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Dog Health


An abscess is a localized collection of pus and may occur in any part of the body as a result of infection by a pus-producing organism. It usually results from a penetrating wound such as those caused by the teeth of another dog or by a foreign body such as a stick, thorn or grass seed.
Characteristic symptoms are pain, heat and swelling of the infected area. The dog may have a high temperature. The abscess should be brought to a head by using h. fomentations or poultices. This is done by bathing the area using a rag soaked in warm water to which has been added a tablespoon of epsom salts per liter. When the abscess is ripe the centre feels soft; it will often burst of its own accord. Lancing may be necessary to evacuate the contents however. The condition is usually painful. Once the contents have been evacuated, the opening should be enlarged so that the abscess doesn’t heal over too quickly, and it should be irrigated with a 50 per cent peroxide and water solution three times daily for three days. After three days irrigate with clean water from a hose. If at any stage the edges cannot be separated easily it may be necessary to reopen the site. The abscess must heal from the inside outwards. If the skin closes too quickly, pockets of infection may remain and the abscess grow to a head again. Where the abscess is small and only one is present, antibiotic treatment is often not necessary; but where a number of abscesses occur, veterinary advice and treatment is essential.

Abdominal Pain (Colic)

Usually the dog is reluctant to walk, and when it does it has a tucked-up appearance with an arched back. If the pain is very severe the dog may adopt a praying attitude—that is. with the chest on the ground and the hindquarters raised.
The animal usually objects to the abdomen being touched. The causes of abdominal pain are many, and because treatment is dependent on the cause, it is important that a correct diagnosis is made. Always consult a vet. In some cases the dog’s condition may be very serious, and its life may be in peril—for example, from torsion (twisting) of the stomach or a twisted bowel. In these cases, the animal usually exhibits excruciating pain, and rolls and may vomit constantly.


Abortion or miscarriage does not often occur in the bitch. Its causes are gross fatigue, injury or infection. Sometimes it can be caused by hormonal dysfunction. Rare chronic infections cause repeated abortions. and it is inadvisable to continue breeding from the bitch—a hysterectomy may be recommended.


Abrasions are sore areas of skin resulting from injury to the surface layers. Usually this kind of injury does not penetrate the skin. (If an injury does penetrate the skin layers and reveal the flesh, it should be sutured by a vet.) Ordinary abrasions can be treated at home. Remove the surface debris and any discharge by washing the wound gently with water from a garden hose.
If the dog will allow it, clean the wound with cotton-wool dipped in warm water, and disinfect with 50 per cent peroxide and water. Once the wound is clean, apply an astringent agent such as gentian violet, mercurochrome or triple dye twice daily. If necessary, cut the surrounding hair away so that medications can be applied for 1 centimeter beyond the edge of the wound.
Alternatively, antibiotic powders may be applied to the surface. Abrasions recover better if left open to the air, so don’t try to bandage them. Don’t worry if the dog licks the wound.

Allergic Reactions

Allergic reactions can be divided into two categories: anaphylactic shock, and urticaria.
Anaphylactic shock is an immediate hypersensitive reaction, in which death may rapidly occur following respiratory and circulatory collapse. The condition usually develops from human interference, although it may also result from a bee or wasp sting. The condition is often attributed to the effect of histamines on the body. Signs are restlessness, diarrhea, vomiting, collapse, sometimes convulsions, followed by a period of calm, then death. The agents that may cause anaphylactic shock include penicillin and other antibiotics, vaccines (though rarely), tranquilizers, vitamins and sometimes certain foods.
Treatment involves the intravenous administration of an antihistamine. so the dog should be taken to a vet immediately. On the way, ensure its air passages are clear by extending the dog’s neck, putting a peg on its tongue and pulling the tongue forward. Bee or wasp stings rarely cause death. Urticaria is characterized by a swelling of the soft tissues of the head and body. It nearly always affects the eyes. mouth and ears. A discharge may develop from the eyes. and the animal frequently rubs its mouth and eyes with its paws or on the ground. The animal takes on a very old appearance. This type of allergic reaction may develop within fifteen to twenty minutes after contact with the causative agent. It very rarely causes serious damage to the animal and is usually the result of food allergies, ingestion of spoiled protein material, insect bites or contact with certain chemicals. Insect bites are probably the most common cause.
Any skin allergy may, however, become an emergency situation because of self-mutilation from excessive itching and scratching. In such a case the dog requires antihistamine injections from the vet. If possible, find out what food, place or substance seems to induce the attack.

All-meat syndrome (Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism. N.S.H.)

This is still an important problem, although it is becoming less common as meat prices rise and more dog owners switch to commercial foods which are properly balanced in calcium and phosphorus. It is more frequently seen in puppies of the larger breeds. N.S.H. is caused by feeding a mainly meat diet with incorrect calcium supplementation. Meat not only contains very little calcium (approximately 10 milligrams per 100 grams) but has a marked imbalance of calcium and phosphorus. In meat the ratio of calcium to phosphorus is 1:20 —in a normal diet it should be approximately 1:1.
The abnormal diet leads to altered levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood, which stimulate the parathyroid gland. The hormone released leads to correction of the blood levels, by resorbing calcium from the bones. Fractures may develop. These appear more frequently in the hind-limbs, and pelvic fractures are commonly seen. They often result in narrowing of the pelvis, problems with constipation and an extra problem in whelping. Sometimes the vertebral column may show deformities resulting in pressure on the spinal cord, giving rise to neurological disturbances. Treatment is to correct the diet by using a calcium supplement. Half a teaspoon of calcium carbonate should be given with each 100 grams of meat fed. Other calcium supplements can be given but the quantities need to be increased to provide a balance.
Calciostelein injections are an unsatisfactory and inadequate method of treatment. N.S.H. can be prevented by feeding young puppies one of the complete, prepared foods that make supplementation unnecessary. The following conditions occur as a result of overfeeding together with inherited components


Anaemia is a condition in which the blood’s ability to carry oxygen is reduced. It can be caused by blood loss from a hemorrhage or by blood-sucking parasite, for example, hookworms in young puppies. A reduction in the number of blood cells able to carry oxygen is also caused by disease, parasites or nutritional deficiencies.
Anaemia due to blood loss is normally quickly corrected by the body as long as the hemorrhage is controlled. The addition of iron and vitamin B to the diet will assist this process. Where anaemia is due to infection, the condition must be corrected and treated before the anaemia can be rectified, but again, supplements of vitamin B and iron assist recovery. Parasitic conditions should be treated with worming preparations and the resultant anaemia corrected by supplementation.
Nutritional deficiencies resulting in anaemia are usually related to lack of iron, cobalt or vitamin B12. Raw liver or liver extracts are very good for correcting anaemic situations. The diet should be well-balanced, nourishing and contain red meat.

Anal Adenoma

This is a small tumor that appears at the anus in both male dogs and bitches. It is a condition of old age, usually brought to the owner’s attention by the dog constantly licking the anal area. Treatment is either surgical to remove the tumor, or cryosurgical, to freeze it out. Alternatively, hormone therapy will reduce the growth.

Anal Glands, Infected

On either side of the dog’s anus are glands called anal glands, which secrete a foul-smelling lubricating fluid intended to be emptied into the anus each time the dog passes a motion. In many dogs the anal glands have outlived their usefulness, as modern feeding patterns result in motions too soft to require the special fluid. Unfortunately, changing the diet to help the glands may make the dog constipated. The result is that the glands fill and become impacted. The impaction can become infected, forming an abscess which can recur constantly. The first sign of trouble comes with the dog dragging its hindquarters over the grass or the carpet (`scooting’).
In other cases, the dog may be lying quietly when it suddenly squeals and rushes forward. Sometimes the dog may lick the anal area. suddenly looking at the tail base and putting the tail between its legs as though stung. In a simple case of impaction. all that is required is to squeeze the glands by pressing them upwards and forwards, to evacuate the contents. In some dogs the glands may require attention every three or four weeks. If the condition persists and causes the dog continual trouble, the glands can be removed surgically.
If an abscess forms in a gland. the dog shows signs of acute pain, especially when attempting to pass a motion. It may squeal or bite when its tail or hindquarters are handled. If the tail is elevated, a large, painful-looking swelling can be seen on one side of the anus. Sometimes the dog’s temperature is elevated to about 40°C. In these cases the inflammation is so painful that any attempt to empty the glands by pressing them will be unsuccessful. The abscess will either have to be treated by antibiotics for a few days or lanced surgically. This is a job for the vet.

Anal Irritation

Treatment depends on the case, which may be worms, enlarged prostate glands, anal gland conditions, anal fissure, chronic diarrhea or even a foreign body, usually a bone lodged in the rectum

Anal Occlusion

Occlusion of the anus is a condition usually seen in longhaired breeds. The anal opening is completely blocked by a mass of dried feces attached to the hairs around the anus.
The dog suffers great discomfort and the smell is unmistakable. The best method of removal is to use curved. blunt-ended scissors to cut off the hair at skin level. Care must be taken not to cut the skin. Sometimes soaking the mass in warm water before attempting its removal makes it easier for the dog.

Anal Prolapse

anus is seen mostly in young puppies. being, persistent diarrhea which in turn is often caused by heavy roundworm infestation. Sometimes it may be caused by constipation or overfeeding.
One sign of a prolapsed anus is a finger-like projection of mucous membrane from the anus. The pup is usually in considerable distress and licks the protrusion incessantly. Treatment of this condition. by replacing the prolapse and suturing it into position. is best left to the vet.


Anti-coagulants, such as warfarin, are commonly used in modern rodenticides (rat poisons). Symptoms of poisoning include anaemia from blood loss, persistent nose bleeding, bloody urine, labored breathing, bloody diarrhea and increased redness of the skin and the conjunctiva (eye membranes).
It is unusual for a dog to suffer any problem from eating one poisoned rat—usually the dog must eat several poisoned rats over a number of days before an anticoagulant will have any detrimental effect on the dog. It is advisable to have the dog checked by a vet.

Appetite, Decreased

Decreased dog’s appetite appears to have decreased, it is important to distinguish between an actual loss of appetite and the inability to eat. The latter may be because of some painful condition in the mouth or throat, for example, bad teeth. inflammation of the gums, ulceration of the mouth, a bone caught between the teeth, a cracked tooth or inflamed and sore lips. Old age, injury and ill health often produce a decreased appetite. In old age, a lack of appetite is often because of some other underlying problem and if allowed to continue it will frequently result in a loss of weight and condition. Toy breeds invariably eat very little. Sometimes the dog has been fed a selective diet from weaning and will not touch anything else placed before it. In addition, urban dogs are usually overfed and under-exercised, so it is quite feasible for them to go a day or two without eating anything. Ill health. particularly where fever is involved, invariably produces a decreased appetite. This is very common in disease situations such as Septicemia, Toxemia, and Shock.
Appetite, Depraved
With a depraved appetite the dog may eat stones, coal, manure or dirt. Possible causes include teething, worms, indigestion and deficiencies in salt, minerals or vitamins.
Sometimes it can be because of actual hunger. Puppies exhibit this symptom more than adult dogs, and frequently they have a history of an all-meat diet. When this symptom occurs. treat the animal for worms and ensure that its diet contains a balanced vitamin and mineral supplement, particularly calcium. It is common and normal for dogs to eat grass. which is said to provide a fresh source of vitamins.
Other authorities claim that grass-eating induces vomiting to rid the stomach of old, stale food. Dogs frequently bury food and then eat it when it is rotten. The eating of ‘aged’ meat is quite normal for the dog—though it sometimes cases vomiting —so don’t be alarmed.

Appetite, Increased

Increased appetite has three forms:
(a) A normal situation where the increase is because of lactation, cold, increased work. food of poor biological value, or growth. The animal maintains its condition and weight.
(b) Increased appetite coupled with loss of weight—as in pancreatic disease, sugar diabetes or internal parasites.
(c) Increased appetite coupled with weight gain—this can be caused by hormonal imbalance. tumors or overindulgent owners who expect the dog to eat three meals a day just because they do.


Arthritis is an inflammatory condition of a joint or a disease involving a joint. It may be caused by the effects of injury, infection or malfunction of the joint. It can be classified as acute or chronic.
The joint is usually swollen and painful and the dog avoids using it. There are many different types of arthritis, the most common in the dog being hip dysplasia—an inflammatory condition of the hip joints. Relief from arthritis is best achieved by rest and warmth. Pain-relieving drugs and anti-inflammatory agents are often used.
If infection exists, antibiotic treatment is necessary. Temporary relief can be given by administering a quarter of a 300-milligram tablet of soluble aspirin every four hours. In many cases the arthritic condition is exacerbated by obesity, and dieting may help.

Avascular Necrosis of the Hip

Avascular necrosis of the hip is well recognized in breeds such as Yorkshire, Highland, Cairn and Jack Russell Terriers, Miniature Poodles, Chihuahuas and Shih Tzu.
It causes hind-limb lameness in dogs four to nine months, on one or both sides. Pain is localized in the hip joint; associated muscle deterioration is well recognized. Surgical treatment appears to provide a more rapid return to normal than conservative treatment.


Babesiosis is a disease caused by a blood parasite from the bite of an infected tick. It is widespread in all parts of the world.
The dog usually suffers from a high temperature, depression, rapid breathing, loss of appetite, weakness and staggering. Anaemia develops and jaundice may be present.
A blood sample is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Veterinary advice is essential.


The dog with a backache is unwilling to move or to turn round, climb stairs or jump in and out of cars. The condition usually occurs in long-backed dogs such as Corgis and Dachshunds. The dog may cry out in pain without being touched. Sometimes the dog will remain on the ground. unwilling to get up; when it does, it moves stiffly.
The causes may be actual physical injury, a disc protrusion, infection or, in some cases, abdominal pain. Various tests, including X-rays, are needed to pin-point the condition.
Where hack conditions are suspected, particularly in long-backed dogs, it is advisable to keep the dog on a flat surface for at least three weeks, otherwise the condition may progress to paralysis of the back legs.


Loss of balance is caused by conditions affecting the central nervous system, such as distemper, encephalitis, meningitis, space-occupying lesions (such as tumors), tick bite or snake bite. It can also be caused by middle ear infections. This is a problem for the vet


Balanitis is an inflammatory condition of the foreskin (the prepuce). It is a normal condition in most dogs, is commonly seen as a pus-filled discharge from the eye of the penis, and is very difficult to clear up. The prepucial cavity (the fleshy housing of the penis) is warm and moist, an ideal environment for bacteria. Sexual frustration is a contributing factor; the dog continually licks himself as a form of masturbation, so reinfecting the area.
Treatment can be instituted by syringing out the cavity and squirting an antibiotic cream into it two or three times a day for a five-day period. However, once medication ceases, reinfection is likely. As balanitis causes the dog so little trouble, it is regarded as an almost-normal condition and should only lead to a visit to the vet if the discharge becomes bloody, signifying an injury or inflammation of the sexual glands.

Behavioral problems

Many of the behavioral abnormalities exhibited by dogs are the result of neuroses induced by urban dwelling. The most serious problem facing the urban dog is severe territorial restriction—particularly upsetting to the larger breeds. Almost invariably it is the large male dog who becomes involved in wandering, biting, fighting other dogs, chasing cars, barking excessively and destroying furniture.
It is rare to see female dogs or dogs of small breeds wandering far from their homes, as their territorial requirements are more easily satisfied.
Overcrowding in urban areas results in dogfights over territory, particularly between males. Exercise your dog daily.
If your male dog is still a nuisance, castration is recommended. Hormone therapy using progesterone has recently proven successful in correcting abnormal behavioral traits

Dermatitis of the Scrotum

Dermatitis of the scrotum is particularly common in Old English Sheepdogs and Chows and is extremely irritating. Treatment is by astringent agents such as mercurochrome, triple dye or any other antibacterial dermatological agent. Apply to the scrotal surface three times daily for about five days. Try to stop the dog licking the area by using an Elizabethan collar. In cases that continually recur or don’t clear up, castration is the only solution.

Bleeding from the Mouth

Bleeding in the mouth is usually due to cuts or other physical injuries. Usually the dog has pierced one of the major veins under the tongue with a bone or a piece of wood. Other causes of bleeding from the mouth include inflamed gums

Bleeding from the Rectum

Rectal bleeding is usually the result of an inflammatory condition in the intestines caused by either bacteria or parasites. Bleeding of this nature is very serious and the dog should be taken to a veterinary surgeon urgently.
If bleeding is due to a cut or ulcerated tongue, or a cut on the inside of the cheek. Take the dog to the vet.

Bleeding from the Surface of the Body

Surface bleeding can in many cases be stopped by bandaging a pad of cotton-wool into position over the area. Pressure bandaging is the most important thing to do to reduce hemorrhage. Where bleeding is heavy, it can be controlled by applying direct pressure over the injured vessel or to the spot where the blood is escaping.
This can be done with the fingers or by applying a tourniquet. Where sizable vessels, particularly arteries, are spurting blood, a tourniquet is essential. This should be slackened for a few seconds every three or four minutes.
A tourniquet can he left in place for up to three-quarters of an hour without consequent problems. If the dog has lost a lot of blood it should be taken to a veterinary surgeon for treatment to overcome shock and loss of blood, and to restore normal blood pressure

Bleeding Internally

Internal loss of blood usually follows a car accident or other injury. It can be detected by signs of bodily weakness, pallor of the mucous membranes (the eye membranes and mouth appear pale), a weak pulse and coldness of the extremities (the limbs and ears). Place the dog in a head-down position at an angle of about 30 degrees. Keep it warm and take it to a vet as soon as possible

Bleeding Nose

Nose bleeds may result from injury, violent sneezing, a growth, ulcers or parasites in the nasal cavities.
Ice placed over the nose will often help reduce bleeding.
Ensure that any bleeding does not interrupt the dog’s respiration and ascertain the cause of bleeding, taking the dog to the vet if necessary. Reduce excitement and exercise for a day or two after the bleeding stops

Bleeding Tail

Injuries to the tip of the tail often cause bleeding that is difficult to control because the dog wags its tail and knocks it on various objects. Pressure bandaging with an adhesive tape is advised or cautery of the blood vessel.

