Flowers have both male parts, called stamens, and female parts, called carpels. Seeds for new plants are made when pollen from the stamens meets the flower’s eggs inside the carpels.
The carpel contains the ovaries, where the flower’s eggs are made. It is typically a short thick stalk in the centre of the flower.
A flower may have just one carpel or several joined together. When together, they are called the pistil.
The stamens make pollen. Typically they are spindly stalks surrounding the carpels.
Pollen is made in the anthers which are found on top of the stamens.
Pollen is trapped on the top of the ovary by sticky stigma.
Pollen is carried down to the ovary from the stigma via a structure called the style. In the ovary it meets the eggs and fertilizes them to create seeds.
Before the flower opens, the bud is enclosed in a tight green ball called the calyx. This is made up of tiny green flaps called sepals.
The colorful part of the flower is made from groups of petals. The petals make up what is called the corolla. Together the calyx and the corolla comprise the whole flower head, which is known as the perianth. If petals and sepals are the same color, they are said to be tepals. 1. The fully formed flower is packed away inside a bud. Green flaps called sepals wrap tightly round it 3. The sepals open wider and the petals grow outwards and backwards to create the flower’s beautiful corolla 4 At the right time of year, buds begin to open to reveal flowers’ blooms so that the reproductive process can begin. Some flowers last just a day or so. Others stay blooming for months on end before the eggs are fertilized, and grow into seeds. 2. When the weather is warm enough, the bud begins to open. The sepals curl back to reveal the colorful petals How plants live ,
A ‘perfect’ flower is one which has both stamens and carpels; many have one missing.
Flowers like this orchid have developed vivid colors to attract pollinating insects. 4. The flower opens fully to reveal its bright array of pollen sacs or
Cut flowers are flowers that are sold by the bunch in florists.
The cut flower trade began in the Netherlands with tulips in the 1600s.
In 1995 60% of the world’s cut flowers were grown in Holland.
Latin American countries like Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala and Costa Rica are now major flower-growers. So too are African countries like Kenya, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Zambia and Tanzania.
In China the growing popularity of St Valentine’s day has meant huge areas of China are now planted with flowers.
After cutting, flowers are sent by air to places like Europe and North America. During the journey they are chilled so they will arrive fresh.
Most of the world’s cut flowers are sold through the huge flower market in Rotterdam in Holland.
Garden flowers, when cut and put into water, are ideal for adding a touch of color and freshness to people’s homes.
By encouraging certain flowers, flower-growers have made cut flowers last longer in the vase they have lost the —but rich scents they once had. Scientists are now trying to reintroduce scent genes to flowers.
A corsage is a small bouquet women began to wear on their bodices in the 18th century.
A nosegay was a small hot tiet Victorian ladies carried in their hinds. If a man gave a lady a red tulip it meant ht . loved her. If she gave him hack a sprig of ilogwood it mean she didn’t care. Various ;link ‘lowers meant ‘no.
Dandelions and daisies are both members of a vast family called Asteraceae.
All Asteraceae have flower heads with many small flowers called florets, which are surrounded by leaf-like structures called bracts.
There are over 20,000 different Asteraceae.
Garden Asteraceae include asters, dahlias and chrysanthemums.
Wild Asteraceae include burdock, butterbur and ragweed, thistles and sagebrush.
When dandelions mature, they form feathery seeds which are blown away like parachutes by the wind. Daisies look like a single bloom, but they actually consist of many small flowers. Those around the edge each have a single petal.
Lettuces, artichokes and sunflowers are all varieties of Asteraceae.
The thistle is the national emblem of Scotland.
Dandelions are bright yellow flowers that came originally from Europe, and were taken to America by colonists. Unusually, their ovaries form fertile seeds without having to be pollinated, so they spread rapidly.
The name dandelion comes from the French dent de lion, which means lion’s tooth, because its leaves have edges that look like sharp teeth.
The daisy gets its name from the Old English words ‘clay’s eye’ – because like an eye its blooms open in the day and close at night.
In meadow grass flowers like buttercups, daisies, clover, forget-me-nots and ragged robin often grow.
In deciduous woodlands flowers like bluebells, primroses, daffodils and celandines grow.
By the sea among the rocks, sea tampion and pink thrift may bloom, while up on the cliffs, there may be birdsfoot trefoil among the grasses.
As humans take over larger and larger areas of the world, and as farmers use more and more weedkillers on the land, many wildflowers are becoming very rare. Some are so rare that they are protected by law.
The lady’s slipper orchid grows only in one secret place in Yorkshire, in the north of England.
I he rare lady’s slipper orchid is also known as the moccasin flower. Its enlarged labellum (hp) makes it resemble a slipper or moccasin.
All flowers were originally wild. Garden flowers have been bred over the centuries to be very different from their wild originals.
Wildflowers are flowers that have developed naturally.
Most wildflowers are smaller and more delicate than their garden cousins.
Each kind of place has its own special range of wildflowers, although many wildflowers have now been spread to different places by humans.
Heathlands may have purple blooms of heathers, prickly yellow gorse and scarlet pimpernel.