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Fold Facts

Rocks usually form in flat layers called strata. Tectonic plates can collide (see converging plates) with such force that they crumple up these strata. Sometimes the folds are just tiny wrinkles a few centimeters long. Sometimes they are gigantic, with hundreds of kilometers between crests (the highest points on a fold). The shape of a…
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Earthquake Facts

Many major cities are located in earthquake zones, such as Los Angeles, Mexico City and Tokyo. Severe earthquakes can collapse buildings and rip up flyovers. When freeways collapsed in the 1989 San Francisco quake, some cars were crushed to 0.5 m thick. The 1906 earthquake in San Francisco destroyed 400 km of railway track around…
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Fault Facts

A fault is a rock fracture where blocks of rock have slipped past each other. Faults usually occur in fault zones, which are often along the boundaries between tectonic plates. Faults are typically caused by earthquakes. Single earthquakes rarely move blocks more than a few centimeters. Repeated small earthquakes can shift blocks hundreds of kilometers….
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