Blood in Urine

Bleeding can originate from the urinary system—that is, from the kidney or the bladder—or from the reproductive system. If the bleeding is not the normal discharge that occurs when a bitch is in season, take the dog to the vet.

Bone Problems of Growing Dogs

The following conditions affect dogs during their growing period, most frequently the larger breeds. Before discussing the various problems it is necessary to understand the basic anatomy of the growing bone as it will be frequently referred to.
Limb bones basically grow from their ends at special sites known as growth plates. Most bones have growth plates at either end. though some have them at only one end. Although one might expect the bones to grow equally from both ends, this is not necessarily so.
The difference between the growth of the two ends is of little significance except in the forelimbs where the radius and ulna must grow as a pair for the forelimbs to remain straight. Many of the deformities of the forelimbs of larger breeds are due to a disproportionate growth of the radius and ulna.

Car Sickness

The car-sick dog will first salivate profusely and then vomit if it has food in its stomach. For most dogs the problem can be overcome by taking them on short trips on an empty stomach to accustom them to car travel. Put the dog on the floor of the car rather than on the seat where it can see.
Medication for car sickness includes tranquilization and specific anti-sickness tablets available from your vet.

Coat Conditions

A glossy coat indicates a healthy dog. Poor coat condition—dry and dull—can indicate illness or dietary deficiency. Diet supplementation with butter or margarine at the rate of a tablespoon per day, or the addition of a vitamin or fatty acid supplement, will often bring out the gloss in the coat.


Colic simply means pain in the abdomen and can have numerous causes, such as indigestion, flatulence, constipation, a swallowed foreign body causing pain, gastric torsion, twisting of the bowel, distention of the stomach, enteritis (inflammation of the bowel wall), kidney disease, hepatitis, and so on. If the cause is not obvious, consult your vet.


Coma is a complete loss of consciousness often accompanied by heavy breathing and dilated pupils. Coma may be caused by injuries to the head, a stroke, heart attack, circulatory failure, poisoning, drug intoxication, kidney or liver disease, diabetes, lack of calcium in the blood, septicemia, shock or epilepsy. It may sometimes be caused by very low or very high temperatures, brain hemorrhage, abscesses, bruising or tumors.
In many illnesses it is also the last stage before death. Ensure that the dog is lying comfortably without restriction to the throat, chest or abdomen. Extend the head, pull the tongue out as far as possible and ensure a good supply of fresh air. Keep the animal still and warm, using blankets and hot-water bottles. Turn the dog over every three to four hours to aid circulation. Provide subdued light and quiet surroundings to reduce disturbance. Veterinary assistance is essential.


The dog has difficulty passing the hard droppings and may eventually get to the point where it strains without passing a stool. Sometimes the abdomen may appear swollen. The causes:
Nervous system Dogs with a history of slipped discs, paralysis of the back legs or weakness in the back legs are prone to constipation.
Mechanical obstruction The obstruction can be caused by enlargement of the prostate gland in male dogs, diverticulitis in the bowel walls, a fractured pelvis healing to high bone content in the diet. When bones make up more than 10 per cent of the diet they can cause constipation. Painful anal area This can be due to cuts, matted long hair, infected anal glands or other conditions of the anal sphincter.
If the dog to be treated has been on a home diet, first try a canned food, which will sometimes loosen the dog’s motions. The next step is to give the dog paraffin oil orally at the rate of 5-15 milliliters twice daily, depending on the weight of the dog and the subsequent consistency of the droppings.
Fecal softener medications or warm soapy enemas may be helpful. Prevention is best instituted by correcting the diet. Increase the vegetable fiber content of the diet. Add liver and decrease the bones. Dogs which continue to strain need veterinary attention.


A cough is an important indication of disease. Excessive coughing is physically exhausting and harmful. Coughs can be caused by:
• Infectious agents—such as bacteria or viruses which cause tonsillitis or laryngitis. The most common virus is `kennel cough’ which is a contagious disease usually contracted when a dog has been kept in close proximity to other dogs. Symptoms are a dry, loud, harsh cough, with the dog sometimes bringing up phlegm. The dog may be depressed and slightly off its food. The condition can last for five to seven days, during which period the dog will produce an immunity to the virus. Although ‘kennel cough’ in itself is rarely serious, the dog should be put on a course of antibiotics to stop any secondary infection producing pneumonia. For home treatment, a child’s cough medicine given as for a child is often helpful. A mixture of equal parts of raw egg white, honey and water can be given every half hour at the rate of 5-15 milliliters (1-3 teaspoons). Affected dogs should be protected from cold and damp and not be over-exercised.
• Parasites—such as roundworms or hookworms. which may cause bronchitis and pneumonia in young puppies.
• Chemical irritants—such as smoke, spray, gases and fine dust.
• Obstructions—such as tight collars, tumors. and congestion from chronic heart failure (which is particularly common in Poodles), from tonsillitis and from pharyngitis. In these cases coughing occurs whenever the dog becomes excited or takes exercise.
• Heart worm—causes coughing from a mechanical blockage of the heart.


Debarking is an operation in which the vocal cords are cut to reduce the amount of noise produced by the dog. The operation is illegal in many countries, including Australia and the United Kingdom.


In dehydration the body tissues contain insufficient fluid to carry out their normal function. It can be caused by fever, high environmental temperatures, chronic vomiting, increased urinary output because of disease, diarrhea or decreased drinking in severe illnesses.
In smaller animals. The symptoms are tachycardia, dry mucous membranes, a dry harsh coat, slow return of the skin when it is lifted. and glazed eyes. Treatment is to correct the underlying cause of the condition and institute quid therapy with electrolytes. Prolonged dehydration is dangerous. Always take the dog to the vet to determine the cause.


Depression usually happened because of the underlying infectious process or disease. Check for obvious symptom and the dog should be handled by a veterinary surgeon.

Diabetes Mellitus

Sugar diabetes occurs more commonly in obese bitches and also in certain breeds of dogs, particularly Dachshunds and Poodles. A diabetic animal is constantly hungry and despite an increased food intake loses weight. The other common manifestation of sugar diabetes is excessive thirst.
Left untreated, the continued rapid breakdown of the animal’s fat reserves results in the accumulation of toxic products in the blood, and the animal becomes depressed, loses its appetite and vomits frequently. Because it is still losing vast amounts of water in the urine, it rapidly becomes dehydrated. This combination is fatal unless treated promptly by insulin injection. The animal’s daily food and exercise routine must be adjusted so that the maximum insulin effect coincides with the periods of high glucose concentration. The type of food should be kept constant.
If a regular amount is given at a regular time, the control of this illness is more easily achieved. Carbohydrates should be kept to a minimum, and vitamin C should be supplied in large quantities. The insulin must be continued daily for the rest of the dog’s life. Diabetes may cause cataracts.


Diarrhea has many causes including bacterial and viral infections, worms, gut tumors, hepatitis, distemper, leptospirosis, poisoning, coccidiosis, overeating, food allergies, bad foods, sudden dietary changes, abnormal pancreatic secretions, chronic liver disease and nervousness.
Diarrhea may take several forms: it may be acute or chronic; it may affect the dog generally by causing a raised temperature and depression, or the dog may be healthy in every other respect. Acute diarrhea is seen as a watery, sometimes bloody stool in a previously healthy animal. If this is accompanied by elevated temperature, depression and failure to eat, the gastrointestinal tract is inflamed and bleeding. The dog should be taken to a vet immediately.
Even in mild cases of diarrhea where the dog is clinically normal, it is wise not to let the condition proceed for more than twenty-four hours without seeking veterinary advice.
Apparently normal diets can cause diarrhea; the constituents of milk may be at fault, or canned foods, too much vegetable matter, liver or oils. Diarrhea in young pups can be caused by cow’s milk. Replace the milk with water for three or four days and give the animal Kaomagma at the rate of 1 milliliter for every kilogram body-weight (to a maximum of 10 milliliters) every six hours.
After a few days reintroduce cows milk to the pup’s diet but dilute it with water, 50 per cent milk : 50 per cent water, for three to four weeks. Gradually increase the concentration of the milk each three weeks by 10 per cent.
Alternatively, enquire from your pharmacist about a human baby milk product that is lactose free. Worms, particularly roundworms, may cause diarrhea in young pups.
Changes of diet should always be introduced slowly—sudden switches of food, particularly if they require minimal digestion, encourage diarrhea. In acute cases of vomiting and diarrhea, withhold food and water for twenty-four hours to give the gut a rest. Feed the dog for a short time on the following mixture (the quantities given are for a I2-kg dog for one day). Boil one cup of dried rice in two cups of water, then add either 115 grams of cottage cheese or the same quantity of cooked lean meat. Potatoes may replace the rice and cooked eggs may replace the cottage cheese.
Feed small amounts every four hours for two to three days. Where home treatment does not cure the problem within twelve hours, veterinary advice should be sought. When taking a dog suffering from diarrhea to the vet, be prepared to tell the vet about its diet and appetite, duration of any current and previous illnesses, environmental changes, vaccination history, past treatments for diarrhea, worming history and daily number of bowel movements. It is advisable to take a sample of the diarrhea (about one tablespoon) to the vet in a clean container.
If this is impossible, examine the feces to determine the consistency, color, odor and any presence of blood or mucus. Diarrhea is one of the principal causes of dehydration in young animals and must be rectified early.

Ear Disorders


Cropping is the procedure of reshaping the ear flap by surgical amputation. It is prohibited in many countries including Australia and the United Kingdom. It is allowed in most States of America.


This can be a congenital abnormality (White Bull Terriers and Poodles) but is common in aged dogs. There is no treatment, although the dog’s ears should be checked by your vet to ensure that debris is not causing the problem. Deaf dogs are at risk with traffic, particularly if they like to lie on the road.

Fly Bite

Fly bite from blood-sucking flies can cause the tips of the ears to become ulcerated. The dog will shake its head constantly, which may lead to a hematoma on the ear flap.
The best treatment is to apply ointment containing fly repellant to the ears twice daily. If possible, keep the dog in a fly-proof area during daylight hours. To prevent further fly bites, use ordinary insect repellant sprayed on a piece of cloth.
Blood-sucking flies attack the ears causing dermatitis.

Foreign Bodies in the Ear

Foreign bodies in the ear include grass seeds, pieces of twig or even insects, all of which cause the dog extreme distress. If a dog holds its head on one side or paws wildly at the ear, see if you can remove the offending object. If not, see your vet.
A swollen ear-flap indicates hematoma.


A soft swelling on the ear flap could be a hematoma (caused by blood that has effused from a broken blood vessel). It is usually brought on by violent head shaking.
The shaking whiplashes a blood vessel which bursts and allows blood to seep between the cartilage and the skin of the ear. The condition should be treated as soon as possible as the weight of the blood in the ear irritates the dog and leads to further head shaking—this allows enlargement of the hematoma which can quickly involve the whole ear flap. The hematoma can be drained but is very likely to fill up again. A more permanent cure is achieved by suturing the ear flap.

Otitis (Canker)

Otitis (or canker) is an infection of the ear canal. It is more common in dogs with long, floppy, hairy ears which do not allow proper air circulation into the ear canal and hence provide a moist environment suited to the growth of organisms.
The signs of ear infection are usually a discharge, a foul smell or head shaking. Sometimes the dog will hold its head on one side. Quite frequently the initiating cause is ear mites which can lie dormant in the pup from birth, at a later stage multiplying to the point where they inflame the ear canal and allow secondary infections to move in.
Infections of the ear canal can also be caused by bacteria or fungi. Treatment involves cleaning the ear with a 50 per cent peroxide and water solution. plucking out any hair in the ear canal to increase air circulation, and treating with ear drops. As most ear drops contain a local anesthetic to dull the pain, it is important to complete the course of medication and not stop after a few days when the dog appears comfortable, as this may just be the local anesthetic working. Where possible, try to remove any debris from the ear canal daily with cotton buds before applying medication. It is safe to gently work down the ear canal, as the dog’s ear takes a right-angled bend at the bottom before the ear drum. In chronic cases of ear infections, surgery to open the ear canal further to the air can give good results.
An ear-resection operation to expose the ear canal and dry it out.
Dogs often receive injuries to the edges of their ear flaps. These may bleed profusely, and although not serious they can be very difficult to heal, as the dog scratches and shakes its head. The best home treatment is to apply cotton-wool packs to the top of the head, lay the ear flap back on to this and bandage it. Apply acriflavin or a healing ointment to the bleeding area. The bandage holding the flap to the head should be left on for a week to ten days until the wound has completely healed. Failing this, cautery will stop the bleeding.

Elizabethan Collar

A device to prevent the dog licking/biting wounds on the body. It also stops the dog scratching the head and ears.


This means putting your pet to death painlessly. There are several reasons why people ask a vet to perform euthanasia on their pet. Unacceptable reasons, in my opinion, include going on holidays or going overseas, getting married, moving from a ground-floor home to a unit or flat, grooming becoming too time-consuming, or the breed becoming ‘unfashionable’. Legitimate reasons include old age, severe disease. accident victims with severe injuries, prolonged injury and disposing of strays.
The best and most common method of euthanasia used by vets is an intravenous overdose of anesthetic. This is a painless procedure and the pet dies within six to seven seconds. It is the only method that I can recommend. When the condition of a sick pet is gave, it is important to control emotional attachment to the animal and listen to the vet’s advice. The vet knows how much sickness and pain an animal can take and how it should recover; if the advice is euthanasia, consider it seriously and do not let emotional involvement with the pet affect your decision. I believe pets have an advantage over humans at this point in their lives—the availability of euthanasia—so do not be selfish.

Eye disorders


Blindness can occur from not treating any of the conditions described in this section. The most common cause, however, is crystallization of the lens in old age, which reduces or stops the light rays passing through. Senile cataracts, which develop as the dog ages, are seen as a blue haze deep in the dog’s eye. The dog may also bark at known persons some distance away but will quieten when the person moves closer to and is recognized by the dog. Dogs are usually nine or ten years old when the condition begins.
Very little can be done except to be extra careful with the dog in strange surroundings, particularly in traffic. Cocker Spaniels and Poodles are particularly susceptible to this condition. When crystallization is complete, there is a white, pearly, circular centre in the eye which allows little light through to the retina. If these dogs are left in familiar surroundings they can live a happy life. It is possible, depending on eye tests, to remove the lens and return about 40-50 per cent vision.
Pearly-white eyes due to cataracts.

Cataracts can be congenital or can be caused by diabetes mellitus.

Conjunctivitis is an inflammatory condition of the eye and has several causes: An acute injury—caused by a scratch from a piece of grass or twig brushing the cornea. This condition is painful; the dog closes the eye and the eye weeps.
Infection—taking the form of pus appearing in the corners of the eyes. If the pus appears only in one eye, the inflammation is usually caused by a local infection in that eye. (If both eyes are affected, it may indicate distemper or some other general disease.)
Conjunctivitis indicated by red mucous membranes. A blockage of the tear duct—the tear duct usually drains tears from the eye to the inside of the nose. The abscessed root of a molar tooth—in this case the conjunctivitis is usually accompanied by a lump just below the eye on the dog’s face; sometimes the lump has a discharge. Conjunctivitis is a painful condition for which it is wise to seek veterinary advice. Normal eye-washes are usually not strong enough to be an effective cure.

Corneal Dermoid
Corneal dermoid—a plate of epithelial tissue on the surface of the cornea—is an island of skin that usually grows hairs from its surface which grow toward and irritate the cornea. It can be removed surgically.

Dry Eye

Dry eye refers to the absence of the normal tear film covering the corneal surface. It gives the cornea a dry and lusterless appearance. It is seen in all breeds but particularly Yorkshire Terriers, Chihuahuas and Cocker Spaniels.

It may be caused by severe conjunctivitis, distemper, old age or accidental damage to the tear gland. Once an eye becomes dry, the tear film must be replaced by artificial tears immediately or permanent damage can occur. A surgical technique in which a salivary duct is moved from the mouth to the eye gives satisfactory results.

Ectropion is eversion or sagging of the lower eyelid. Breeds commonly affected are Bloodhounds, Basset Hounds, St Bernards, Great Danes and Cocker Spaniels. Ectropion can predispose the eye to excessive drying and the easy entrance of foreign material into the conjunctival sac, which results in conjunctivitis or corneal infection. Rectification is by surgery.

Entropion is inversion of the eyelid margin. The inherited form of this condition is seen most commonly in King Charles Spaniels, St Bernards, Cocker Spaniels, Golden and Labrador Retrievers, Irish Setters and English Bulldogs.
It may be noticed when the puppies are born but usually doesn’t cause any outward signs of disease until the dog is a few months old. In the mild form, the disease may correct itself as the dog ages. Mechanical damage is caused by the eyelashes rubbing on the eyeball. Treatment of entropion is by surgically excising an elliptical piece of skin from the eyelid to evert the eyelid margin. This plastic surgery is usually successful.

Glaucoma is an increase in the normal pressure of the fluid within the eye. The usual signs are blueness of the lens, and conjunctivitis. Medications can control it.

Pupil Constriction
Constriction of the pupils occurs normally in bright light; it may also occur when the dog has ingested a toxin or poison.

Pupil Dilation
Pupil dilation occurs normally in dull light, but it also occurs in tick poisoning and sickness.

Strabismus—in-turning or out-turning of the eye—is usually seen in the broad-headed or short-headed breeds such as the Pekinese or Pug.

Third Eyelid Deformities
Most animals have a ‘third eyelid’—a necessitating membrane—in the inner corner of the eye, controlled by an involuntary muscle. It acts to lubricate the eye, particularly in dry, dusty conditions. However, when the dog is ill, or under the influence of a tranquilizing agent, the muscle controlling the lid may relax, allowing the membrane to cover one-third of the eye. Pet owners often refer to this as a ‘skin growing over the eye’.
Deformities of the third eyelid—an inwards-to-outwards rolling of third eyelid margin—is usually seen in large breeds of dogs, having its highest incidence in Great Danes, German Shepherds, St Bernards, Old English Sheepdogs and Afghans. The condition usually appears before the animal is one year old and causes a mild form of corneal irritation. It can be corrected surgically.
Trichiasis — an extra row of eyelashes.

