. Each commercial ration is different in its make-up. Nutrition is such a complex business that the best method of choosing a dog food is to observe the animal’s performance after feeding one particular food for a period of a month or six weeks. Contents labels on cans are of little use, as they don’t tell you what biological value the meal will have for your pet.
Palatability can be rated in decreasing order: fresh meat or canned, fortified meat, semi-moist foods, canned rations (which have cereal and meat mixtures) and dry foods. Preferences for fresh meat show a ranking from high to low of beef, lamb, chicken and horse meat. Cold meat straight from the refrigerator is generally less acceptable than cooked or warmed meat. Ground meat is preferred to cubed or whole meat. Animal proteins and fats are much more favorably accepted by most dogs than vegetable oils and cereal proteins. Many dogs also like human condiments such as salt, garlic and onions. Some prefer their food soft and wet, while others like it dry and crunchy. Appetite appeal is often moulded by habit.

Special Diets

Complete commercial diets are available in dry and moist form for puppies, working dogs, and geriatrics. Prescription complete foods are available for various health problems such as obesity, pancreatitis, bladder stone formation.

Selecting a Dog

Once you have decided to take on the responsibility of a pet dog, the next is to decide how old a dog you want—a six-weeks-old puppy or a grown The ideal is a newly weaned puppy about six weeks old. At this age puppy is dependent on its owner for feeding, companionship and protection, and your fulfilling of these requirements will build a strong bond between the puppy and you. If there are young children in the family an especially strong bond will be formed between puppy and children, mainly :ecause of the long periods each day they will spend in each other’s corn- :any. If possible, defer getting a pup until your family is complete, as some as become very jealous of a new baby..
There are, of course, some disadvantages to purchasing a pup. Toilet raining, for example, can be quite time-consuming (and frequently frustrating). Also, for the first eight to twelve months, during their teething phase. Puppies have a habit of chewing toys, socks, shoes and sometimes furniture.
One way to overcome these annoyances is to choose an older dog, but then ou may be getting somebody else’s problems. The dog may have irritating traits which will take considerable re-education. Tender loving care, however, will win. the hearts of most pups (and adult dogs).
Before you purchase a dog, ask yourself why you are buying it. Is it to be a watchdog, a companion or a sporting dog? How much time will you have 😮 exercise and care for it? Will it live in an urban community, or in a country area where there is plenty of territory for the dog to run free? When you have considered these factors, together with the characteristics described earlier, you will be able to select a breed of dog that will suit your particular purpose and set of circumstances.


In general, light-colored animals have weaker skin and are more susceptible to skin infections than darker-colored animals. In hot climates, they are more susceptible to sunburn and ‘hot spots’ or dermatitis.


A female desexed will make the best pet. Desexing takes place at five to six months before the bitch has her first season. Desexing makes the bitch less Likely to wander; and it eliminates the problems caused by the bitch coming :n season every six months and attracting hordes of male dogs to the house. It is an offense to allow a bitch ‘on heat’ to enter a public place, even on lead.) Desexing prevents unwanted litters and it reduces the possibility of mammary tumors and an infected womb.
Contrary to popular belief, desexing does not alter the personality of the dog, The only disadvantage is that some dogs become fat—invariably this is because the owner has not thought to reduce the dog’s diet since it reached maturity.
A male dog should be desexed if breeding is not contemplated. Domestication and confinement to urban territorial limits are completely unnatural to the male dog’s natural needs; dogs are naturally pack animals and undersexed male dogs tend to roam, gathering in public places such as schools and shopping centers where they frequently become involved in fights with other male dogs over bitches on heat in the area. A frequent consequence of this is that the dog finishes up in the pound, where it may contract diseases requiring expensive veterinary treatment. If the dog is not collected within a stipulated time, it may be destroyed at the pound.
Male dogs away from home are not fulfilling the requirement for which they were acquired—namely as a pet or as a guard dog. In addition to roaming, sexually frustrated male dogs may begin ‘riding’ children or the outstretched legs of visitors (very embarrassing to some). In order to reduce the stray dog population, it is therefore important to desex male dogs as well as female. Unfortunately, there is considerable (and illogical) reluctance on the part of dog owners to have male dogs desexed. Perhaps they should take a tip from horse owners: any male horse not wanted for breeding is always desexed (gelded) at the earliest opportunity.


