Archimedes (c.287-212Bc) was one of the first great scientists. He created the sciences of mechanics and hydrostatics.
Archimedes was a Greek who lived in the city of Syracuse, Sicily. His relative, Hieron II, was king of Syracuse.
Archimedes’ screw is a simple pump supposedly invented by Archimedes. It scoops up water with a spiral device that turns inside a tube. It is still used in the Middle East.
To help defend Syracuse against Roman attackers in 215Bc, Archimedes invented many war machines. They included an awesome ‘claw’ — a giant grappling crane that could lift whole galleys from the water and sink them.
Archimedes was killed by Roman soldiers when collaborators let the Romans into Syracuse in 212Bc.
Archimedes analysed levers mathematically. He showed that the load you can move with a particular effort is in exact proportion to its distance from the fulcrum.
Archimedes discovered that objects float because they are thrust upwards by the water.
Archimedes’ principle shows that the upthrust on a floating object is equal to the weight of the water that the object pushes out of the way.
Archimedes realized he could work out the density, or specific gravity, of an object by comparing the object’s weight to the weight of water it pushes out of a jar when completely submerged.
Archimedes used specific gravity to prove a sly goldsmith had not made King Hieron’s crown of pure gold.