Trichiasis—an extra row of eyelashes—causes irritation of the cornea. It occurs most frequently in Pekinese, French Poodles, Boxers, English Bulldogs and Cocker Spaniels.
The eyelashes can be removed by depilation.

Tumors—for example, wart-like growths—can occur on the margin of the eyelid and can develop to a point where they physically and mechanically damage the cornea. They should be removed surgically.


Examine the stools regularly for the presence of adult worms or segments of adult parasites. The most common is tapeworm segments which are the size of cucumber seeds, a grayish-pink color, and active. They are usually on the outside of the stool. Roundworms are very common in puppies’ stools. They are white, coiled, 5-8 centimeters long, the thickness of a pencil-lead, and pointed at ends.
The presence of blood, undigested meat or fat globs in the stool indicates illness. Note the odor from the stools. The color may also be of great clinical significance. The usual color is brown because of pigments excreted in feces from the liver. A dark brown to black stool ma indicate either that the animal is on a high meat diet or the blood pigments are present. Grayish-White or clay-colored stools may indicate bile obstruction. Light brow or tan-colored stools are frequently seen in nursing puppies and dogs on a diet high in milk. A green stock containing undigested material indicates a liver problem. A red stool may indicate a recent bleeding attack in the low bowel or rectum.
Normal stools contain only a small amount of mucus. but chronic enteritis, chronic irritants, malabsorption c: high doses of oral antibiotics over long periods may lead to excessive mucus. For further examination of the stop: microscopically, a sample of about one dessertspoonful ( milliliters) should be taken in a clean, labelled container to your veterinary surgeon.


The dog’s feet are often presented with problems. Unclad they come into contact with broken glass, sharp tins, nail, tar, acids, detergents and other harmful materials.

Cut Pads or Webbing

Cuts in the pads or in the webbing between the toes bleed profusely as this area is very vascular. Bleeding can be stopped initially by the application of a tourniquet and a firm bandage around the foot. Where the cut has gone right through the pad or skin, it is best to have the wound sutured, as sensitive tissues underneath the pad’s surface would otherwise cause the dog prolonged irritation when they touch sand and gravel.

Fish Hooks
Fish hooks are commonly found in the feet (and also in the lips after fish bait has been eaten). Do not try to pull a hook back against the barb. Instead, the shank of the hook should be cut and the passage of the barb continued through the skin. This may require a general anesthetic.

Foreign Bodies Between the Toes
Foreign bodies between the toes are usually grass seeds. thorns or pieces of stick. Sometimes the skin may heal over the site of the wound and days later an abscess will form. A chronically draining sinus may be the first symptom.
Often a general anesthetic has to be given while a probe is used to find the foreign body. If possible, where there is a hole in the skin, irrigate with 50 per cent peroxide and water for several days. The foreign body may wash out.

Interdigital Cysts
These are swellings that appear between the toes and are caused by a blockage of the sweat glands in the feet. Soak the foot in a bowl of warm water with salt, at the rate of one tablespoon per liter. This will bring the cyst to a head. When it ruptures, clean the area with warm water and salt (1 tablespoon salt per liter) three or four times a day. Occasionally the swelling may have to be lanced by a vet.
Sometimes a foreign body (for example, a grass seed or splinter) causes the problem.

Interdigital Dermatitis
Interdigital dermatitis is an inflammatory, irritating dermatitis between the toes. It is usually precipitated by an allergic reaction to a grass which causes the dog to lick between the toes. The licking combined with the allergic re action allows bacteria to multiply between the claws. Ap- plications of astringent agents such as mercurochrome, triple dye or gentian violet will dry out the areas. The dog should be prevented from licking the areas by use of an Elizabethan collar or a bucket. Sometimes antibiotics and antihistamine injections may be necessary.

Female Disorders

By far the highest incidence of the female disorders listed below occur in undersexed mature bitches not being used for breeding. The incidence of these disorders in bitches desexed before they have a litter and under one year of age is practically zero.

Mammary Tumors
Mammary tumor is the hard lump surrounding the nipple. Mammary tumors are one of the problems of older bitches, usually undersexed bitches which have not had a litter and which suffer from pseudopregnancy. There are even the smaller rheumatoid type, should always be removed surgically as soon as they are detected. The longer the tumor is allowed to remain, the greater the danger of secondary growths appearing, not only in the mammary gland, but also in the lymphatic glands within the abdomen. It is important to take the bitch to a vet as soon as any mammary lump is detected.

Mastitis is hot, swollen mammary glands caused by bacterial infection. Mastitis means inflammation of the mammary gland. It is caused by bacterial infection, the bacteria usually gaining entry through scratches or wounds in the teats. These wounds are caused by hungry pups, most often when the bitch is short of milk because of an inadequate diet. The first signs are restlessness, possibly an elevated temperature, and loss of appetite. Examination will show a hot, painful and markedly swollen gland. If the condition is not brought under control quickly, all the milk will disappear and her entire litter may die. Fortunately, mastitis in the bitch responds rapidly to modem antibiotic therapy and prompt treatment is invariably successful. Hot fomentation together with manual stripping of the gland will help the condition resolve quickly.


Pus discharging from the vulva.

Metritis is an inflammation of the womb which most often occurs after whelping. It can be caused by the presence of dead pups, injury during, whelping, etc. The first signs are usually discharge from the vulva, loss of appetite and a high temperature. This condition is very serious and requires immediate veterinary attention and antibiotic treatment. Treatment is usually successful, but occasionally a pyometron (womb full of pus) may develop. In these cases, a hysterectomy is needed


Polyps are wart-like growths on long stalks which form in the uterus. Hard lumps can be felt in the uterus. There may be a bloody discharge, but the bitch is otherwise completely normal. The only effective treatment is a complete hysterectomy.


Prolapse describes the condition where the cervix and the vagina fold back on themselves and protrude from the vagina. Sometimes the bladder is included in the prolapse and very occasionally the uterus as well. It appears as a red inflamed mass protruding from the vulva which the bitch licks incessantly. Treatment is to replace the prolapse surgically under general anesthetic and suture the organs in place.
Vaginitis means an inflammation of the lining of the vagina. It is usually caused by bacteria infecting an injury caused by mating or a difficult whelping. The bitch shows considerable discomfort and may repeatedly strain as though in labour. There may be a red or yellow discharge. Treatment involves a course of antibiotics together with daily insertion of a pessary.
Normal body temperature of a dog is 38.5°C. Body temperatures higher than 41°C for prolonged periods can cause permanent brain damage. Temperatures above 43°C are associated with high mortality.
The pet with a fever is usually depressed, off its food and lethargic; some will appear to be cold and shivery. Feverish dogs usually seek out a cool place such as a linoleum or tile floor. The dog’s nose may be wet or dry. The causes are Overexertion from excitement or an overactive thyroid gland.
Obstructions to the panting or heat-loss mechanisms. Obstructions in the air passages of the short-faced breeds—Pugs, for example.
Paralysis—for example, because of ticks. Confinement in a hot, humid, poorly ventilated area. Septicemia and infectious diseases.
Where the animal has a high temperature, it is important to reduce the temperature or at least stop it getting higher. Place wet towels over the dog, keep it in a cool place, place it before a fan, administer half a tablet of aspirin, and seek veterinary advice as soon as possible.


Whatever you do, don’t try to stop a dog fight with your bare hands. Use water, or hoses or garbage cans. If you are quick and have presence of mind, grab a tail and fling the dog away.

Poisoning First Aid

Poisons may be absorbed internally or through the skin or via the respiratory tract. If the animal was in physical contact with toxic or corrosive material, wash its skin clean with large quantities of water.
If the dog has eaten a poison, induce vomiting by administering orally a tablespoon of bicarbonate of soda to a quarter of a cup of water, or 5 milliliters of hydrogen peroxide.
If the dog is excited or convulsing, try to protect it from injuring itself.
In all cases, after the first aid measures (given above) have been carried out, take the dog immediately to a vet. Don’t forget to take a sample of the suspected poison and its container along to the vet with the animal. This is important because the medications the vet must use will depend on the type of poison the dog has ingested. The vet will also be able to give the dog any necessary supportive treatment using medications and treatment which you will not have available at home.
Should a vet not be handy, try to induce vomiting (see above). Remember, these solutions should only be given in an emergency when there is no vet available, as neither solution is particularly efficient in making the animal vomit. It is also possible that such fluids given orally will pass through the stomach and wash the poison into the small intestines where it will be absorbed more rapidly.
Most poisons produce early gastrointestinal signs, such as vomiting, and progress rapidly to fits and weakness in the legs. Others will cause neurological signs such as fainting or trembling. Urine color can sometimes help in the diagnosis: the carbamate in one snail bait produces a bright blue urine; the metaldehyde in another snail bait produces a light green urine.
There are so many potentially toxic substances now on the market that it is impossible to mention them all. Only the most common problems will be covered here.


The number of things that could be kept in an emergency first aid box is limitless. The following is a basic list.
A roll of 5-centimeter wide adhesive bandage, such as
Two rolls of conforming gauze bandage or clean white cloth
Antiseptic wash (e.g. chlorhexidine)
Hydrogen peroxide 3%
A tape to muzzle the dog
Guillotine-type nail cutters
50 milliliters liquid paraffin
Acriflavin, mercurochrome, triple dye, zinc cream
Wound dressing powder (preferably one containing an antibiotic)
Soluble aspirin
Bicarbonate of soda
Antibiotic/cortisone skin ointment
Antibiotic dispenser
Antibiotic eye ointment
Eye wash
Flea powder
Flea rinse


When the dog starts to have a fit, leave it in a dark room and keep it quiet. If possible, place a peg or other wooden object between the dog’s teeth and pull out the tongue. The fit usually lasts only two or three minutes. Afterwards the dog will be exhausted.
If the fit continues longer than three minutes, causes other than epilepsy, such as POISONING, should be suspected. Among the most common causes of poisoning are snail bait and strychnine. Other common causes are insecticidal rinses used on dogs to control fleas and ticks. If this is the case, wash the dog immediately, use copious amounts of water and soap to prevent further absorption of the toxic material. In the case of snail bait and strychnine, take the dog to a vet immediately so that an injection can be given to make it vomit. If you are a long way from a vet, try to induce vomiting by administering a tablespoon of bicarbonate of soda to a quarter cup of water. These poisons can quickly be fatal.
Fits can be caused by epilepsy, poisoning by insecticidal chemicals used in washing dogs, strychnine, snail bait, distemper, rabies, meningitis or low glucose, levels in the blood to the brain.
Epilepsy in pups usually occurs when they are cutting teeth, from two to six months, particularly if they are heavily infested with roundworms. A roundworm-info, pup is typically pot-bellied. The actual cause in these cast-, is not understood.
Toy breeds are particularly susceptible to fits, but often medication will help them to grow out of the fits by six around seven months of age. In young puppies the exact causes of the fits are not understood, but it may be due to pressure on the developing brain from the cranial cavity. It is rare for this type of fit to continue through to middle age.
When it occurs in older dogs, the cause can be shock. fear, injury, sexual excitement, pain or stress. Sometimes a sudden change of temperature can bring on attacks. The fit can be small (petit mal), where the dog remains on its feet. chomps its jaws and froths at the mouth, or it can be a major fit (grand mal), where the dog collapses to its side. partly unconscious, with its legs extended rigidly from its body. The head is usually turned back and the dog ma-, urinate or defecate.
In older dogs, fits may also be due to brain tumors or other pathological space-occupying lesions within the cranial cavity.
Pregnant or whelping bitches may suffer from fits, shaking or twitching because of low sugar or calcium levels. In these cases, stop the pups suckling, administer calcium tablets, give the bitch milk to drink, and take her immediately to the vet


Flatulence occurring in bottle-fed pups is serious. It may be because of overfeeding, the use of unsterile feeding equipment, or feeding a formula that is too high in carbohydrates. The signs are an acute stress condition and a distended stomach. Prompt attention by a veterinary surgeon is vital.
Chronic intestinal flatulence and anal release is common in adult dogs, particularly the large breeds, though it can be embarrassing to owners. Flatulence is an indication of excessive bacterial fermentation in the bowel and is usually caused by feeding a high carbohydrate diet—potatoes. other root vegetables, beans, cauliflowers, cabbage an,: onions may be at fault. Cereals, milk and sweets can cause upsets. Some of the commercial rations with a high carbohydrate content may cause the problem. Dogs that tend to eat their food too fast and gulp air may also suffer from the problem. Change the dog’s diet to a protein-type ration, ensure it is not constipated and have it treated with a wide-spectrum intestinal antibiotic to reduce the population of fermenting bacteria in the bowel.


This is a common condition in warmer countries during the summer months and is caused by flies biting the dog It particularly affects dogs that are chained or have restricted access to sheltered areas. The flies bite prominent spots such as the tips of the ears or the highest fold in the ear. Long-haired dogs can also be flyblown around the crutch area and wherever there are sores protected by matted long hair.
Long hair should be cut away and any maggots physically removed. Douse the area with an insecticidal rinse. Where the animal cannot be placed in a fly-proofed area, use insecticidal ointments or sprays for protection. If the dog does not like the sound of the pressure pack, spray the insecticide on to a cloth and wipe it over the ears. This should be done at least twice a day.

Fracture of the Penis

The male dog has a small bone in his penis. Occasionally this bone is fractured (usually during attempted mating). Clinical signs are a severe swelling and acute pain. Diagnosis is by X-ray.


Frostbite is uncommon in dogs, but it can affect the ears and the feet. Treat quickly with warmth and massage. Sudden heat should not be applied. The area should be wrapped in cotton-wool after being dressed with an astringent agent such as acriflavin. The dog should be offered warm milk, and all parts of its body should be rubbed and massaged. Veterinary attention is essential if the part of the body is to be saved


Gangrene is the death of body tissues following degeneration of the tissues involved. Restricted circulation in an area because of tight bandages or plaster casts can sometimes result in gangrene. Fortunately these days, with modern antibiotics, gangrene is rarely seen.

Glandular Enlargement

The dog has a large number of lymph nodes situated throughout the body. These have several functions, the most important being to filter the blood to remove infection from local areas as well as certain other unwanted matter. When infection is present, the glands may swell

Grass Eating

Grass eating is common in dogs. It is generally used as a mechanism to stimulate vomiting to rid the stomach of stale food and may also be a symptom of gastritis, digestive discomfort or worm infestation. Another theory is that dogs eat grass as a source of vitamins.

Heart Disease

The heart can be considered as a four-chambered pump with valves between the chambers. Disease may affect any one of the chambers, the valves, the muscles that make the heart function or the nerve centers that control the heart movement and beat.
For any heart disease, veterinary attention is essential. For first aid when the dog has a heart attack, it should be kept as quiet as possible in a darkened room, and stimuli of any type should be avoided. Where the dog suffers from a continuous cough, and veterinary advice is not immediately obtainable, a small amount (1 to 5 milliliters, or up to a teaspoon) of brandy or whisky may be given in milk, depending on the size of the dog, and a quarter to one codeine tablet as additional treatment while waiting for veterinary advice.
The most common heart condition in dogs is congestive heart failure. It is particularly common in Poodles. The initial clinical sign of this condition is a cough, sometimes referred to as a cardiac cough, which is stimulated by exercise or excitement. This is due to the congestive nature of the heart failure. Subsequent signs include difficulty in breathing, reduced tolerance to physical exercise, enlargement of the liver and a filling of the abdomen with fluid (this gives the dog a pregnant look). Treatment is aimed at eliminating the fluid accumulation by decreasing the work of the heart, reducing salt intake in the food and encouraging cardiac compensation by means of drugs.
Cardiovascular disease in dogs is not closely associated with diet problems, except for the consideration of salt in congested heart failure. A low salt diet should be considered only as an adjunct to other medical therapy and only when clinical signs of congestive heart failure are present.
A fluid-filled abdomen, usually due to chronic heart failure. A dog with a circulatory condition requires food with a low sodium content and a fairly high level of protein and carbohydrate. Such a dog usually cannot excrete sodium, which encourages the fluid within the body to stay in the tissues, which in turn impedes the circulation. A low salt diet can be formulated from boiled beef or chicken (discard the water used for boiling), together with rice, oatmeal or macaroni, and low-salt, bulk-forming vegetables such as corn, squash, beans or peas. Vegetable oils and honey are low in salt and seasoning agents such as garlic or onion powder may tempt the dog’s appetite. Avoid the standard commercial pet foods, canned or prepared meat, dairy products, cheese and pastries and ‘treat’ tidbits such as crackers, chips and salted nuts. It is difficult to create a palatable low salt diet.
Heart-worm is also a common cause of mechanical congestive heart failure.


Heatstroke heatstroke is a problem in Pekinese, Pugs and Boxers, those breeds with pushed-in faces; as well as in the readily excitable breeds such as Poodles and Terriers. In the former group, it is a problem of deficient respiration, whereas in the latter group it is a result of physical activity in hot or humid environments. All dogs, irrespective of breed, are susceptible to heatstroke if confined in hot conditions—for example, in a closed car.
Heatstroke is relatively rapid in onset. The patient pants incessantly and drools saliva, yelps with distress, and champs the saliva into large bubbles which adhere to the face and forelegs as a froth or foam. There is a staring expression of apprehension and concern. The patient becomes excited with the discomfort and moves constantly to change position. This excessive muscular activity generates an increase in body temperature which further worsens the condition. Muscular weakness with distinct tremors and later spasms will be evident from the onset of distress. The heatstroke patient in a collapsed condition with muscular spasms will invariably die. Vomiting is a frequent symptom, and persistent vomiting increases the risk of death. A body temperature of 42-43°C is usually fatal, even when present for less than one hour.
First aid for heatstroke Since excess body temperature and reduced ability to lose body heat are the primary problems, any first aid measures should be directed at resolving these problems quickly. Remove the patient from any confined space to facilitate an airflow in the general vicinity.
Spray the dog with cold water from a hose or iced water and place it in front of a large electric fan. Ice packs may be applied to the head and neck. Cold-water enemas are also of value in lowering internal body temperature. Massage the legs to aid general circulation and heat loss from the skin. Do not give sedatives to an overexcited dog, as they have an adverse effect on its blood pressure. When the patient’s temperature has fallen to the normal level, about 38.5°C, it is usually safe to dispense with first aid temporarily and seek veterinary assistance. This will involve intravenous infusions, therapy against secondary infection and monitoring the kidneys for damage.
Preventing heatstroke Ensure that whenever dogs must be confined in a restricted space, they are protected from the direct rays of the sun. Adequate ventilation and plenty of cold drinking water are essential. Feeding times should be changed to early morning or late evening in hot weather, as the digestion of food results in a higher body temperature. Clipping the coat, contrary to popular belief, is not necessary, since the coat provides an insulation against the rays of the sun in a normal, healthy outdoor dog.


