Sugars are sweet-tasting natural substances made by plants and animals. All green plants make sugar. Fruit and honey contain a sugar called fructose. Milk contains the sugar flamed lactose. The most common sugar is called sucrose or just sugar — like the sugar you sprinkle on cereal. Sugar cane was first grown by South Pacific islanders more than 8000 years ago.
Sugar is made from sugar cane and sugar beet.
Sugar cane is a tropical grass with woody stems 2-5 m tall. It grows in places like India and Brazil.
Sugar juice is made from cane by shredding and crushing the stems and soaking them in hot water to dissolve the sugar.
Sugar beet is a turnip-like plant that grows in temperate countries.
Sugar juice is made from beet by soaking thin slices of the root in hot water to dissolve the sugar.
Sugar juice is warmed to evaporate water so crystals form.
White sugar is sugar made from sugar beet, or by refining (purifying) cane-sugar. Brown sugars such as muscovado and demerara are unrefined cane sugar. Molasses and black treacle are by-products of cane-sugar refining.