Causes of Bruise
Bruises are caused mainly by damages to the soft tissues under the skin and tend to appear after an area on the body has been inured by a blow or forceful contact with an object. Upon contact, the blood vessels under the area that is injured break and blood starts to ooze. Cells in the area are often damaged as well. When the two occurrences combine, the area tends to darken or turn black especially within 24 hours of the incident.
This discoloration will start to change within a few days giving the appearance of a light yellowish color that will disappear in gradual stages. This gradual disappearance happens as the blood clots and debris accumulated are removed by phagocytes (unique cells found in the blood) and the appropriate enzymes. A black eye of “shiner” is probably the most readily identified bruise.
Injuries to some parts of the body can result in bruises at lower places or levels. For example, a blow to the head may manifest itself around the eye and damages to the legs can cause bruises on the feet. In cases like these, blood in the tissues chooses to gravitate downward. There are cases in which bruises may occur without forceful contact between the skin and an offending object.
Numerous small bruises caused mainly by Purpura and other hemorrhagic disorders as well as a deficiency in vitamin K may occur in some persons using drugs like cortisone (and related products). For this to happen, use of steroids must be prolonged. It is often harmless however, persons should be carefully monitored by a doctor.
Getting Rid of a Bruise
All uncomplicated bruises are treatable at home using one or a combination of analgesics, local applications and hot or cold applications/compresses. Analgesics are used to combat any pain, try Two (2) 300 mg Paracetemol after meals. Half this dosage can be administered to children 6 to 12 yrs, Elixir RM is also sufficient. Aspirin may be used except in infants since bruises can be worsened due to the aggravation of eth bleeding under the skin. A local pharmacist can further advise of this and any other pain killer.
Local applications like Fibriolytic cream can be applied to the surface of the bruise to aid the absorption of the blood being deposited by the damaged vessels. There is a plethora of commercial brands available at pharmacies and stores. Always apply these to the surface of the area, do not rub it into the skin. Most treatments are to be used daily 2 to 3 times.
Hot applications come in the form of hot packs or a towel emerged in warm (to slightly hot) water. Be sure to remove excess water and avoid burns. Cold applications are frequently cold packs or towels soak in icy water. It is now possible to find combination packs that start hot then get cold. Always end treatment with cold packs.
Most bruises and marks disappear completely after 3 to 14 days. For massive bruises or those that appear without cause, consult a medical professional.