Hernia is the protrusion of an organ or part of an organ outside the space it normally occupies, while it is still enclosed in the membrane lining the cavity in which the organ is normally contained—that is, the protruding part is enclosed in a sac of lining membrane when it enters the incorrect position. The commonest forms of hernias are diaphragmatic, inguinal, perineal and umbilical.

Diaphragmatic Hernia

Although the name hernia is used, this condition is strictly speaking a rupture. It is seen in dogs that have suffered from a severe accident or fall. The diaphragm is torn and parts of the abdominal organs enter the chest cavity. Respiration is restricted as the lungs become squashed. Surgical repair is necessary.

Inguinal Hernia

Inguinal hernias are seen most commonly in adults of either sex. A swelling occurs in the groin, usually on side only, as part of the intestines press down through a weakened muscle wall. In the male, the hernia may ins the scrotum, in which case it is often termed as scrotal hernia. Surgical repair is necessary.

Perineal Hernia

Perineal hernia, seen mainly in elderly dogs, is a soft swelling on one side of the anus. This type of hernia is not to repair, but surgery is often attempted.

Umbilical Hernia

An umbilical hernia is usually seen in puppies, where umbilical ring does not close or is damaged. A bubble of fat forms in the opening, it may be pressed back into the abdomen but will reappear. An umbilical hernia can sometimes be caused by premature or careless tearing of the umbilical cord at birth. These hernias should be repaired where possible to prevent strangulation as a result of the hernia and causing the death of the dog.

Hip Dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is an inherited condition in which the ball and socket joint of the hip does not fit properly, the resultant irritation causing arthritis. It can be difficult to diagnose, as dogs that are clinically normal can be found to have hip dysplasia on radiographic examination. Puppies bred from parents and grandparents that are radiographically free from hip dysplasia may still develop the condition, although the chances of it occurring are greatly reduced. It is most common in breeds that grow to more than 15 kilograms at three months of age. Breeds most likely to be affected are Golden Labradors, Retrievers, Boxers, German Shepherds, German Short-haired Pointers, Dobermans, Great Danes and St Bernards. The condition is very rarely seen in greyhounds, however, as selective breeding has operated to eliminate affected dogs (which race poorly) from breeding programs.
The symptoms of hip dysplasia include reluctance to rise from the sitting position. The affected dog usually takes two or three awkward steps before the hip joint war:: allowing the dog to walk normally. Affected dogs e:. a ‘roly-poly’ action when viewed from the rear. The condition may prevent a dog from walking as early as seven months or as late as old age. Most Labradors some degree of hip dysplasia; by the time they are nine ten years old, it is rare to find a Labrador who can SU:- up quickly and walk without hesitation.
Dogs cannot be certified free of hip dysplasia by X-7. until twelve months of age. Treatment is by surgery. T: involves cutting the muscles inside the legs or removing I: hip joints. Alternatively, anti-inflammatory tablets a:- pain-killers may be used. The best prevention is not breed from affected dogs.


Incontinence is the unexpected passing of urine. In puppies this is usually because of nervousness and wears off in time.
In older dogs the causes are quite varied, including kidney disease, bladder disease, paralysis of the nerve supplying the bladder, bladder stones, tumors, enlarged prostate glands in the male and hormonal deficiencies in desexed females. Because the condition has a number of causes, it is best to take a 30-milliliter sample of urine along to the vet, together with an exact history of when and where the dog passes the urine. Where the incontinence is caused by the bladder becoming over-full and the excess dripping out, it is essential to ensure that the bladder is emptied twice a day using gentle pressure on the flanks if this is possible. Long-backed dogs that have had a back problem are often incontinent. Hormone therapy is useful for desexed females.


Incoordination can be the result of tick paralysis, central nervous system diseases, back problems, conditions of the middle ear, meningitis and encephalitis.


Infection is caused by micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or protozoa. The infection can be generalized (for example, septicemia) or localized (for example, an abscess).

Infectious Diseases

Diseases may be caused by many different viruses, and a single virus may produce many different manifestations of disease, for example, distemper. Viral diseases cannot be cured because few antibiotics or other drugs will kill the virus. However, they may often be prevented by quarantine, good hygiene and management and by vaccination.

Canine Parvoviral Enteritis

The signs of the parvovirus are vomiting and diarrhea of short duration. It may occur in an isolated dog or appear in an outbreak form in a kennel, affecting both puppies and adults simultaneously. Some dogs will cease eating and vomit for twenty-four to forty-eight hours and recover without treatment. Other dogs may have prolonged vomiting and diarrhea, and if treatment is not instituted they may die of the combined effects of dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. A third variation is the dog with prolonged vomiting and diarrhea with a severe bloody diarrhea developing. The dog will die within twenty-four hours.
The cause of this disease is a virus. There is no specific cure, but correction of the dehydration and electrolyte imbalance quickly and vigorously by the use of intravenous fluids is important. Veterinary attention is essential. Prevention is by vaccination.


Distemper is a highly contagious viral disease which is universal in dog populations and is transmitted through contaminated objects or by close contact. The incubation period is about nine days, the first signs being a high temperature for one to three days; the temperature may fluctuate from high to normal for a week. Pus accumulates in the corners of the eyes, which squint.
Sometimes there is a nasal discharge. The dog is usually depressed, off its food and develops diarrhea. Coughing may precede fatal pneumonia. A dog may recover from these symptoms and then succumb to further complications about four weeks later. These include nervous signs involving convulsive seizures, inability to stand, jerking movements of the head and jaws and paddling motions of the legs.
Sometimes there is a trembling of the muscles in the temple, just in front of the ear. The dog may wander aimlessly, unaware of its surroundings. Attacks of distemper vary from an apparently mild infection to obviously serious disease. The disease can last as little as ten days but more often will be prolonged for several weeks or months, with intervening periods of apparent improvement followed by regression. A typical distemper case is not difficult to diagnose, although many cases do not present the signs until the condition has advanced. Distemper should be suspected in all sick puppies, particularly if fever is present and there is no other apparent cause. Distemper is often confused with canine hepatitis and leptospirosis.
Prevention is best achieved by immunizing the pregnant bitch halfway through the pregnancy to give the puppies an increased immunity at birth. All puppies should be immunized at six weeks and again at sixteen weeks. Because the condition is caused by a viral agent, treatment is not always effective. It is, however, always preferable to treat the dog because even the most serious cases can sometimes show a remarkable improvement.


Hepatitis is a contagious viral disease characterized by a slight temperature, congestion of the mucous membranes and severe depression. Dogs of all ages are susceptible.
The disease is transmitted through urine and droppings.
The incubation period is six to nine days, with the virus localizing in the liver and kidneys. The degree of severity varies from a slight fever to fatal illness. The first sign is an increased temperature, lasting for one to six days and usually fluctuating between quite high and near normal.
General signs are apathy, loss of appetite, thirst and conjunctivitis, accompanied by discharge from the eyes, mouth and nose. The mucous membranes and tonsils become congested and there will be signs of abdominal pain and sometimes vomiting. After the period of general illness ends, the animal eats well but regains weight slowly. Some 25 per cent of sufferers develop a redness in the eyes seven to ten days after the disappearance of the acute stage of the illness. Although the disease can be fatal, there is a fair recovery rate. Vaccination, combined with distemper immunization, is very effective in preventing the disease. The mother should be vaccinated halfway through her pregnancy and the pups at six and sixteen weeks. Live hepatitis vaccines may cause keratitis

Herpes Virus

Herpes virus is a newly recognized, yet fairly common, fatal viral disease which occurs in pups under a month old. The virus kills the tissues in the liver and kidneys and causes pneumonia. The pups usually die within twenty four hours. There is no vaccine.


Leptospirosis is caused by an organism called a spirochaete, which can be transmitted to humans. Nearly half the rat population carries it, and dogs become infected after eating food contaminated by rat urine or by eating infected rats. Dogs of all ages are affected, males being more susceptible than females.
After an incubation period of five to fifteen days, the disease may have a sudden onset characterized by slight weakness, refusal to eat, vomiting, high temperature and often mild congestion in the eye. Within two days the temperature drops sharply, depression is more pronounced, breathing becomes labored and thirst develops. Muscular soreness and stiffness develop, particularly in the hind legs.
The mucous membranes of the mouth first show patches like a graze or burn, which later dry out and drop off in sections. In some cases the tongue may show dead patches of skin and the entire tip may drop off.
Prevention is by vaccination. Always keep your dog on a leash when in an area frequented by other dogs. A constant supply of fresh water should be available to discourage random drinking. Garbage, pools and fishponds are often contaminated and are prime sources of infection. It is essential in all cases to administer an antibiotic combination for at least ten days. Dehydration and acidosis can be treated with fluid therapy at the vet’s surgery.


The usual sign of myocarditis is that puppies three to seven weeks of age are found dead or dying following a brief period of difficult breathing. Those affected are usually vigorous, healthy puppies with no prior indication of any illness. The mortality rate within a litter may vary from 30 to 100 per cent with deaths occurring over a period of two to three weeks and in some cases up to six weeks. The cause is at present unknown but it is strongly suspected that it is caused by a virus. Treatment is non-specific.


Rabies is a virus disease of all mammals, including humans, which is spread by the saliva of an infected animal entering the bloodstream of another animal, usually by a bite. The period of incubation varies from two weeks to six months, and depends on the site of infection. The virus has to travel to the brain from the point where it entered the body; therefore the further from the head the bite occurred, the longer the incubation period. Symptoms are basically a change of temperament followed by a period of great excitement. Finally, if the dog survives long enough, a period of paralysis follows. The excitement stage is characterized by the dog attacking, without fear, anything that moves or makes a noise. The dog may run for miles. In the paralytic stage the dog shows symptoms of paralysis of the lower jaw and limbs. Collapse quickly follows, then death.
Any person bitten by such a dog should report to their doctor as soon as possible. The dog suspected of suffering from rabies should not be killed but should be confined in a safe area from which escape is impossible. This is necessary for correct diagnosis of the disease. As rabies is fatal and can infect humans, it is essential that all control measures be rigidly enforced and that suspected cases be reported immediately. Check with your veterinarian if vaccination is necessary in your area.

Insecticide Rinses

Organophosphate compounds are the common active ingredient in many flea collars, liquid dog washes, aerosols and flea powders. Poisoning with insecticidal rinses is usually due to incorrect concentration. Sometimes the correct concentration of solution will have a detrimental effect in very young, aged or debilitated animals.
Poisoning is by absorption through the skin or by licking. The symptoms vary depending on the drug, dose received and individual sensitivity, but the usual symptoms are salivation, muscle tremor, shivering, weakness in the hind legs, convulsions, vomiting, diarrhea and constriction of the pupils followed by dilation. Immediately this form of poisoning is recognized, wash the dog in copious quantities of fresh water to prevent further absorption of insecticides, then take it to the vet.


A jaundiced condition develops where there is an concentration of bile pigment in the blood, yellowish staining of the white of the eye, the membrane of the mouth and, in severe cases, the self. It may be caused by: leptospirosis; the after-effect a blood transfusion; sclerosis and liver tumors; bile duct obstruction. If your dog appears jaundice is best to consult a vet.

Kidney Disease (Nephritis)

Nephritis simply means inflammation of the kidneys. a common and serious disease in aging dogs and difficult to treat. It always requires the attention of a
The first sign is an increased thirst and the passing excess urine. While the dog’s appetite may be good, it loses weight. Some dogs will have foul breath. The dog might vomit, particularly in the morning, and especially after drinking water. In advanced cases the dog may collapse.
The cause is usually an infection of the kidneys, and veterinary attention should be sought immediately to avoid irreversible damage to the delicate structure of the kidneys. A 30-milliliter sample of urine should accompany the dog to the vet. This is best collected by confining the dog overnight with water, then taking the dog on a leash into the garden and quietly collecting the urine in a clean shallow vessel. Once the dog has received the appropriate treatment, it should be fed a special diet.
A dog with severe kidney trouble often excretes a lot of protein in its urine, so extra protein should be supple: preferably white meat (rabbit or chicken) or fish. Other suitable foods include cereal, milk, egg custard, cheese (small quantities), hard-boiled eggs, vegetables, boiled and rice pudding. Extra vitamin B should be supplied, yeast tablet two or three times a week is ideal.

Long backs

Corgis and Dachshunds are the main sufferers of back trouble, which may lead to paralysis of the hind legs. Bassets rarely have trouble with their backs. Paralysis of the back legs may be of a temporary nature, lasting one or two weeks, or it may become permanent, necessitating euthanasia.

Milk Fever or Eclampsia

Milk fever is a calcium deficiency in the blood of the bitch, caused by loss of calcium in the milk to the pups. It is more commonly seen in smaller breeds with large litters but can occur in any breed. Milk fever most commonly occurs two or three weeks after the birth of the pups, although it can happen much earlier, and can be rapidly fatal if immediate treatment is not given by a vet. The first symptoms are weakness and trembling of the limbs; it then progresses to convulsions, paralysis and heart failure. An all-meat diet will aggravate the condition because of :he low calcium and high phosphorus content of meat.
Giving the bitch milk to drink helps by supplying calcium, but a balanced dry food diet is more helpful in preventing calcium deficiency. It also provides the calories necessary to make milk. There is some evidence that heavy oral calcium supplementation before lactation may actually increase the likelihood of calcium deficiency during lactation, as it causes a depression of the mechanism whereby the bitch dissolves the calcium in her bones to supply the calcium in her blood.

Mouth Disorders

Dogs do not sweat through the skin. They exchange most of their heat through the mouth, and can extend the tongue to increase the surface exposed to the air.
Most young puppies up to six months of age bite and chew a lot in the process of cutting their teeth. Some exercise on sticks, others on shoes, slippers, socks and even furniture if they get the chance. One method of satisfying a pup’s requirements is to give it several ‘chews’, which are pieces of rolled-up, dehydrated cattle hide. Use these with caution, as small pieces may rehydrate in the intestine and cause a blockage. Another solution is to give the pup large ox shank bones from the butcher. These shanks have sheaths of meat and tissue which are good for the dog to chew and tear. Make sure that the bone is not one that can fracture into sharp pieces.

Bad Breath
Foul breath can be caused by eating raw meat, or meat buried too long, by tartar build-up on the teeth, or inflammation of the gums (gingivitis). This causes the gums to fall away from the teeth, allowing food to be trapped and then decay. Ulcers, viral attacks and bacterial infection can all cause bad breath. Bacterial infections of tonsils or lymph glands of the mouth can lead to tonsillitis, pharyngitis or laryngitis, all of which give bad breath. Other causes may be gastrointestinal upsets or kidney trouble. In sugar diabetes there is a distinct smell of acetone.

Bad breath is commonly caused by tartar on the teeth and infected gums.
Spaniels often suffer from an extremely unpleasant mouth odor which arises from ulceration of the outer surface of the lower lip. This occurs in the deep creases seen in this breed which fill with saliva and then become infected. Creases so affected should be cleaned, washed -.- Phisohex soap, or a 50 per cent hydrogen peroxide/«a:_- solution, dried and powdered with a wound dressing powder, or one of the astringent dyes.

Bleeding can occur in small quantities from ulcerated inflamed gums, or from the sockets of bad teeth. The mouth can also bleed from trauma and from cuts receive: from sticks or from car accidents. As the mouth contains many blood vessels, with a particularly large pair under tongue, dogs playing with sharp sticks or bones can easily lacerate a vein. Bleeding from the mouth is difficult to treat without an anesthetic. Dogs rarely suffer a fatal bleed don’t panic—but do see the vet.
Typical gap in the roof of the mouth formation of cleft palate.

Cleft Palate
This is a congenital abnormality in which the roof of the mouth fails to join down the centre, leaving a gap through which food can pass into the respiratory sinuses. subsequently causing pneumonia. Puppies with this abnormality rarely reach maturity because of pneumonia. It car_ be corrected surgically in some cases.

The normal color of ,a dog’s gums is pink. Pale gums are a symptom of anaemia or shock. If the dog suffers from anaemia, the cause should be identified. If the anaemia could be caused by shock after an accident_ have the dog examined by a vet to make sure it is not bleeding internally. Then offer warm milk and keep the animal in a head-down position. Keep the animal warm. Red gums, particularly around the margins between the gums and the teeth, indicate gingivitis, caused by excess tartar which should be scraped off while the dog is under anesthetic.
A generalized redness of the gums indicates a toxic condition of the blood.
Tumours of the gum, not usually malignant, need only be removed by the vet if they appear to give the dog mechanical discomfort. They are particularly common in Boxers.

The most common cause of excessive salivation is car sickness. Anti-sickness tablets are available. Salivation can also be caused by poisons such as Baysol, Defender and Malathion.

Normally the dog has forty-two teeth, twenty in the upper jaw and twenty-two in the lower. The six front teeth in the upper and lower jaws are called incisors. Behind these are the single-pointed canines. The premolars and molars are the big grinding teeth at the back of the jaw.
At birth the puppy has no teeth; later temporary (milk teeth) appear. From three to four weeks after birth the incisors erupt, the temporary canines appearing at about the same time. The three temporary premolars appear at about six to nine weeks. During the eruption period, the dog’s teeth should be examined once a week, to check whether there is space for the erupting teeth and whether the adult teeth are appearing before the temporary teeth are shed. Overcrowding of the mouth is particularly common in the pushed-in face breeds such as Maltese Terriers, Chihuahuas, Pekinese, Pugs and Boxers. In the toy breeds, supernumerary or retained deciduous teeth, especially the canines, may be seen at about six months of age. Supernumerary or retained teeth should be extracted.
The retained temporary canine is immediately behind the whiter, shorter less pointed permanent tooth.
Dental decay is on the increase, as more and more owners feed soft prepared foods to their pets. Large bones or hard biscuits help to reduce tartar accumulation. Some breeds, such as Poodles, are particularly susceptible to bad teeth. Once tartar has formed in the margins of the teeth, tooth decay and bad breath quickly follow. If your dog is docile, it is possible to clean the tartar from the teeth with a metallic object or hard plastic, or even to brush the teeth with a hard toothbrush. If the tartar persists or the dog won’t co-operate, it will need its teeth descaled while under a general anesthetic.