It is important for a prospective owner to consider the size of the territory that will be available to the dog . Small dogs will be satisfied by urban blocks of land. while large dogs require much more territorial space. Small dogs require less food; they therefore excrete less feces. which are becoming g. a problem in inner-urban areas. They also require less medication, because it is administered on a per-weight basis. In most cases the small pet will satisfy the companionship and watch-dog needs of the average urban family.


Most dogs were bred for specific purposes, and it is only recently that many have been chosen as pets. Some breeds were developed to be aggressive hunting or work dogs. It is important to understand the temperament of a particular breed. Some breeds are prone to biting, such as Dobermans, Cocker Spaniels, Terriers, Dachshunds, Corgis, Border Collies and Cattle Dogs. It is rare for a dog to bite its owner, but it is the owner’s responsibility to ensure that the dog doesn’t bite visitors.

Selecting from Litter

Your own veterinary examination of your prospective purchase, particularly a puppy, is most important.
The type of care the mother received while carrying the pups—that is. vaccinations, worming and nutrition—will determine the health of her pups She should have had a vaccination booster midway through the pregnant, to confer a good immunity on the newborn pups and should have been wormed during the pregnancy to eliminate the possibility of worms in the new-born pups. A well-balanced diet—with particular attention to calcium— is important. Check the number of litters the bitch has had in the preceding couple of years. Bitches should not have more than one litter per year, as too many litters deplete the mother’s bones of essential vitamins and minerals and the puppies will therefore be weak.
At the kennels, check the surrounding area for hygiene. Check the other animals in the breeder’s establishment to ensure that they are all healthy with glossy coats.
Once you are satisfied that the breeder’s credentials are up to standard, examine the pups. Ask the breeder about their diet and the worming and vaccination program. Examine the pups at first from a distance and don’t be fooled into taking the weakest pup out of sympathy. Always select the strongest looking pup—the one with the glossy coat and bright eyes. ,Check around the anal area to ensure there is no evidence of diarrhea. If you are selecting a dog for showing, take along someone familiar with the ideal characteristics of the particular breed. Don’t select a sleepy pup. Once you have selected the pup at a distance, pick it up and feel its weight in the palm of your hand. Pick up the other puppies in the litter and compare their weight. The pup should feel firm and heavy.
Examine it for abnormalities such as a cleft palate, overshot or undershot jaw. An overshot jaw is particularly common in Collies and Whippets, and undershot jaws are common in the short-snouted dogs, such as Boxers. Maltese Terriers, and Pekinese. Check the puppy’s abdomen at the umbilicus for hernia. Count the number of digits on the toes. There should be four main digits, with a dew claw in some breeds. If the dew claw is missing, don’t be concerned as in most breeds these are snipped off when the pup is one to two days old. The puppy’s gums should be pink in color, not pale. Examine the internal area of the ear and smell this area. Some puppies have ear mites which they have contracted from their mother. Ear mites cause a smelly inflammation of the ear. In most cases this condition can be cured by the vet.
Puppies under six weeks of age should not be taken from their mother. Before taking the pup get a written copy of the diet the puppy is on. Do not change this diet for about a week to ten days, as the stresses of a change in environment are enough to upset the pup without a change of diet at the same time. Also get from the breeder the puppy’s worming history and find out when the pup should next be wormed. Collect any vaccination cards that indicate what vaccinations have been done and when the next ones are due.
If possible, obtain from the breeder a piece of cloth or blanket that has been used in the puppy’s bedding, so that on the first few nights the puppy will at least have a familiar smell around it. Make the first night comfortable for the puppy. A hot water bottle should be placed in the bed clothing, a ticking clock in his box, plus something of a smelly nature, either the piece of bedding from the breeder or perhaps a pair of used socks. And remember. nothing makes a puppy happier than a full tummy before it goes to bed.

Why to Train Your Dog

Many people do get bitten, some even fatally, by dogs which have not been taught to behave properly. Children are particularly at risk, and can be scarred for life from a serious encounter. In Britain alone, it has been calculated that about 200,000 people may be bitten by dogs each year. Even more alarming is that over a third of the victims are not directly touching :he dog in any way at the time of the attack, according to US studies.
A second major area of concern are the dogs which stray from home, or run off when they are being exercised and cause road accidents. A detailed study revealed that in Britain approximately 1,600 accidents caused by dogs result in human injury, with about 17 people dying each year as a direct consequence of such incidents.

Most of these accidents occur in urban areas, but in the countryside untrained dogs can be equally dangerous. They may kill 10,000 domestic animals, ranging from poultry and sheep to cattle and horses, each year. Some of these dogs will be strays, abandoned by their owners because of difficulties with them in the home. Since three out of every four owners report behavioral problems with their dogs at some stage, it is clear that probably most strays are discarded for this reason, rather than because of other factors such as family break-ups or emigration.