The natural color of a dog’s tongue is pink—except the Chow’s, which is purple. The tongue is very vascular (that is, it contains many blood vessels) because it is the point of exchange of heat for dogs. Dogs that play with sharp objects can easily lacerate some of the large vessels in the tongue. If this happens, the dog should be taken immediately to the vet.

Nervous Conditions (Chorea)
In dogs chorea is usually a legacy of the distemper virus. Viral and bacterial infections affect the central nervous system. The dog will have a persistent and uncontrollable twitch. This can be in the temporal muscles between the eye and the ears, over the forehead, or it may affect a leg or the whole body. Because the central nervous system does not regenerate, the best that can be hoped for is that the twitch will not get worse.
If the dog begins to have fits or becomes paralyzed, the future is hopeless. Where only a limb is involved, the animal can sometimes live a reasonable life.

Facial paralysis

This is usually due to a traumatic knock to the head which injures the facial nerve. The mouth becomes twisted and the tongue lolls to one side. Usually the nerve repairs and the dog’s future is good—with patience and time the only cure.


An hysterical dog appears to go mad, racing around blindly, howling, oblivious of all attempts to calm it. An attack is usually triggered by excitement or sudden noise. It may last for several minutes or half an hour. At the end, the animal may fall down in a fit or convulsion. The condition is common in toy breeds and in some instances is due to a dietary deficiency of vitamin B I. Treat the dog as for FITS.


The most common form of paralysis (apart from radial paralysis—see below) is paralysis of the hind legs. This can be caused by ticks, severance of the spinal cord in motor vehicle accidents, or disc protrusion in long-backed dogs such as Corgis and Dachshunds. It is important to seek veterinary advice.

Radial Paralysis

The radial nerve provides both motor and sensory functions to the forelimbs. It is particularly susceptible to mechanical damage as it lies just under the skin on top of the bone in the front leg. Traumatic damage to this nerve results in radial paralysis and prevents the dog elevating its foot from the ground. Consequently, the elbow drops and there is a slight curling of the leg from the wrist down. The dog has no feeling in the toes and drags its leg along the ground. In many cases the tops of the toes will be abraded to the point where the bone may show. Treatment and recovery depend on whether the nerve is bruised or actually severed. If the nerve is bruised, there is a possibility of recovery over a three-week period and the toes should be bandaged to prevent further damage. If there is no improvement after three or four weeks, it can be assumed that the nerve is permanently damaged and amputation is advised. Dogs can exist very happily on three legs.


A stroke is caused by the rupture of one of the smaller blood vessels in the brain, generally in older dogs. The dog is usually brought to the vet with a history of staggering; the head rolls from side to side. Treatment depends on the part of the body that is affected but invariably requires a long convalescence and much loving care from the owner. If the legs are involved, they should be massaged to prevent muscle atrophy or wasting.

Nose Troubles

A normal, healthy dog has a cold, moist nose. This may become dry and warm from stress, ill health or merely from excessive exercise.
Bleeding from the nose may occur after an accident, from a tumor, poisoning, constant sneezing from sinusitis or after violent exercise.
Changes in color
Changes in the color of pigmentation of the nose are common but do not seem to indicate disease.
Crusting on top of the nose can be due to distemper or a fungal dermatitis.
A yellow discharge from both nostrils usually indicates an infection lower in the respiratory tract, such as pneumonia. This could result from distemper or the inhalation of medication into the lung.
Pus in both nostrils could also indicate a generalized infection of the sinus cavities of the head. Pus coming from one nostril indicates a local infection of the sinus on that side of the head, a decaying tumor in one of the sinuses or even a decaying tooth root. Offensive discharges often indicate that bony tissues are involved.


Many urban dogs suffer from overweight problems. This is the result of the excellent diets provided by the pet food industry coupled with the small territorial space allowed for most dogs. A vicious cycle is established once the dog begins to get fat. The overweight dog is lethargic, and later develops other health problems. These further discourage the exercise which would normally keep the dog slim by burning up energy.
In the wild, overweight animals would not survive as they would not be fast enough to catch their prey. As with human dieting, a rapid reduction in weight is dangerous. Record the weight of the dog by carrying it onto the bathroom scales and then subtracting your own weight. Establish the correct weight for your dog by contacting a breed society or your vet. Do not try to reduce the dog’s weight by more than half a kilogram per week.
The following routine should be successful:
Give the dog access to plenty of water.
Seek out a balanced, good quality commercial dog foot that your dog does not find very palatable. Remember, the more moisture it has the more palatable it is. Dry dog foods (unmoistened) may therefore be your answer.
Feed one meal per day of this food, and nothing else. If the dog continues to overeat on the dry food diet, keep changing brands until you find a less palatable food, c: keep the dog’s intake restricted.
Be sure the dog is not ‘eating out’ at the neighbor’s place. Increase the dog’s exercise—but slowly.
Keep the dog away from kitchens at meal-times and don’: give any ‘treats’.

Old Age

A dog’s lifespan varies with the breed and weight of the dog. Larger breeds live shorter lives, usually eight to twelve years. Smaller breeds live between fifteen and twenty years, although toy dogs are relatively short-lived. There 1- no accurate method for determining the age of a dog after six months, when it has acquired a full set of teeth.


In old age the number of calories required by the dog is reduced, but the preparation of the food becomes more important. The amount of calcium and phosphorus ma:. need to be increased to maintain the health of the dog’s bones. Protein is essential. Carbohydrates should be cooked to break down the starch granules to help digestion, while vitamin supplements should be increased. For the older dog you could prepare a diet of cooked cereal (oatmeal, wheat or rice), plus cooked meat, cottage cheese or boiled egg for added vitamins, but there is no need to change a dog to this diet unless it is not eating its norm., food. If the dog is aging, losing its appetite and becoming thinner, it is important to upgrade the appeal of the diet
This can be done by adding more fresh meat. If the dog is fed on commercial rations, convert the dog to a tinned food rather than a dried food. Fats should be supplied only in very small quantities. Good foods for old dogs include meat (especially white meat), fish, cottage cheese, poultry, cooked eggs and cooked cereals. These should be given as small, frequent meals, rather than one daily feed. In the same way, clean water should be offered frequently.

Geriatric Medicines

There are several medications available from your veterinary surgeon which will give the dog a lift in older age. Thee are particularly helpful for dogs suffering from geriatric conditions such as arthritis, rheumatism, and cardiac and kidney troubles.

Illness in Old Age

Large breeds in old age are often affected by arthritis and kidney troubles, more noticeably in cold climates. The dog may initially have difficulty rising, but after a few strides the gait becomes normal. In the early stages of illness the dog can be made more comfortable by keeping it in warm surroundings and possibly by the judicious use of analgesic or anti-inflammatory agents. Speak to your vet.
Many of the small toy breeds, such as Poodles and Cocker Spaniels, develop severe eye troubles in later life. Providing the dog is in its own familiar surroundings, it is usually able to lead a normal life. Care should be taken where the dog may be able to venture on to the road. Some eye conditions can be treated to return a little eyesight.
Heart conditions are particularly common in Poodles and Cocker Spaniels, and usually involve congestive heart failure. The signs exhibited by the dog are a cardiac cough brought on by excitement or exercise. Sometimes the dog may have an increased thirst and its abdomen appears to swell.
Signs of a kidney complaint are an increased thirst with frequent urination. The dog may also be lethargic.


Orchitis is an inflammatory condition of the testicles, usually caused by an injury, a kick or bruise; very occasionally it may be due to an infection by bacteria. The testicles are hot and painful, and the dog resents them being examined. If an abscess has formed, the dog’s temperature may be elevated to about 40°C. As a first aid measure, the testicles may be fomented with epsom salts and warm water at the rate of a tablespoon to 6 liters. It is best to have the condition treated by a veterinary surgeon—usually with long-acting antibiotics and an anti-inflammatory agent.


Osteochondrosis is an arthritic condition due to an abnormality in bone development which causes a delay in conversion of cartilage to bone. Sites commonly affected are the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hock joint.
Osteochondrosis has a breed and familial tendency, and is more common in overweight males. Breeds affected include Labradors, Rottweilers, German Shepherds, St Bernards, Retrievers, Irish Wolfhounds and English Setters. Clinical signs include a low-grade progressive lameness at four to eight months. There is usually pain on manipulation of the elbow and there may be reduced flexion of the joint. Surgical treatment appears to be helpful and prevents further progression of the osteoarthritis.

Patella Luxation (Knee-cap Dislocation)

Most cases of luxated patella in small breeds are due to displacement of the knee-cap towards the inside. The problem affects many small breeds, generally appearing at four to eight months. Initially the lameness is intermittent, but eventually the patella dislocates permanently and the lameness becomes persistent. Surgical correction is best


Pain is one of the earliest signs of disease. The pet may become restless, move constantly, refuse to stay in one place, roam and whimper. It may have a frightened expression, resent handling or forced movement of painful’ parts.
Acute pain
Sharp pain is usually associated with fractures, ruptures or torsion twisting of internal organs.
Slowly developing pain
Gradually developing pain is associated with arthritis, tumours and inflammation, and here your observations may help the vet to make a diagnosis.
Although a dog may ‘nurse’ one part of the body, for example, a leg, it does not necessarily mean that the dog is in severe pain. Dogs can get along quite well on three legs, and sometimes even a minor complaint will make a dog carry its leg. However, it is always best to have a vet look at the dog to determine whether anything can be done for the injury or whether it is best left to rest. In some conditions, particularly after surgery, it is best that the dog does not use the affected part and therefore pain-killing drugs will not be used


Peritonitis is an inflammatory and sometimes infectious disease problem of the lining of organs and the internal abdominal wall. It is usually caused by septic penetration from either the gastrointestinal tract or the outside abdominal wall.
The animal will resent palpation of the abdomen, arch its back, be reluctant to move, have a fever and be off its food. In all cases the dog should be taken to the vet


Pleurisy is an inflammatory and infectious condition of the lining of the lungs and the wall of the thorax. The inflamed linings rub together during respiration and cause extreme pain. The problem requires veterinary attention.


Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by infection, injury or by migration of parasites, especially in young animals. Signs of pneumonia include shivering, high temperature, loss of appetite, difficulty in breathing and a grunting sound with each breath. It is often possible to hear a ‘grating’ sound if you listen closely to the chest. Veterinary attention is essential.


The prostate gland is an accessory sexual gland in male dogs. When this becomes inflamed and enlarged, the condition is known as prostatitis. The dog, usually middle aged or older, has difficulty in passing motions; he squats for prolonged periods without success and often strains. He may be ‘off’ his food and tend to vomit.
The vet can confirm the diagnosis by rectal examination and institute treatment with injections of female hormones. Sometimes the enlargement is caused by a cancerous growth triggered off by aging male hormones. Large doses of the female hormone reverse the process in the majority of cases. To avoid recurrences it is advisable to have the dog castrated.


Inflammation of a bitch’s womb can result in a more serious disorder, pyometron, in which the womb is filled Pyometron Inflammation of a bitch’s womb can result in a more serious disorder, pyometron.

Respiration Rate Increase

An increase in the respiratory rate occurs during fever, increased environmental temperature, pneumonia, pleurisy, congestion of the lungs caused by ticks or chronic heart failure, space-occupying lesions such as tumours or diaphragmatic hernia, where some of the abdominal contents may be in the thorax.


Rickets is a very rare disease, yet the term is frequently, but incorrectly, used to describe bone problems in larger breeds. Rickets is due to a deficiency of vitamin D and calcium and/or phosphorus. Provided an affected dog is given correct quantities of calcium and phosphorus, the condition can be somewhat alleviated.
It is rare in countries with plenty of sunlight, more prevalent in the northern hemisphere. Dogs with rickets develop abnormalities of their limbs, with the growth plates becoming enlarged and prominent. Affected dogs are inactive.


Excessive salivation can be caused by poisons, fits, car sickness or medications taken orally which can stimulate saliva production.


`Scooting’ is the term used to describe the action of a dog as it pulls itself along the ground in a sitting position to relieve an irritation in the anal area. The irritation is caused by tapeworm fragments, compacted anal glands or itchiness around the anal sphincter.
The contents of infected anal glands may be forced out by holding the dog’s tail in the left hand and, with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand held at eight o’clock and four o’clock positions over a pad of cotton-wool, squeezing inwards and upwards. Anal itchiness can be treated with calamine lotion, gentian violet, mercurochrome or triple dye.


Septicemia is a condition where bacteria entering the bloodstream, sometimes from the gut or another infected source in the body, cause a generalized infection of the body. Localization of the infection occurs in the joints, lungs, liver and kidneys. This is a very serious disease. The dog is obviously unwell, will have a fever, tends to lie in a cool place and will not eat or drink. Veterinary treatment must be given at once. Antibiotics are normally given intravenously initially to obtain a quick response to suppress the organisms circulating in the body.


Shivering is an involuntary movement of the muscles. It can be caused by cold, fever, eclampsia (milk fever), the initial stages of poisoning or fright.


Shock is a failure of the circulatory system resulting from injury or illness. It is commonly seen after motor vehicle accidents where there is severe internal or external bleeding.
It is a serious condition from which the animal rarely recovers without intensive veterinary care. Symptoms are weakness, loss piratory difficulty or failure, an particularly of the gums and Keep the animal warm and cc Stop external bleeding.

Skin Disorders

Eczema appeared on the skin when the gland that is blocked.
Eczema is an inflammation of 3 types: acute moist eczema, dry eczema and scrotal ) that occurs in hot, humid weather. If it can, it will lick skin is broken and surface moist dermatitis. Examine for circular moist patch. Usually the area may house a scab, also called ‘hot spots’ spread. Eczema impacts breeds such as Golden Labradors, golden-colored Pugs, and occurs on sites where there is ample space at the base of the ears, and hindquarters. Treatment is to remove possible allergies. Eliminate any irritating infections. Ears or anal area should be washed with shampoo or soap several times on the affected areas. If the possibility of infection by staphylococcal germs exists, an astringent dye such as or triple dye can be applied. The infection can be very large and in these cases a veterinary examination is warranted. Anti-inflammatory injections, together with antibiotics, may be necessary. Allergic eczema is one of the most common skin problems in warm countries. The allergic reaction may be because of fleas, mites, environmental vegetation such as grasses, or diet. Allergies to plants are the most troublesome; they may flare ‘up every time the pet roams in the garden or only at certain times of the year. The types of vegetation most likely to cause allergies are wandering jew, paspalum, kikuyu and buffalo grass. Lesser irritations can result from allergies to straw, wool or nylon. Low-slung breeds such as Dachshunds, Corgis and Cocker Spaniels are more susceptible. An acute red rash will appear suddenly on the undercarriage, sometimes with angry pimples or larger infected areas. The dog scratches the affected area incessantly, setting up a self-inflicted cycle of injury. Treatment has two aims: to eliminate the allergic cause, and to break the self-inflicting cycle of events by the administration of antihistamine injections or tablets and the topical application of ointments or astringents.

Digital eczema This frequently occurs between the toes, where the dog licks because of some initiating cause, usually a grass allergy. The moisture and natural bacteria from the dog’s tongue set up an inflammatory process. Sometimes the inflammation may be transferred to the muzzle. Frequently the pads become swollen, sore and painful. Treatment is the same as for allergic eczema Dry eczema This is one of the most difficult skin conditions to diagnose. The causes are often obscure and it seems to be more common in pedigreed dogs. Sometimes a diet high in starch or carbohydrate can be at fault. Symptoms are persistent scratching producing a dry, scaly area. Veterinary examination will be required to eliminate other possible causes such as mange mites, fleas and lice. Treatment is usually by anti-inflammatory injections and ointments, plus any other remedial measures prescribed by the veterinarian.

Scrotal Eczema

This is a moist dermatitis of the skin of the scrotum, seen particularly in Old English Sheepdogs and Chows. The large pendulous testicles in these breeds cause the overlying skin to stretch to a point where circulation is impaired, allowing dermatitis to become established. Treatment is the same as for acute moist eczema. If this is not effective castration is recommended.


Flea bite allergy is one of the main causes of skin problems in small animals. Fleas are wingless insects with legs adapted for jumping. They are not host-specific and go from one animal to another. Fleas are also the intermediate host for the flea tapeworm. The eggs are laid on the host animal from where they soon fall to the ground and infest the dog’s environment. Depending on weather conditions, the egg can hatch in a few days to a few weeks. Vibration is needed for hatching, which explains why houses that have been empty for some time often suffer massive flea problems when they are reoccupied. The adult female flea can lay up to 500 eggs during her lifetime, which is usually two years. All dogs can play host to fleas, but ungroomed animals, particularly long-haired dogs, provide the ideal environment for fleas to congregate. The most common site for fleas is the base of the tail and forward along the back line, but in severe cases fleas will be seen all over the body. Flea bite allergic dermatitis: Note the black spots which are flea feces.
Many animals become hypersensitive to the irritating bites. Symptoms of flea bite dermatitis include partial hair loss, red skin, flaky scaling and intense irritation, and in the later stages the hair becomes bristly around the tail area rather than soft. In severe cases the dog may be partially bald over the tail and back area with few hairs, and the skin becomes elephant-like. Large numbers of fleas and their droppings (little black spots) will be found if you `back-comb’ the hair over the tail area. The dog also has an unpleasant smell.
Fleas breed in dust, debris and bedding material. It is essential for control to treat both the host and its surroundings. Other hosts such as rats and mice should be eradicated. Dogs should be clipped prior to treatment. Flea powders containing carbaryl, amitraz or Malathion should be used—the powder should be brushed into the dog’s coat twice a week and any debris burnt. Alternatively, flea rinses may be used on a weekly basis. Flea collars are 95 per cent effective for periods of up to five months but they are rendered ineffective by immersion in water. Oral insecticides given in the form of tablets or liquids are also available—these are administered every third or fourth day.
Use only one of the above treatments at any one time. In general fleas spend only short periods on the host and therefore it is extremely important to treat the environment of the affected animals. In some cases it may be necessary to employ professional fumigators. Fleas can be controlled indoors by thorough vacuum cleaning to remove all debris and thorough spraying with an insecticide of all places offering shelter for adult fleas and larvae. This can be achieved by using a residual insecticidal spray around the skirting boards and under furniture. Fumigation may be carried out by placing flaked naphthalene on the floor at the rate of 2 kilograms per 10 square meters and leaving treated areas sealed for forty-eight hours.
Stables, kennels and the ground underneath the house should be treated for fleas. Treat all animals and eradicate rats and mice, clean up dust and burn surface litter. Sprinkle coarse salt on the soil and keep damp for two to three weeks. Spray lower walls and places that would provide shelter for fleas with insecticidal preparations.


Several species of flies will attack dogs, the most trouble- some being the stable-fly’ which is a particular nuisance during summer and autumn. It is a blood sucker, has a painful bite and is fond of ear tips. The usual signs are black, crusty sores on the tips and folds of the ear, with loss of hair over the affected areas. Fly-repellant ointments and lotions should be applied twice daily. Where possible keep your dog in a fly-proofed area during daylight hours. The ears should be cleaned and mercurochrome or triple dye applied to the ears twice daily
Once the initiating cause is eliminated the ears will heal. Long-haired dogs sometimes harbor maggots around the anal area or around infected wounds. Hair should be clipped away and the area cleaned. Visible maggots should be removed and the area dusted with insecticidal powder. Sertoli cell testicular tumor causing extensive hair loss in this terrier.

Hormonal Baldness

Hormonal baldness can occur in young pups at birth, often as the result of thyroid deficiency through lack of iodine in the mother’s food. Supplementation of the pup’s food with thyroid extract tablets, combined with small doses of iodine, is often effective.
The same condition can occur in females and is due to failure of the thyroid gland to produce sufficient thyroxin. The animal seems dull, the coat harsh, and bare patches appear under the throat, on the flanks and behind the thighs. Various tablets are available to rectify this problem. In whelping bitches a hormonal deficiency may cause the coat to fall out in patches especially around the rear. There is no itching. Hormonal injections may be used, but multi hormone tablets give a good result.
In middle-aged to old-aged male dogs the hair may fall out along the back and sides, and the dog may become attracted to others of its own sex. This may be due to a sertoli cell tumor of the testicle. Sometimes all of the hair will fall out. The best cure is castration. A completely new coat often grows in twelve to fourteen weeks. In Cushing’s disease, too much cortisone is produced by the body and the animal loses hair.


Lice are small wingless insects (1-3 millimeters long) which live as permanent dwellers on the skin of the dog. They spread from dog to dog mainly by contact and are very host-specific. The females glue their eggs to hair fiber. Lice can be found on all parts of the body but prefer areas where the skin is folded, so the pendent ears of Spaniels and similar breeds are often infested. Usual signs are itchiness, redness of the skin, hair loss and trauma caused by the dog scratching. Biting lice are most common in puppies and in dogs that cannot groom themselves, while sucking lice are more prevalent in long-haired dogs.
Eradication of lice is easy because the complete life cycle is spent on the host. In a long-haired breed, clip the dog’s coat back to the skin all over and wash the dog once a week with an insecticidal rinse, such as Malathion, Seven or Diazinon, -for four weeks.
Lick granuloma always occurs on the limbs in a convenient position for licking.

Lick granuloma

This condition is brought on by the dog constantly licking a particular part of the body and causing ulceration. The most common sites are the forelegs and the outside of the hock region of the hind legs. These are the areas which can be licked at leisure when the dog is lying down. The irritation can start from a small scratch or abrasion. Certain breeds such as Labradors, Boxers, Great Danes and Fox Terriers are particularly susceptible to this condition. As licking starts and perpetuates the problem, the first step is to prevent the dog licking the area. This can be done by bandaging, or by using an Elizabethan collar or a bucket over the dog’s head. Treatment includes corticosteroid ointments, corticosteroid injections into the lesion, and in some cases cryotherapy, where the skin over the affected area is deep frozen for several minutes. Sometimes surgical excision or radiation of the lesion is successful. Frequently these conditions are the result of boredom.

Lumps under the Skin

All lumps under the skin should be checked by a vet, particularly if they are increasing in size. Sometimes they are due to tumor formation but in many cases a fatty lump may appear in an obese dog. The latter are usually not harmful and in some cases can even fluctuate in size.


These are found on or just below the skin surface. The most common are demodectic mange mites and sarcoptic mange mites (or scabies).
Demodectic mange mites These are microscopic mites which complete their life cycle deep in the sweat glands and hair follicles of the skin. Demodectic mange usually occurs in dogs under a year old, usually in short-haired breeds. Infection is by direct contact, so a bitch can transfer the mites to her pups during suckling. The most common lesion occurs around the eyes. The dog loses hair around the eyelids giving a bespectacled appearance. Other lesions can occur around the muzzle and back of the legs. There are two forms of demodectic mange: squamous, and pustular.
In the squamous form the hair falls out in patches and dry lesions appear which become inflamed and swollen. These patches appear as local areas around the eyes, muzzle folds, elbows, feet and neck. There is little evidence of irritation and the condition may remain static for several years. However, it may become generalized, with widespread hair loss accompanied by thickening of the skin. The pustular form of demodectic mange results from a secondary bacterial infection. The skin becomes thickened, wrinkled and inflamed, and is obviously itchy. Demodectic mange is hard to treat, and always require veterinary attention. You should first clip the dog. cleanse its skin with an agent such as Seleen, gene: -a available from pet shops, chemists and vets. Treatment is. complicated; always take the advice of your vet. Sarcoptic mange (scabies).
Scabies: Note the flaking skin, and redness due to in lesions may not be sharply defined, and the coat has a moth-eaten appearance. There is also a dry form of scabies which occurs in young pups. Instead of the usual irritation accompanied by pustule formation, the skin becomes covered with large bran-like scales and the hair may lift off in large tufts. Although the diagnosis of the disease is difficult, treatment is quite simple. Insecticidal treatment with washes is highly effective. Scabies infection has become less common in urban areas as insecticides are in general use.


Ringworm is fairly common in young puppies. The term `ringworm’ is a misnomer in that the infecting organism is not a worm, but one of four types of fungus. The fungi live either on the skin surface or in the hairs of the affected area, and spread rapidly between puppies, particularly where there is poor feeding or overcrowding. The first signs of ringworm are scratching and biting of the skin. Examination reveals a round patch of crusty skin with the hairs falling out. Laboratory analysis of skin scrapings confirms the diagnosis. Because ringworm spreads rapidly, infected dogs should be quarantined from others. Children should be forbidden to handle the pet since all forms of dog ringworm can infect humans. The best treatment is to use anti-fungal tablets and washes ointments alone are inadequate because the fungus will spread through the hair.


Urticaria is a very common allergic condition. It affects pups and adult dogs of all ages and is usually the result of a bee or wasp sting. Fly bites, chemical toxins from some plants, or food preservatives can also cause the problem. The dog’s head and the skin of the eyelids bulge and swell, making the dog look ‘old’. Sometimes patches of skin become covered in lumps. In severe cases the dog has difficulty in breathing. The dog should be taken to the vet for an injection of antihistamine. Some relief at home is given by the application of household ammonia products.


Warts are extremely common in dogs. In young animals they appear around the mouth and lips. In old dogs they can grow anywhere. Because warts are caused by a virus, they are usually self-limiting and finally fall off. Sometimes warts may cause mechanical interference in some parts of the body and may bleed. In these cases surgery is the answer.

Snake Bite

Whether the dog survives a snake bite depends on the type of snake and the amount of venom the snake was able to inject into the animal. The dog’s tough skin and hair make A benign skin tumor, a common problem on older dogs. it difficult for the snake’s fangs to penetrate, particularly if the dog is moving around. Symptoms are trembling, vomiting, salivation, diarrhea, weakness in the back legs, dilated pupils, slow or absent light reflexes of the pupils, respiratory distress, bloody urine, continuous bleeding from the wound where the snake has bitten and a flaccid paralysis progressing to coma or to respiratory failure. Reaction to the bite can be sudden. Sometimes the animal will collapse soon after being bitten, recover almost completely within half-an-hour, then begin to show other symptoms.
In other cases the symptoms may not develop for some time. The key signs are weakness or paralysis in the back legs and dilated pupils. Blood takes a long time to clot. Sometimes snake bite may be confused with tick bite, poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides, or an acute infectious disease such as canine hepatitis or leptospirosis. In treating snake bite it is helpful to know the type of snake responsible so that the correct antivenin can be administered, but don’t put your own life at risk. The principles of treatment are:
Neutralize the venom with antivenin.
Treat locally: wash the wound and apply a firm wide bandage if the bite is on a limb, but do not cut the site of the bite. Keep the dog calm and take it to the vet as soon as possible.
Provide general supportive measures for shock, paralysis and loss of blood. Keep the dog warm on the way to the veterinarian.

Snail Bait

Two common generic compounds are carbamate and metaldehyde. Symptoms of poisoning are lack of co A poison bait — bread laced with blue snail bait. ordination, anxiety and muscle tremors which sometimes become severe muscle spasms. These symptoms are similar to strychnine poisoning but spasms are not accentuated by auditory or physical stimulation.

Spider bite

Spider bites should be treated in the same way as snake bites. The symptoms can be similar.


Staggering can be due to a number of different causes: concussion or trauma caused by motor vehicle accident; disc lesion or disc protrusion, which may affect the nerves to the back legs; severe constipation; spondylosis, which usually occurs in the aged dog and particularly in large breeds, it is caused by calcified joints in the back impinging on the nerves to the back legs; tick paralysis; tranquilization from drugs; or weakness caused by other disease.


Straining can be due to: constipation; blocked anal glands; diverticulum; fecal matting in long-haired dogs; prostatitis; or urinary blockage


Some rat poisons and some of the older patent medicines contain this substance, although strychnine poisoning in urban areas is usually the work of a dog hater. When this happens, several dogs in one area are usually poisoned at the same time.
This form of poisoning should be suspected when a mature, healthy dog suffers from shortness of breath, blue mucous membranes, stiffness of the limbs and throwing back of the head. The animal can be stimulated into a fit by sudden loud noises near the ears or by slapping the body. Spasms increase in intensity until respiratory paralysis and death occur. Take the dog immediately to a vet; this is an emergency.


This is rarely seen in dogs.

Tail Injuries

Injuries to the tip of the tail are usually caused by a young dog chasing its tail and biting it, or a dog catching its tail in a door. The happy dog wags its tail, bumping it on tables, doorposts and other objects, thus continually reopening the wound and stopping healing. Bandage the tail with adhesive bandage until it heals or, if this fails, take the dog to the vet to have the tail cauterized.

Tail Kinks

This usually occurs in puppies as the result of a dislocated joint in the tail. The joint can be reset and splinted under anesthetic, but if left untreated will cause the dog no problem. The only reason for treating a kinked tail is cosmetic

Tail Limp

Sometimes a dog that normally carries its tail elevated will have a limp tail. This can be because of bruising or fractures at the base of the tail, or infected anal glands.


There are several species of ticks; but the most important to dog owners is the paralysis tick, which lives on warm-blooded fauna such as bandicoots, possums and other scrub-dwelling animals. Domestic animals and humans are accidental hosts, dogs and cats being the most susceptible.
A fully engorged female can produce a single batch of between 2000 to 3000 eggs within seven to fourteen days of falling from a host. After hatching, the larvae become active within seven days and attach to a host. At this stage they are very small. After four to six days they drop off and go into a second growth stage and finally into adulthood. Infestations can occur at any time of the year if conditions are suitable, but usually they are confined to the spring and Life cycle of the tick.
Spastic behavior of a dog affected by tick poisoning. summer. The tick population in any year is usually governed by the previous year’s rainfall and temperature variations. The main sign of a dog suffering from tick bite is paralysis, beginning at the hind-legs, moving to the front legs and then to the respiratory system.
Progressive signs to be watched for are: the dog is reluctant to walk up a flight of stairs or jump into a car; the dog may have a slight wobbliness or weakness in the hind-legs; vomiting; depression; pupil dilation; loss of control of the hind-legs, with partial loss of foreleg co-ordination; salivation; respiration becomes labored and more frequent; as paralysis becomes advanced, barking ceases; increased blood pressure in conjunction with decreasing and irregular heartbeat.
The cause of these reactions is not yet fully understood, as the chemical structure of the toxin has not yet been identified, but it is strong enough to paralyze cats, calves, sheep, foals and even humans. The interval between the attachment of the tick and the onset of weakness in the hindquarters is up to four days, although in some cases clinical signs may not be seen until all the ticks have engorged and dropped off. If partly engorged ticks are removed, paralysis may still occur one or two days later, depending on the amount of toxin that has already been injured. In these cases the attachment site is seen as a raised crater-like swelling.
Removal of engorged ticks from an otherwise normal dog does not mean that the dog is out of danger. Enough toxin may already have been injected into the dog to cause its death. Tick toxin is as dangerous as snake bite. A dog bitten by a paralysis tick can die if not taken to a vet for full assessment immediately. Even if a tick is removed as soon as the first symptoms are noticed, the dog has only a 50 per cent chance of recovery without further treatment. The toxin can take up to two days to have its full effect. The longer the delay between the appearance of the symptoms and the giving of anti-toxin injections, the greater the risk to the dog’s life. Therefore, take the dog to the vet for antitoxin immediately.
Ticks can be found on any part of the body, but 80 per cent are found between the nose and the shoulders. Areas such as the toes, the external ear canal and inside the anus and mouth should be thoroughly searched. Once the tick has been found, place a pair of tweezers as close to the skin as possible and gently pull the tick out. If the mouth parts are left in the skin, do not worry; they will fester out. Another tick cannot grow from them. Do not place methylated spirits on the tick or cut the tick’s body, as these methods allow a very angry tick to continue to inject toxin in its saliva into the dog’s body. When searching for ticks always remove collars or leads. Dogs in tick danger areas may need to be clipped all over every summer and an anti-tick wash applied weekly. Dogs affected by ticks should be bathed in an insecticidal wash to help kill any ticks. But don’t rely on this method—hand searching is the only effective means.
To control tick infestation certain steps should be taken regularly to protect your pet.
Bathe the dog weekly in an anti-tick wash and use a flea collar. These two methods will help reduce tick infestation but they are not foolproof.
Search your dog every day, particularly around the head and shoulders, remembering to remove collars and leads before you start.
Eliminate any thick undergrowth from around your home and discourage fauna such as possums and bandicoots which are major intermediate hosts for the tick.


Tonsillitis occurs most frequently in toy breeds such as Poodles and Maltese Terriers. The symptoms are lethargy, fever, loss of appetite and a slight cough. The condition can be alleviated by antibiotics, but repeated bouts will require removal of the tonsil tissue by surgery. Once the tonsils have been removed in dogs where they are causing a problem, the difference is remarkable.


Toxemia is any condition in which the blood contains toxic products. These can be produced by the body cells or caused by the growth of organisms. The clinical signs of toxemia vary widely and depend on the type of toxin involved.
Generally, the dog will be lethargic, off its food, and the mucous membranes of the eyes and gums may be red rather than pink.
Toxic conditions are usually dangerous and any dog suspected of having toxemia should be given urgent veterinary attention.
Tumors are the result of an abnormal development of cells within the body, whose growth does not conform with the laws of tissue differentiation. Tumors may be classified as benign or malignant. Benign tumors usually grow slowly and are restricted to the point where they first develop. They may cause damage to surrounding tissues but usually don’t invade the neighboring areas. Surgical removal is usually satisfactory. Malignant tumors usually grow rapidly and spread to neighboring tissues; they can develop in other parts of the body after being carried by the circulation. Surgical removal of malignant tumors rarely completely removes the cancerous development.
Sometimes malignant tumors, if near the surface of the the skin. Some tumors respond to radiation therapy.
others to drugs. Most require surgical removal. Veterinary treatment is essential and should be started as early as possible. There is a tendency on the part of owners to delay the first veterinary consultation as they are afraid of being told that the condition is incurable.

Tumors of the Testes

Tumors of the testes are not uncommon, though as a rule only one testicle is involved. The testicle is hard and solid, yet not painful. It usually occurs in older dogs and is much more frequent in undescended testicles. The only effective treatment is castration.

Undescended Testicles

Undescended testicles are fairly common, particularly in the toy breeds. An owner should not worry about this condition until the dog is nine months old. Then the testicles become prone to tumor formation and should be removed.
This condition is hereditary.


As;nom uterine inertia, this condition is generally due to an obstruction by a twisted or deformed pup. The bitch strains repeatedly and strongly, but is unproductive. Again, a caesarian section is necessary.

Urine disorders

The urine is often a good indication of the condition of the animal. Normal urine is a light clear yellow.
Dark or bloody urine can indicate infection of the bladder (cystitis).
Bladder stones can cut the inside of the bladder wall, releasing blood into the urine. Cloudy urine means there is an abnormality.
Increased frequency is usually accompanied by thirst. The causes include diabetes, diarrhea, fever, heart disease, and kidney disease. If an animal is showing signs of urinary disease, a 30-milliliter specimen should be collected in a clean vessel for veterinary inspection. This is best done by locking the dog up overnight and walking it on a lead the next morning with container at the ready. Take the sample to the vet within four hours.
Incontinence usually occurs in desexed females. They unconsciously urinate while lying down. This can be because of a bladder infection or a hormone deficiency.

Urinary Tract Blockage

Blockage should be suspected when the dog strains to urinate but passes only a few drops. Sometimes the urine is discolored. Usually the cause is stones in the bladder. In the male dog these may enter the urethra and pass through to block the urethral tract in the penis. The condition is extremely painful and the dog should be taken to the vet.

Uterine Inertia

The bitch fails to strain after breaking water, and generally looks uncomfortable. After a few hours she passes a blackish-green discharge, but no pups. This is a sign that the afterbirths are separating and she should be taken to a vet immediately. Contractions of the uterus may be stimulated by injections, but if this doesn’t work, a caesarian section is necessary to save both pups and bitch.