The law in most countries places clear responsibilities on dog owners to ensure that their pets are properly trained, and not a menace to other people or animals. Civil claims for damages are not uncommon, and in the case of a serious road accident caused by a dog, the damages awarded can be very high.

It is always advisable to take out a public liability policy on your pet, as protection if you are ever involved in a dispute of this type. Specialist animal insurance companies usually offer such cover at little cost, either separately or built into a health protection policy for your pet, or it may even be incorporated into your household insurance. Ask an insurance broker for details, or look for advertisements in the canine press. You should make sure that you are adequately covered from the start, because the likelihood of a dog running away from home is probably greatest during the first few months of ownership.

Apart from the risk of causing injury, dogs also need to be trained for social purposes. No one likes streets covered in dog excrement, or being bowled over by a powerful dog pulling on its leash. Within the home environment too, training is important to prevent damage to furniture and soiling of carpets, for example.

Some dogs have a stronger territorial sense than others. Should you fail to appreciate this, and simply ignore them, there is a real likelihood that you could be bitten.

Always approach any stray dog with caution — it might be injured and could resent your attention. In areas where rabies occurs, there is the added risk that it could be rabid, and might inflict a deadly bite.

Dog Obedience Training

Lying down

A variation of the ‘sit and stay’ routine is to encourage your dog to lie down, and remain in this position until called. It is usually learnt quite quickly once the initial response has been mastered. At first, though, you may well have to encourage your dog to alter its posture from a sitting to a lying position. You can do this quite simply by lifting the forelimbs together and gently pressing down on the top of the shoulders.

When the dog is lying down, stay nearby and give the command ‘down’. If this is carried out after a period of exercise your dog may readily remain in this position since it may be relatively tired. Alternatively, it may simply attempt to stand up or sit. If it does, simply repeat the procedure until it is lying down. Obviously, do not expect your pet to settle down readily on a wet or uncomfortable surface. You can reinforce the message by holding the leash close to the ground which will make it harder for the dog to stand up if it persistently tries to do so. This is possibly more effective than having to reposition the dog repeatedly in the ‘down’ position.

Again, as with the sit and stay command, you can gradually back away, leaving the dog lying on the ground. Having learnt this routine previously, then dogs soon adapt to the new version. It is important for a dog to sit and stay when instructed, once you allow it to run free off a leash; while it must also be prepared to lie down, both in the home and when waiting with you out of doors.

In an emergency this may prevent a dog from straying into a potentially dangerous situation, for example if you should suddenly encounter riders on horseback when you are out for a walk along a narrow path. If the dog drops down as commanded then it will be unlikely to disturb the horses, which may otherwise be unnerved and could even attempt to bolt off.

Another situation where the command ‘down’ is essential is within the home itself. While it may be pleasant to have a young exuberant puppy bounding out to greet you with great enthusiasm, you do not want a large adult dog behaving in a similar fashion, leaping up and bowling people onto the floor.

This again requires consistency in training from the outset. It is unfair to expect an adult dog to appreciate that such actions are no longer welcomed if you have allowed them since it was a puppy. Try to provide just a welcome pat when you return home or first thing in the morning, rather than a more exuberant greeting. If your dog does try to jump up, simply encourage it to lie down by using the technique described previously. Be calm and firm throughout so that there is no question of the dog interpreting your anger as excitement, and striving to obtain more attention by this means.

Excitable children can have a similar effect, and so they may also have to be shown how to behave towards a puppy. This applies especially with larger breeds, such as the Great Dane, because they will grow up rapidly, and may bowl over young children. Similarly, when you have visitors, your dog must not be allowed to jump up on them. It is a good idea to let the dog remain with you, however, preferably lying down at your feet. Once this routine has been established in puppyhood you should have no difficulty with your pet when visitors call.

The only alternative is to shut your dog in a separate room when there are guests, but this could result in other problems including whining and destructive behavior. Again, these problems are most likely to arise in puppyhood. It is usual for young puppies to whine to attract their mother’s attention. This in turn becomes easily transposed onto their owner, and can become a major problem in later life.

If a dog wants food, for example when you are preparing a meal, then it may well start to whine until you give it some scraps. Unfortunately, your dog will soon come to associate its whining with an immediate and affirmative response on your part. It is therefore folly to give in to behavior of this kind, and you should try to prevent it by being aware of the situation when it may arise and not responding as the dog demands.

The command ‘down’ is especially important for larger dogs. so that they do not cause problems in the home. From a sitting position, the dog’s front legs will need to be lowered as shown here.

The dog should then be reasonably comfortable. It is best to carry out this exercise in the home, or on a dry patch of grass. so that the dog can rest happily.

Using a hand signal to show that you want the dog to stay in position, you can give further encouragement by holding on to the leash in the early stages of teaching this command.

The Command ‘Sit’

Leash training should also be linked with other basic commands which will be essential when the dog is walking along the streets. For example, it must learn to sit, rather than straining to rush across a road. You can begin this aspect of training right from the outset, encouraging the puppy to sit in advance of every meal.

Apply gentle pressure to the dog’s hindquarters to encourage it to sit. This can be repeated at the start of every session of leash training: hold the leash in your right hand and then apply a light touch with your left hand. Do not allow the leash to slacken at this point, but try to keep it taut as this will help to ensure the puppy adopts the required position rather than jumping up.

If you encounter problems, you may want to kneel down alongside the dog, keeping your hand in place over the hindquarters and the leash in an upright position. Do not be too keen to give praise in this instance, but allow the dog to settle down first for a few moments. You will soon find that the dog will sit of its own accord, before you place the food bowl in front of it, as this is a natural posture for dogs to adopt.

Having started on the leash from the sitting position, you should also break the walk with the command ‘sit’, as will be necessary when you are opening the car door, for example, or when you come to a road. You can also encourage your dog to sit when it is playing in the garden. Such behavior is essential when you are training your dog to run free outside as you will want to put it back on the leash at the end of the period of exercise. Sitting is a relatively straightforward command to teach, and because it is such an important part of many other routines you should concentrate on this command during the early stages of training.

By the time your young dog is about six months old you should be developing other commands which will form part of its outdoor training requirements, in preparation for allowing the dog off its leash. These sessions should not be too long, just five minutes or so, two or three times every day. Continuity is important, and the dog is likely to respond best to one person, especially when learning new routines.

Once these routines have been mastered, then other members of the family can encourage the dog to behave in the required fashion. As an example, whoever feeds the dog should always insist that it sits before placing the bowl down on the ground. Make sure that the same commands are given, however, to prevent confusion and a likely lack of response on the dog’s part. The word `sit’, for example, should be used at all times rather than simply saying ‘food’ in this instance, and hoping that the dog will respond accordingly.

You should be able to kneel down, keeping the leash held high, without upsetting your dog. When you are carrying out any training procedure, especially outside, it is important to select a quiet locality. This applies especially when teaching a dog to sit, because this is quite a relaxed posture, and any distractions will upset the dog’s concentration. Patience is important when persuading a young puppy to walk on the leash. They may turn round to you for reassurance in the early stages. Once the young dog has grown in confidence, then it is more likely to try to pull ahead, as shown here. A check chain can be particularly useful at this stage, before a powerful dog grows out of control. Sitting is a natural posture for dogs, and they should feel quite happy in this position.
With the dog standing still, give the command ‘sit’. Gentle pressure over the hindquarters as shown may first be necessary to evoke the required response.


Concentrate on giving straightforward instructions, remembering the significance of the tone of voice. Use an encouraging, clear tone and avoid repeating the command immediately if the dog fails to respond at once. Otherwise, the repetition on your part will not motivate the dog to react at first, and soon this can become an habitual problem.

Training sessions should be fun, and the dog must be encouraged as an active participant. Once it is sitting on command, you can develop this into staying as well. This is sometimes surprisingly difficult to master, especially with more exuberant individuals, simply because they will run after you.

Start with the dog on the leash, commanding it to sit before stepping back. Repeat the word ‘sit’ to reinforce the dog’s posture. If the dog tries to follow you wait until it has readopted a sitting posture. This can be accomplished either by placing your hand back over its hindquarters, or if this fails by using a choke chain. If the dog tries to follow you wait until it has readopted a sitting posture. This can be accomplished either by placing your hand back over its hindquarters or this fails by using a choke chain. If the dog moves, your grip will pull the lead vertically and tighten the chain as the dog moves towards you.