The history of the vomiting attack is important to your vet when making a diagnosis and treating the animal. Is the vomiting related to eating? How many times a day does the dog vomit? Is the vomited food digested or not? What color is the vomited matter? If possible, take a sample of the vomit to the vet when you take your dog.
Apparently healthy dogs vomit from time to time. If this happens once every fourth or fifth day and the dog appears completely normal in every other way, there is no need for concern. Dogs will sometimes eat grass for medicinal purposes and then vomit. This may be the dog’s method of internal cleansing.
Diseases such as distemper, hepatitis, pyometra, septicemia, or kidney disease can also car vomiting.

Drugs—when a dog commences to vomit while on dram the drugs should be suspected immediately. Digitalis (chew tablets), for example, given to excess cause vomiting. The tablets for a day and then commence with half recommended dosage. To prevent the build-up of the dandruff in the dog’s system, only give the tablets six days a week. Certain antibiotics and morphine can cause vomiting. As with any such case it is always best to consult your veterinarian about the problem.

Dry retching or coughing as if the dog has a bone – in its throat is typical of the virus ‘kennel cough’. Indigestion, overeating, bad food (particularly if a dog likely to dig up old bones or meat) and poison. Nervous problems such as car or motion sickness , lesions within the brain.

Ticks – One of the initial signs of tick poisoning is vomiting and salivation.

Weight Changes

Small dogs can be weighed on ordinary household. kitchen scales. Put a towel on the scales first. Larger dogs can be weighed on bathroom scales. The simplest method is to carry the dog on to the scales am:: then subtract your own weight.

Wobbler Syndrome

Wobbler syndrome is associated with an abnormality of the spine in conjunction with compression of the spinal cord. It is a problem in Bassets, Dobermans and Great Danes. The breed incidence suggests that the problem May be inherited.
The dogs usually have incoordination of the hind limbs. They may knuckle the foot and fall over when turning sharply. All four limbs may be affected. Most cases occur at five to nine years of age. Treatment is not particularly successful, although various methods have been tried.

Commercial Dog Food

Commercially prepared dog foods are very commonly used (feeding at eight of every ten dogs). These fall into two main categories: complete diets(the bulk of the dog food sold on the market), and incomplete diets that require meat added to them. Pet foods are also divided into three la groups, depending on their moisture content.
There are three groups of moist foods: frozen, fresh meat or canned meat -products, which are packed as an incomplete diet and are best used as an ingredient in a home-mixed formula where cereals and possibly calcium supplements are added. There are, in addition, completely balanced canned products which have been fortified with minerals and vitamins or a combination of meat, cereals and other ingredients. When buying a moist canned food, read the label to ensure that you are buying a balanced food. Canned foods are usually highly palatable because of their high water and moisture content, which means they are expensive per calorie. Generally they have a poor-quality protein source.
Semi-moist foods are sold in plastic wrappers. They look like chunks, patties or packets of fresh meat and are made from meat, meat by-products, soya beans, vegetable oils, sugar and preservatives. Semi-moist foods are a complete balanced diet, highly palatable, easily digested, with a high kilojoule density. All of these points make them well suited to young, growing or pregnant pets, but for the same reasons they may promote obesity in mature or sedentary dogs. They should not be fed to dogs over six months old. Many of these foods contain a high density of cereals, which may promote allergic skin conditions in some dogs.
Dry foods are a mixture of ground cereals, meatmeal, soya beans, cheese, vegetables and animal fats, with trace ingredients and preservatives. They are usually presented as meals, biscuits or kibbles, pellets or expanded chunks (listed in order of increasing palatability and expense). They tend to have a low-quality protein. In general, dry food products are not very palatable, but they are inexpensive. They are ideal for feeding mature dogs or dogs that tend to become overweight. Their unpalatable nature, coupled with a low protein level, renders them ideal for self-feeding, as the dog is unlikely to overeat and become fat.
The highest number of calories and food value come from high-protein dry foods. This is because moist foods or canned foods contain about 72 per cent water, while high protein dry foods contain only 8 per cent water. Which commercial ration is best? This is difficult to answer, because each dog is an individual, with its individual metabolism. Each commercial ration is different in its make-up. Nutrition is such a complex business that the best method of choosing a dog food is to observe the animal’s performance after feeding one particular food for a period of a month or six weeks. Contents labels on cans are of little use, as they don’t tell you what biological value the meal will have for your pet.
Palatability can be rated in decreasing order: fresh meat or canned, fortified meat, semi-moist foods, canned rations (which have cereal and meat mixtures) and dry foods. Preferences for fresh meat show a ranking from high to low of beef, lamb, chicken and horse meat. Cold meat straight from the refrigerator is generally less acceptable than cooked or warmed meat. Ground meat is preferred to cubed or whole meat. Animal proteins and fats are much more favorably accepted by most dogs than vegetable oils and cereal proteins. Many dogs also like human condiments such as salt, garlic and onions. Some prefer their food soft and wet, while others like it dry and crunchy. Appetite appeal is often moulded by habit.

Special Diets

Complete commercial diets are available in dry and moist form for puppies, working dogs, and geriatrics. Prescription complete foods are available for various health problems such as obesity, pancreatitis, bladder stone formation.

Dog Care

Grooming and Washing

Your nose will generally tell you when a dog should be washed—as a rule, about every three weeks or whenever the dog becomes smelly. Choose a warm day and a warm draught-free location. A small dog may be washed in the laundry tub or the bath.

Pour warm water over the animal to wet the hair, being careful not to get water in its ears, then apply an insecticidal shampoo, or a bland soap if the dog suffers from any allergic dermatitis. Wash any gross dirt from the coat and re-lather, leaving the shampoo on for about ten to fifteen minutes to allow the insecticide to work.

Rinse the dog, using warm water, and then apply an insecticidal rinse to the coat. Insecticidal rinses, used to protect the dog against fleas and mites, are also partially effective against ticks. Remember that insecticidal rinses are poisons; the manufacturers’ instructions must be followed carefully.

Towel the dog down and leave it in the sun to dry. Dogs naturally roll to dry themselves, so tie up your dog on a surface where it will not get dirty. Dogs that have a lot of hair around the ear canal should have their ears plucked with a small pair of tweezers. Cleaning the ear lobes is done with a piece of cotton wool soaked in diluted methylated spirits to dissolve any wax. Cotton buds can safely be used to clean the ear canal, as the ear canal in the dog has a right-angled bend before it reaches the ear drum, making penetration of the drum almost impossible.

Adult dogs change their coats once a year, usually in spring. The process takes about six weeks. To groom, use a fine-toothed metal comb or pluck the hair out with fingers and thumb when it is loose enough to do so without hurting the animal. Occasionally the dog will scratch as if troubled by skin cisease or insects, but this is just nature’s way of hastening removal of the old coat. Dogs also shed their coats during serious illness or after whelping. The first (or puppy) coat is soft and woolly and is different from the second and subsequent coats. It is usually much darker. Pups generally change their coats for the first time at nine or ten months, but if born in winter they will change their coats in spring.

For those owners wishing to enter their dogs in dog shows, good grooming is imperative. Grooming tools include: Brushes Always use a bristle brush, soft, medium or stiff on short-haired dogs, and a pin brush .on long-haired breeds to remove the loose undercoat. Combs A regular size, coarse steel comb should be used on long-haired breeds and a fine comb on smooth-coated dogs.

Nail clippers. Nails need cutting if they touch the ground when the dog is standing upright, as the pressure can cause a painful condition in the joints of the toes. Outdoor dogs, particularly those running on concrete or other hard surfaces, rarely need their nails cut. Indoor dogs, or those kept on soft around, should have their nails checked regularly and cut when necessary. Long nails, particularly dew claws which do not touch the ground, can grow too long, and curl and embed themselves painfully in the footpads. Ordinary scissors should not be used. Use proper nail clippers of the guillotine type. The flat surface of the guillotine blade should be parallel with the bottom of the pad. If the pink quick is visible, cut the nails to within 3 millimeters of the end of the pink.

Scissors. A sharp pair of scissors will be suitable for grooming most breeds, but in the case of poodles, or other breeds which need a curved effect on their coats, used curved scissors.

Fine stripping knife. This is a tool that should be used instead of a brush on the sensitive areas of the body such as the ears and head.

Tweezers. Use tweezers regularly to pluck hair from inside the ears to stop dirt and debris collecting and thus protect the dog from ear infections by allowing proper air circulation to dry out the ear canal.

Velvet pad or soft handkerchief. Essential for rubbing the coat of white short-haired breeds to give a gloss. A velvet pad rubbed over the coat of other short-haired breeds such as Boxer or Dachshund gives a good sheen. Tooth scraper Teeth should be kept fairly white by using a tooth scraper to remove excess tartar. If the teeth are bad, take the dog to your vet. No-tangle shampoo Knotted hair can largely be prevented by using a no-tangle shampoo. If knots occur, you may have to cut them out. Use blunt scissors. You may have to go right to skin level and leave the dog with various bare patches, but this is better than subjecting the dog to a very painful experience if you comb the knots out.


Before dogs were domesticated they used to catch their prey and eat the hole of it. It supplied them with a balanced, nutritious diet of bones, muscles and internal organs such as the heart, kidneys, liver and lungs. It also provided various vitamins and minerals from the vegetative matter in the gut of the animal eaten. Dogs had to be fit and slim enough to chase and catch their prey. After eating a large meal they would lie down and sleep it off. If they became obese they would not be fit enough to chase and kill more prey.

Dogs are very adaptable in terms of diet and because of this they have thrived in a wide variety of environments and on a wide range of diets. As result, they are probably less subject to serious dietary disease than most other animals. In the past decade, dogs have benefited from our increasing knowledge of their nutritional requirements and the application of that knowledge to prepared, commercial dog foods. Dog feeding is now much less haphazard than it was in the past, when the dog was dependent on its owner’s variable and often rudimentary understanding of nutrition.


Excess food intake with resultant obesity is becoming an ever-increasing problem for dogs in urban areas. The dog is often hand-fed two or three mes a day, at the owner’s meal-times. Dogs only need to be fed once a day.

Urban restrictions on the animal’s territorial horizons mean the dog leads rather sedentary life, not using up a great deal of energy and therefore going to fat. Obese animals have an increased susceptibility to various diseases including osteoarthritis, sugar diabetes, skin disease and impairment f body-heat regulation, pulmonary, cardiovascular, hepatic and reproductive functions. Recent scientific evidence indicates that chronic under feeding of a complete diet is the only means known for increasing the length f life of laboratory animals beyond the limits characteristic with the species. On the other extreme, chronic overfeeding or other dietary excesses or imbalances curtail the animals’ life span.

Inadequate Feeding

Inadequate food intake is not uncommon, particularly among breeders trying to get their animals into show condition. The animals are thin but healthy, yet won’t put on weight. This can be a complex and difficult problem, although more often it can be rectified easily.

If the animal is otherwise healthy there are two possibilities: lack of opportunity and lack of motivation. Lack of opportunity may simply be that another dog is taking the larger share, or that the dog is unable to eat enough f the food with which it is fed to attain a satisfactory body weight. Where his occurs and the food is too bulky for the animal to accommodate its energy requirements at one meal, it may be necessary to feed the dog three or four times per day instead of once a day. This situation is particularly relevant to a bitch losing weight with a large litter of puppies.

Boredom may be another cause of reduced food intake. While dogs and cats can subsist more or less indefinitely on one type of food (providing it is nutritionally complete), most animals will show some boredom with the same diet after a period of about a week. If increased palatability and food intake is desired, it is advisable to vary the type of food that is fed to the animal. This should be done slowly, avoiding abrupt and major changes to the diet. Food that is fed cold is also of low palatability.


Bones are important for several reasons. The first is that they prevent boredom. Chewing on bones also exercises the dog’s jaws and keeps the teeth clean and free of dental caries and tartar build-up. They are a rich source of nutrients—particularly calcium and phosphorus—and contain proteins and minerals essential for the dog’s development and general maintenance.

However, bones can cause two problems. They can form obstructions or pierce the food pipe. And if fed in large quantities, they can cause constipation. Their high concentration of calcium carbonate can create rock-like masses when water is resorbed in the large intestine.

Bones should form only about 10 per cent of the dog’s diet. Fish, chicken • and chop bones should never be given to your pet, as they can splinter or fracture easily and lodge in the food pipe. The best bones are shin of beef or soft crumbly bones such as knuckles or boiled breast of mutton. Whichever bone is given, ensure that your dog is nibbling small crumbs from the end of the bone, not shattering it into large fragments.


Milk is an essential part of the pup’s diet but can still be fed to older , dogs without harm. It is a rich source of protein, fat and minerals, as well as having a pleasant taste.

Milk can either be given as the raw product, slightly warmed, or reconstituted from either tinned or dehydrated milk. If the dog or pup is not accustomed to straight cow’s milk, it is advisable to commence by using watered-down milk (50 per cent water, 50 per cent milk).

The concentration of milk should gradually be increased over a period of five to six days. Some puppies are allergic to cow’s milk and this will induce diarrhea. It is a fallacy that milk transmits worms.

General Exercise

Young puppies up to six months of age should be allowed to exercise themselves. This is particularly important in the larger breeds, which are those that reach 15 kilograms by the age of three months. Forced exercise during the early growing phase can do damage to the hip joints and promote hip dysplasia. It is just as important, however, not to confine dogs for long periods. The dog in its natural environment is a roaming animal and requires plenty of territory.

The amount of exercise is also dependent on the breed. Sporting an _ hunting dogs require much more exercise and territory than smaller breeds or lap dogs. These factors should be taken into consideration before purchasing the dog. A large number of domestic dogs get very little organize.

exercise and not only keep happy and healthy but even reach a ripe old age. Hard exercise, such as following a jogger or a bicycle, is not good for a dog and may be injurious to its health. A dog is a very loyal companion any will do its utmost to keep in contact with its master in these situations. But in doing so it may become liable to injury. If you can, take the dog for a walk each day; the dog will exercise itself running three or four times the distance that you walk, and by doing this will exercise within its own limits

Tans and Dew Claws

These can be removed to breed requirements by the vet when the pup is four to five days old, before it becomes old enough to suffer too greatly from the procedure. The dewclaw is equivalent to the thumb in humans and in the adult dog is approximately 2 1/2 centimeters above the ground on the inside of the front legs. Some dogs may have them on the hind legs as well.

Caring for the Sick Dog

Signs of disease present in two ways: a general disease condition where the dog is off-color and won’t eat; and the local problem, for example, a tooth decay, local abscess or fracture of a limb. With local problems it is usually very obvious what is wrong and how extensive it is.

In the general disease situation, the dog is usually lethargic, in many cases because of a fever although it might be because of a subnormal temperature. Lethargy is usually accompanied by decreased appetite, and subsequent loss of weight. Loss of weight can also occur while a dog is taking its normal diet, in cases of diarrhea, kidney disease, sugar diabetes or bleeding into the intestinal tract.

Variation in the thirst of the animal can indicate a problem. Increased thirst can accompany a fever, or may be present in a dog with a normal temperature which is suffering from sugar diabetes or a kidney complaint. A lack of thirst can produce dehydration, particularly in small animals. Sometimes an increased respiratory rate is a sign of disease. Frequently, the coat looks harsh and dry and the third eyelids may slip across, making the dog look as though it has a skin growing over the eyes.

A thermometer is indispensable when treating a sick dog; thick-bulb-end; thermometers are the best type. Normal temperature for a dog is 38.5°C, considerably higher than that of a human. The rectum is the best place to’ take the temperature because the dog can’t bite the thermometer. Shake the thermometer down to below 38°C, lift up the dog’s tail, slide the thermometer in about 4 or 5 centimeters and leave it against the wall of the’ rectum for about one minute. A slight temperature is 39°C, a high temperature is 40°C. With a high temperature, the dog will usually be off its food The rectum is the best place to and showing signs of lethargy. It should be taken to a vet.

Nursing a Sick Dog

When a dog is not well, the following points are important. The dog requires a dry, draught-free place to rest, one that has a fairly constant temperature The kennel or living area must be kept clean at all times and all things use: for the dog’s treatment must be kept clean. It must be left undisturbed except for feeding, treatment and cleaning. Children should be allowed visit their dog only at prescribed intervals; they must be quiet and able to handle the dog.

Treatment must be carried out thoroughly, regularly and at the correct time. Fresh, clean water must always be available. Select food you know the dog likes, preferably barbecued chicken meat and red meats. Dressings. given slowly bandages and so on should only be reused if boiled. Dressings that have been soiled by a wound or discharge must never be reused. Bed sores are caused by the dog lying on hard surfaces; the skin over bon.: prominences begins to die which allows surface bacteria to invade and caul sores. Bed sores can be prevented by lying the dog on a mattress of foam rubber. Bed sores should be treated with astringent agents such a mercurochrome, triple dye, or acriflavin.

It is most important that the dog, no matter how sick, gets fluids on a daily basis. The fluid requirement of the dog is approximately 20 milliliters per kilogram body-weight daily. If the dog is not taking this orally, veterinary advice should be sought so that it can be given the fluids intravenously Failure to take in this amount of fluid per day will result in kidney shutdown and permanent kidney damage.


A puppy is born without teeth, but by five to eight weeks it will have twentyeight puppy or ‘milk’ teeth, which seldom give trouble while being cut. At about four months—sometimes a little sooner—puppies other than toy dogs begin to change their teeth. The forty-two or forty-four permanent teeth are usually through by five months.

Toy dogs change their teeth a little later. It is generally the toy breeds that have trouble at this time; sometimes they appear unable to cast their milk teeth, which should be extracted when the permanent teeth come through. Overcrowding can be a problem, particularly in dogs with short muzzles. Discoloration of teeth can be caused by the administration of certain antibiotics to the puppy or the mother before the teeth erupt.

Teeth troubles have become more common since the introduction of soft commercial foods, which allow accumulation of food debris (plaque) between the teeth and between the tooth and gum margin. Plaque in turn allows tartar to build up, causing discoloration and decay of the tooth. Sometimes gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and bad breath follow. Dry biscuits, fed at least once a day as part of the ration, will help keep the dog’s teeth in good order. A large shank bone with some tissue and tendon sheaths attached will help, as the time spent tearing and gnawing the bone will exercise and clean the teeth.

Check your dog’s teeth annually by pulling back the lips to expose the teeth at the rear of the mouth. Any accumulation of tartar (a yellow substance) should be removed. If this is impossible, or if the dog is uncooperative, visit the vet.

The only teeth that regularly cause a problem are the carnassial teeth, situated on either side of the upper jaw, towards the rear. They are massive teeth with triple roots which are subject to decay in aging dogs. The first sign of trouble is usually a swelling in the cheek, beneath the eye. The dog will show signs of discomfort and may go off its food; sometimes the eye will be inflamed. If the offending tooth is not removed, a sinus may break out over the swelling, discharging a foul-smelling pus.

Housing dogs can be accommodated in a number of ways. In temperate climates, a kennel is not essential, provided the dog has access to the house, a garage, underneath the house, or some other suitable shelter which protects it from direct sunlight, wind and rain. In cooler climates, a kennel is essential. The kennel should just exceed the size of the dog so that body heat can warm Obesity is becoming an ever increasing health problem.

The surrounding air. The kennel should be located in the shade and should well-ventilated, warm in winter and cool in summer. It should be weather-proof, draught-free and elevated from the ground, with a wooden po o)0r.r. Bedding should be disposable, for example, sawdust, shavings or newspapers, as this helps eliminate a breeding site for fleas and mites. Rinse the kennel once a month with an insecticidal preparation, put in new, bedding and burn the old. All feeding utensils should be washed daily, and :lean water provided daily in a shady spot.

Long hair

In most cases long-haired dogs were bred in cooler climates, but during the past hundred years or so they have been transported to all parts of the world. including some very hot climates. In these areas fleas and ticks are much more prevalent and they can be a severe problem for long-haired dogs. In countries where ticks are a problem (especially the paralysis tick, which can kill a dog in a matter of days) the long hair makes it particularly difficult to search the dog. in some cases the dog may have to be clipped all over, which can be quite expensive and ruins the appearance.

Unhealthy skin conditions are also much more prevalent in long-haired dogs. Fleas, which cause an allergic reaction, are better protected under the long hair. Grass seeds, burrs, sticks and other irritating objects are more easily held within long hair to irritate the skin. Skin problems in long-haired dogs are usually at a serious stage before the owner spots them.

In general, long-haired dogs require much more grooming, care and maintenance than short-haired dogs. Matted hair around the anal area frequently prevents the dog from passing feces, and this calls for the hair to be clipped. Long-haired dogs usually have an abundance of hair in the ear canal and this, together with long, floppy ears, will predispose the animal to poor circulation in the ear canal. A moist environment ensues, allowing bugs to breed and causing ‘canker’ or infection of the ear.

Dog First Aid

Whenever dogs have bandages, plaster casts or any other restrictive material placed on the limbs, it is important to ensure that circulation is r ing the toes. This can be tested by feeling the toes to make sure the:. warm rather than cold. Sensation can be determined by pinching the to make the dog withdraw the foot.


Wherever possible, try to handle the dog by peaceful means. Where fails, the following methods may have to be employed. When treating savage or difficult dog, place medication inside something the dog such as sweets, meat or chicken cubes. If this fails, starve the dog for one or two days or as long as is necessary to get the tablets down. the tablets in very small quantities of food and keep the dog’s appetite

To restrain the dog from biting, place a commercial leather muzzle around its nose. If you do not have a leather muzzle, use the lead attached to far collar. Pull the lead tight from the collar, wrap it two or three times around the front of the dog’s snout and hold the loose end together with the collar in one hand with your other hand keeping the rest of the lead intact around the closed muzzle. The dog can then be held so that a second person can do whatever is necessary.

Alternatively, use a cord or tape bandage. Make a loop as if doing the part of a bow, put the loop around the dog’s muzzle and pull tight so the twist is on top. Take the cord or tape below the muzzle and tie, then F – tight again. Take the two ends up and tie tightly behind the dog’s ears. To catch a savage dog, make a dog catcher with a piece of hollow pipe 2 meters long, with a noose through the pipe.

A dog can be restrained from licking at wounds and bandages by placing an Elizabethan collar around its neck. Another device is a plastic bucket with a hole in the bucket just big enough to fit over the head. Make six to eight small holes around the cut to allow tapes or shoelaces to be threader through and around the collar to keep the bucket firmly attached. Pull the lead tight and wrap it around the muzzle.

Artificial Respiration

When a drowned dog stops breathing, hold it up by the hind legs with th: head hanging down, to allow the water to escape from the lungs. Speed essential. As soon as the water has ceased to run out of its mouth, lie th: dog on its side with the tongue out as far as possible and commence artificial respiration.

complete Pet Care Dogs — Sick dogs — First aid This means placing the palms of both hands over tire chest surface, and rhythmically and slowly pressing and releasing so that the air is driven in and out of the lungs. This cycle should be repeated about thirty times a minute for small dogs and about twenty times a minute for large dogs. If this is going to be effective, the heart beat will resume within a few seconds. It does not always work, but is well worth a try.


Major bleeding from an artery is seen as a squirting, pulsating blood stream which should be cut off by tourniquet application between the wound and the heart. Tourniquets should be gently released for a few seconds every three to four minutes if they are kept in place for any length of time. Small areas of bleeding can usually be stopped by pressure-bandaging the area.

Motor vehicle accident

Be very careful handling any dog, even your own. after a car accident. If the dog is badly injured, move it on to a blanket by approaching it from the rear, taking the scruff of the neck between the ears in one hand and the loose skin over the back in the other, and pull it on to the blanket. Take the dog to a vet.


In this condition the dog is usually in a state of collapse, and the mucous membranes (in the mouth) are very pale. Place the dog in a head down position (the head at an angle of 30 degrees). Keep the animal warm and administer warm fluids if it will drink. Take the dog to a vet immediately.


Domestic animals that are unused to traveling should be tranquilized or sedated for journeys, as they can get very upset. To prevent travel sickness, do not feed the animal within four hours of traveling and allow the dog adequate ventilation away from exhaust fumes. Keep your dog on the floor of the car so it cannot see moving objects outside. Travel sickness in dogs is usually demonstrated by salivation and vomiting. Specific anti-sickness tablets are available for dogs.


Dogs to be boarded should be fully vaccinated and wormed fourteen days beforehand. Once a satisfactory establishment has been found, continue to patronize it because it and the staff will become familiar to the dog. The dog should be re-wormed four weeks after returning home.

Visits to the Vet

Visits to the vet Dogs can’t talk, so the vet depends heavily on the owner’s observations. If it is a non-urgent problem, watch the dog for twenty-four hours and make a list of any abnormal signs. Check its eating habits and toilet activities (take samples of urine and feces). Is the dog vomiting or doing anything else unusual? Do not attend to minor discharging wounds or skin lesions for at least twenty-four hours before the visit, so that the type and color of the discharge is obvious.

If possible, make an appointment, as this will reduce the length, of time your pet is confined in a waiting room with other animals and will thus reduce the risk of fights. Take the dog for a walk outside first and let it sniff the local smells to stimulate it to go to the toilet—this lessens the likelihood that the smells of other dogs in the waiting room will cause an ‘accident’.

Make sure that the dog’s collar is a firm fit and cannot slip over its head if the dog pulls back, and use a strong secure lead. Don’t let a child hold it—you are taking the dog into a strange place with strange smells, some of which may be offensive to it; there will be other animals present, and the vet’s surgery is no doubt alongside a busy road.

Feeding a Puppy

The diet program for pups is more complex, as they are growing rapidly and require frequent meals because of limited stomach capacity.

At two to three months, puppies require four meals a day: a morning meal, which could be minced meat or a suitable commercial ration, particularly a semi-moist type of food, together with a granular dog meal. The midday meal and the mid-afternoon meal should consist of milk with cereal, baby foods or breakfast cereals. The evening meal should be the same as the morning meal, and given an hour before bedtime to encourage the puppy to empty his bowels and urinate on his last trip outside. Water should be available at all times.

From three to six months, three meals a day are adequate; eliminate the late afternoon meal and gradually increase the evening meal. Between six and nine months, when the puppy has nearly matured, two meals a day are adequate: morning and evening.

From nine months of age on, one meal a day is all that is necessary. It is important to realize that at this age the dog has finished growing and its nutritional requirements will change. If the dog is still fed a number of times a day, it will become obese.

Before dogs were domesticated they used to catch their prey and eat the hole of it. It supplied them with a balanced, nutritious diet of bones, muscles and internal organs such as the heart, kidneys, liver and lungs. It also provided various vitamins and minerals from the vegetative matter in ‘le gut of the animal eaten. Dogs had to be fit and slim enough to chase and catch their prey. After eating a large meal they would lie down and sleep it off. If they became obese they would not be fit enough to chase and kill more prey.

Dogs are very adaptable in terms of diet and because of this they have thrived in a wide variety of environments and on a wide range of diets. As result, they are probably less subject to serious dietary disease than most other animals. In the past decade, dogs have benefited from our increasing knowledge of their nutritional requirements and the application of that knowledge to prepared, commercial dog foods. Dog feeding is now much less haphazard than it was in the past, when the dog was dependent on its owner’s variable and often rudimentary understanding of nutrition.

Milk given to young puppies causes worms. This myth has been perpetuated by the fact that puppies begin to drink milk at three to four weeks, at about the same age as they start to pass round white worms (`milk worms’) from infestations acquired in the mother’s womb.

Meat gives worms. Any meat, other than that purchased from a butcher’s ;424 shop, can give worms, even meat from a reputable pet shop. The best approach is to cook all meat bought from a pet shop.

A purebred bitch is ruined for breeding when she has pups to a mongrel or dog of another breed. This is false. Once a bitch has had a litter of pups. the womb is cleaned out and free to accept the next pregnancy. It is biologically impossible for the previous sire to exert any genetic influence on subsequent pregnancies.

More than one father to a litter of pups is impossible. This is incorrect. A bitch may be promiscuous during her heat cycle so that different eggs within her womb may be fertilized by sperm from different dogs, the result being a mixed bag of pups.

Bathing a Dog

Some dogs obviously require more grooming than others, and a variety of tools are available for this purpose, ranging from combs and brushes to scissors and clippers. It is important to train your dog to accept grooming as part of its regular routine. Indeed, if neglected, a dog’s coat may become so tangled and matted that the poor creature will have to be anesthetized in order to restore its coat to a good condition.

An unkempt coat will provide a refuge for parasites, and if soiled with fecal matter is likely to attract flies. These may then lay their eggs here, with the resulting maggots actually attacking the dog’s skin. This condition, described as ‘fly strike’, can prove fatal, since the maggots liberate toxins into the blood stream, as well as permitting infection of the bodily tissues.

Daily grooming is to be recommended for most breeds, and it can be helpful to allow a puppy to become used to the sensation, even though its coat will probably need less attention than that of an adult dog.

In most cases it will be easier to groom the dog on a table, as this saves having to bend down. Make sure that the surface is comfortable and not slippery. At first, the dog may be reluctant to stay put, so restrain it by the collar. Again, it is surprising that some people never familiarize their dogs with the sensation of being picked up. In the case of a particularly large breed this is perhaps understandable, because of the sheer weight. In the case of a puppy, it is reasonably straightforward, using the hands to hold the body between the forelegs, and supporting the hindquarters on an arm. With a larger dog, however, place one arm around the hindquarters with the other encircling the forelimbs. It may be helpful to bend down to do this so as to minimize the strain on your back, especially with a heavy dog.

There is no need to fill the bath to the top. As a guide, sufficient water to submerge most of the dog’s legs will be adequate. This will not induce it to panic. You should always test the temperature of the water to make sure that it is neither too hot nor too cold before putting the dog in. A tepid bath is to be preferred.

When you are giving a dog a bath for the first time, it may be helpful to have someone else to help you. They can hold the dog, as it is likely to try to leap out of the bath. You will need a measuring jug, shampoo and towels on hand. Choose a special canine shampoo, and use this in accordance with the instructions, especially if it is medicated and active against parasites such as fleas, for example.

Never start by pouring water over the dog’s head. Instead, using the measuring jug, bale the water gently over its back so that this runs down the sides of the body, which will be less alarming. While at first your dog may be nervous, quiet words of encouragement should help to overcome its fears. Clean all over the body before carefully shampooing the head, taking care to avoid the eyes. You may prefer to use a flannel to clean this area, as this will afford greater control.

In order to wash the shampoo out of the coat, you may prefer to lift the dog out of the bath and rinse the coat separately. Alternatively, you will need to empty the bath and refill it with clean water. Whenever you take the dog out of the bath, however, it is advisable to stand back, because invariably the dog will shake itself to remove water from its coat. You can then use a towel to dry the dog as much as possible, making sure that it does not become chilled and start shivering.

If you choose to use a hair-dryer, allow the dog to become used to the noise at close quarters. You may well find that it is scared of this unfamiliar sensation at first. Take care not to make the air jet too warm either, as this will be uncomfortable for your pet. As in many of the less obvious aspects of dog training, care over details such as this will help to ensure that there is no adverse reaction on the part of the dog. It is much better to attempt to prevent fears arising, rather than having to rectify them at a later stage.

Young dogs, especially those with a show career in front of them, need to become accustomed to regular bathing and drying. Persuading them to sit still can be difficult at first. A hair-dryer can be of great value in drying your dog’s coat, while the jets of air, in conjunction with a brush, may also help to undo any tangles after a bath. Professional grooming expertise is available, and this may be recommended if you are about to enter a show. However, much of the enjoyment of success comes from carrying out the preparatory work yourself.

After weaning, it is never too early to introduce a dog to the sensation of being groomed. The coats of many puppies may be less profuse than that of adults. and so grooming will be more straightforward. If you have a hatchback with It is better to transport dogs collapsible rear seats, then it is individually, and partitioned easy to fit an appropriate traveling cages can be acquired traveling cage for your dog — for this purpose. A rug or old thereby preventing damage to blanket should be placed in the the upholstery.

Dog Medications

To some people, giving the dog medicines is an awesome task. Here are some helpful hints.

Make sure the dog finishes the course prescribed. In ear cases, for example, treatment often contains a local anesthetic to give the dog immediate relief and the dog may appear well very quickly, simply because the anesthetic has removed the pain. If you stop the course at this point the problem will reappear because the medication has not had time to work. Similarly with antibiotics—sometimes an infection will appear to be better but has, in fact, not cleared up completely.

Ear Drops

hake the vial for at least a minute. This re-suspends any particle matter in the solution. Clean the dog’s earlobes with methylated spirits and cotton-wool. Using a cotton bud, clean out the ear canal. The ear canal is fairly long, with a right-angled bend at the bottom leading to the ear drum, so it is very difficult to touch (and consequently damage) the ear drum. Cleaning in this way allows the medication to get right to the infection, rather than be deactivated by debris. After administering the required number of drops to the ear, hold the dog’s head firmly while massaging the ear canal down behind the jaw. This will allow the drops time to reach the depths of the ear canal before the dog begins to shake its head.

Eye Ointments and Drops

Medication should be given six times daily because constant secretion of tears washes away medication within forty minutes. Always follow the instructions exactly. Take advantage of the dog’s third eyelid and place the medication in the conjunctival sac. With the forefinger and thumb of one hand, gently push the upper and lower eyelids towards the nose. The thin eyelid will cross the eye in the opposite direction and form a membranous sac. In this way the dog cannot see the ointment or medication being administered. After the medication has been administered to the eye, hold the eyelids together and massage gently.

Most medications designed to be put in the food are palatable, but sometimes a fussy eater will reject them. To solve this problem, starve the dog for twenty-four hours and then place the medication in about a quarter of the normal food allocation. When the dog finishes, feed another quarter to let it lick the bowl along with any remaining medication. For future meals, keep the appetite keen until the medication program has been completed. In this way the dog will be so hungry at each feed that it will be prepared to eat the medicated food.


Solutions are best administered with a plastic disposable syringe. Elevate the dog’s head to 45 degrees and tilt the head to one side. Introduce the tip of the syringe to the corner of the dog’s mouth on the upper side. Always administer the solution very slowly into the pocket between the lip and the teeth so the dog has time to swallow. Fluid administered too quickly, without the dog having time to swallow, can enter the lungs and cause pneumonia and possible death.


Before administering any tablets, make sure that the dog has had a small portion to eat, otherwise the medication may be rejected by the stomach and the dog will vomit the tablets. A few dogs will take tablets in some minced meat, mush or sweets, but always observe the animal for ten minutes or so afterwards to make sure that it did in fact swallow the tablets. The surest method of administration is to open the dog’s mouth wide by placing your thumb and forefinger around the upper lips and pushing the lips over the of fingers. dog’s teeth with your fingers, so that if the dog tries to bite or clamp its jaws Popping the pill.

Opening the Mouth: Note Position

Pushing the pill over the back of its lips will be pressed uncomfortably against its teeth. Pull the dog’s head the tongue. back and place the tablets at the back of the tongue as if you were trying to push them right down the throat (it is impossible to push them into the windpipe). Close the dog’s mouth, keeping it elevated, and allow the dog to swallow. If it does not swallow, tickle its throat. Lock the dog in a confined space for fifteen to twenty minutes to ensure that the dog does not regurgitate the tablets. If it does, try again till they stay down.


The most effective bandage for the dog is a 5-centimeter-wide adhesive bandage. The adhesive sticks to the hair and stops the dog tearing the bandage off. Most other varieties of bandage are useless. To remove these bandage and use a razor blade to cut the bandage against the instrument. The bandage can then be removed from the hair by dabbing the margin with methylated spirits or ether, so dissolving the adhesive.

Remove an adhesive bandage with a blunt instrument.

A plastic bucket will prevent a dog from licking wounds.

Dog Catcher

Steps in applying an alternative method of restraint to the muzzle of a savage dog.

Whenever dogs have bandages, plaster casts or any other restrictive material placed on the limbs, it is important to ensure that circulation is r ing the toes. This can be tested by feeling the toes to make sure the:. warm rather than cold. Sensation can be determined by pinching the to make the dog withdraw the foot.