Once the dog responds as required then offer plenty of encouragement. The next stage is to persuade it to remain in position while you move away, with the leash lying on the ground. This will be much harder to achieve if you start with the leash held vertically because the act of lowering it will be distracting for the dog. Instead, hold the leash so that it is close to the ground from the start, before the dog sits. Then you can simply release your grip and back slowly away over a few paces. If you move fast, then the dog is more likely to follow you. An extendable leash may be helpful at this stage. Repeating the exercise regularly will soon pay off.

Obviously once you are in a position where the dog remains still as you move away the basics of the command have been mastered. You can either call the dog to you or else leave it sitting and return to it. Avoid confusion, however, by adopting a standard approach at
first. It is probably better to return to the dog until the ‘sit and stay’ command is well established. Otherwise, by calling the dog, you may encourage it to simply stand up and then race across the ground.

It is important to choose a place away from roads when you are encouraging your dog to stay. Neither should there be dogs or other animals in the vicinity.

Once the dog is sitting, you can !hen extend the leash on the ground. Hand signals are an important part of the trainer’s repertoire, the raised hand here indicating ‘stay’.

There is no need to let your dog off the leash at first when you are teaching the ‘stay’ command. Here it is simply trailed on the ground to the trainer.

Training is a sequence of lessons, and at this stage, you can move back towards the dog and slip off its leash. Always leave the collar on under these circumstances so that you can restrain the dog more easily, if it attempts to run off.

Dog Vaccination

The six major infectious diseases of dogs are distemper, hepatitis, parvo disease, rabies, para influenza (kennel cough), bordatella and leptospirosis. Distemper. hepatitis, parvo disease and rabies are all caused by viruses, and all four can kill. Canine distemper can affect dogs of any age. It produces a range of symptoms varying from loss of appetite and high temperature, to fits and death.
The few dogs that do not die from distemper usually suffer long-lasting side effects, including paralysis, nervous twitches and deformed pads.
Canine hepatitis can also affect dogs of any age. It is less common than distemper but just as dangerous. The virus affects the liver; animals that survive an attack usually suffer from permanent liver damage. The virus of canine hepatitis does not cause human hepatitis.
Parvo disease is a new viral disease which can affect any dog. It is particularly fatal in young and very old dogs. The virus attacks the heart muscle and the intestinal tract, causing a fatal bloody diarrhea.
Rabies is a viral disease affecting the brain and making the animal aggressive towards other animals and humans. There are two types: furious rabies, and dumb or paralytic rabies. In both the animals become very excited and aggressive, but in the dumb or paralytic form this phase is very short and the disease progresses rapidly to paralysis and finally death. It is almost impossible to eradicate rabies once it exists in a country, hence the strict quarantine laws by rabies-free countries such as the UK, Australia and New Zealand.

Para Influenza (Kennel Cough)

Leptospirosis is caused by an organism that can penetrate the skin or mucous membrane, multiply rapidly in the blood and cause fatal anaemia. There is no effective treatment for any of these diseases. Antiserums are available, but by the time an animal is seen to be sick the diseases have often progressed to the point where treatment is ineffective. Antibiotics are useless against viruses. The only safeguard is prevention by vaccination.
Because these diseases are transmitted by infected dogs through contact with their urine, saliva and feces, or through contact with the dogs themselves, you can protect your dog by keeping it in isolation. This is essential for the pup too young to be vaccinated, but is obviously impractical for the older dog, whether it is a working dog, a sporting dog, a show dog or just :he family pet. The only practical and effective way to protect your dog is have it vaccinated by your veterinary surgeon.
Modern-day vaccines do not generally have any after-effects and most can be given from six weeks on. Because various vaccination program are available, it is best to consult your veterinary surgeon about the best time – start the vaccinations and the frequency of booster shots. Pups under elven weeks of age require a special course of vaccinations. Vaccination causes the production of antibodies which circulate in the blood and protect :he dog against infection.
A whelping bitch passes antibodies to her pups in the first milk (colostrum) within twenty-four hours of whelping. This is why it is so important :hat pups suckle immediately after birth. The antibodies the pups receive from their mother disappear gradually over a twelve-week period, leaving :hem unprotected unless immediately vaccinated. Some breeders have them injected with gamma-globulin at three weeks of age as a temporary protection against distemper and hepatitis. This is not vaccination. It pro- :tots the pups against infection for two to three weeks only.
When purchasing a pup it is always important to find out what immunization it has had and, if possible, obtain its vaccination card so your own vet an determine which of the several different varieties of vaccine it has been given and when it needs the first booster.
As vaccinations do not work immediately, but take from three to seven days to build up adequate protection, keep your dog away from other dogs for a couple of weeks after vaccination.